Growing an exotic plant at home is not new. Among these crops is papaya - a tree with broad, long leaves that resemble blades that look like a palm tree. The plant is able to reach a height of 10 meters in nature. At home, it grows to 6 meters. Motley unusual plants in our region continue to delight the eye with unusual tropical greenery, and what fruits from the melon tree - heavenly delight.
How to grow an exotic plant at home
Papaya is also called a melon tree because of the similarity of fruits with this fruit. Dwarf papaya grown as an indoor plant on the terrace, balcony, porch, indoors - a living decoration that complements the interior.
This melon tree (pictured) is capricious and sensitive to any stimuli. Therefore, growing papayas, try to adhere to the sequence in the care of the fruit "pot".
Subtleties of material selection for planting
When planning to grow a tree from a stone, choose seeds only from fresh fruit. For reliability, you can drop several copies. During the cultivation, not all seedlings take root due to their sensitive attitude to the microclimate.
To get the bones:
- the fruit is cut in half,
- take out the seeds,
- washed under clean running water at room temperature (to avoid overheating or overcooling of planting material),
- dried for 24 hours,
- reject damaged seeds.
When to plant seeds
The best time for planting, according to reviews of the melon tree and the intricacies of growing papaya, is March. With the onset of the second month of spring light day increases, so that the plant receives the required amount of light per day. Choosing other dates for sowing, get ready to arrange additional lighting for the papaya sprout.
Important! With an insufficient amount of sunlight, the sprout is too drawn out, not developing properly. A tree begins to turn yellow stems, leaves curl.
Selection of soil and planting capacity
Before planting the melon tree bones into the ground, specially prepare a soil mixture consisting of:
All components for creating garden mix are taken in equal parts and mixed. If you do not prepare the soil by yourself, you can take the purchase option by choosing a primer for ficuses with added sand.
As a container for planting papaya seeds take a long container, the bottom of which is lined with drainage - small clay or pebbles. At home, you can try to grow and such exotic plants:
Sowing seeds in a container
For planting take a large number of seeds in the future to choose the strongest shoots. The seeds are planted according to the scheme: retreating 1 cm between the grains and deepening them into the ground by no more than 2 cm. After processing the planting material, the germination rate increases, therefore the first shoots peck after 12-15 days.
How to germinate seeds
Papaya is a typical inhabitant of the tropics, therefore, to grow a tree from seeds, it is enough to provide the sprouts with heat, light and moisture. Optimum growing conditions for the sprouting of the melon tree can be arranged by covering the container with glass. Handling the cultivation of papaya, do not forget to air the tank daily, opening it for about an hour. Further, it is recommended to select sprouted strong trees and plant them in separate flower pots.
How to care for young plants
The sprouts of the melon tree are regularly watered, limiting the dose of the supplied moisture in order to prevent root rot, which develops in conditions of high humidity. Drying the soil is also unacceptable. A young plant should receive an adequate level of light and heat. If natural light is not enough, arrange artificial lighting for a young melon tree.
How to ensure proper care of the tree
The homeland of papaya is South Mexico. The region of distribution is America. In a harsh climate, in northern latitudes, this fruit tree does not survive on open ground, because the practice of growing trees in garden pots is common.
The more for a melon tree at home growing light - the better. It is desirable that the power source was natural. If this is not possible, use artificial lighting (fluorescent lamps).
Important! Place the light at a distance of not less than 30 cm, otherwise papaya leaves will burn. The tree always reaches out to the light, because from time to time turn the plant so that it does not grow one-sided. In winter, the plants are kept indoors in a warm room, in the summer they are put on a balcony for hardening.
Watering system and moisture microclimate
To ensure the plant's normal circulation of moisture will help systematic watering. Due to the large evaporation of moisture from large leaves, the melon tree has to be watered daily.
In the cool season, watering is carried out less frequently - every other day. High humidity is maintained by spraying a so-called cold shower for a plant. At the same time, overmoistening is undesirable, therefore there must be good drainage and a drain pan for excess water.
Fertilizer for an exotic fruit
Feeding is carried out after 14 days from the moment of the first transplant. The complex of mineral fertilizers is applied at intervals of once for 14 days, in the volume (proportions) described in the instructions for the mixture.
Papaya shows positive reactions to fertilizing with organic mixtures: humus and manure. With the onset of the flowering period, phosphate-potassium fertilizers are used. Growth is stimulated with nitrogen preparations.
Don't forget about the mulch. Ideal - chopped grass that mimics the flooring in the rainforest.
Young copies develop quickly. The root system is actively growing, filling the entire container. Transplanted papayas annually, following the growth and development of the tree.
Important! When growing a plant in a close pot, its growth slows down, flowering becomes scarce, and fruiting can stop.
Moving the ornamental tree to another vessel, do not forget that even minor damage to the roots of papaya leads to death. When choosing a pot for transplanting, consider the following factors: each next should be 10-12 cm more than the previous one.
Important! Do not immediately buy a large pot. The roots do not have time to cover the earthen ball in the tank, as a result of which there is a danger of root death and tree disease. Large markets are only suitable for strong, with a well-developed root system of cuttings.
Papaya breeding rules
To grow young papaya (melon tree) at home, you need to make efforts and follow the sequence of actions, as in the instructions.
- For breeding cuttings choose annual or biennial plants. Preference is given to planting material with a cutting thickness of 1.5 cm.
- Cut into pieces of 10 cm, cleared from the leaves.
- Dried for three days, so that the place of the cut is tightened with a thin skin that protects against bacteria.
- For rooting planting material is placed in a container filled with wet sand or peat mixture, deepening the stems by 3 cm.
- Above the stalk is covered with a plastic bottle cut to simulate a greenhouse. With the omission of this step, rooting may not occur.
- The first transplant is carried out in a container 2-3 cm more than the previous pot.
- Further care of the plant is no different from caring for an adult tree.
Protection of papaya from pests and diseases
Ornamental plants, especially those grown in pots, are affected by diseases and pests. The tree shows a high resistance to fungi and invasions, but suffers from spider mites, powdery mildew, which can seriously damage an ornamental plant or lead to its death.
To bring out spider mites, use special means:
- acaricides: "Aktellik", "Anticlesch",
- biological: "Akarin", "Fitoverm",
- folk: soap solution (for spraying), decoction of yarrow or garlic (for spraying).
With powdery mildew will help cope:
- fungicide drug: "Home", "Kuprozan", "Vitaros",
- folk remedies: soap-soda solution, ash solution, weak pink solution of potassium permanganate, decoction of onion or garlic.
Papaya is adored for its healthy properties and taste. Fruit is used as a dietary product, is used to prepare "vitamin bombs" - cocktails with a high content of vitamins and minerals, as a preventive measure for some diseases (colds, flu).
The fragrant melon tree fruit and juice are used in cosmetology, for preparing creams and masks at home for face, body, hands, neck and hair care. This nutritious fruit is valued by gardeners and flower lovers for their decorative appearance and healthy properties. That is why the cultivation and production of the fruits of a melon tree at home is an interesting and interesting process for gardeners.
Leaves formed of seven segments and have a palmar-dissected shape. They form the openwork crown of a tree in the form of an umbrella on an absolutely headless trunk.
Trunk straight, lateral branching absent, no more than 30 centimeters in diameter.
Fruit trees can be up to 2-5 pounds, resemble melon.
A distinctive feature of the plant is that papaya forms fruits directly on the trunk, and not on the branches, like most plants.
Useful properties of melon tree
- The fruit of the plant includes papain, chymopapains A and B, callaz, lipase.
- The leaves of the plant also contain other enzymes, such as glycosides and alkaloids.
- Papain improves digestion, is also used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- It helps to restore physical strength, dissolves dead cells in the body and activates the growth of living tissues.
- Flesh is a dietary product that helps speed up digestion and reduce weight.
Cultivation and care
Melon tree, like all representatives of tropical plants, is heat-loving and does not tolerate low temperatures.
Despite the capriciousness of the culture, many growers are happy to undertake the business of growing this exotic plant in their homes.
If you decide to grow this tree at home, then care instructions and requirements for habitat organization must be followed carefully and consistently.
Preparation of planting material
It is possible to grow papaya from the stone at home, but this bone should be from fresh fruit.
So, if you have papaya fruit, and you decide to plant a melon tree at home, then the seeds need to be removed and rinsed with running water. 24 hours the seeds should be dried in the fresh air, then they need to be sifted and removed obviously damaged.
You can prepare seeds for planting, either by soaking them in a growth stimulator for 12 hours, or placing them in wet sand / moss and covering them with a film for 12 hours.
Plant seeds in the ground should be in March. From this time on, the length of daylight grows and it will benefit the plant. If natural light is not enough, then you need to organize additional lighting.
For sowing, take the maximum possible number of seeds, then select the strongest and healthiest specimens.
They should be placed in a container at a centimeter distance from one another, to a depth of 2 centimeters.
The first sprouts can be observed in a couple of weeks. The container itself with planted seeds should be covered with glass to form the greenhouse effect.
Every day for 1 hour you need to remove the glass cover for ventilation.
Watering should be regular, but not abundant. The main thing is to prevent the soil from drying out in the container. Fortified specimens are transplanted into individual pots.
Instructions for the care of melon tree at home
For good growth and development it is extremely important to provide a sufficient amount of light, it will be optimal if it is natural sunlight, in the absence of sufficient daylight in your climate, you can get by with fluorescent lamps.
The optimum temperature for the plant is 18-24 degrees, it transfers the higher temperature easily, so in the summer heat you can safely take it out to fresh air, to the balcony or to the garden.
Since papaya has very large leaves, from which water evaporates intensively, it needs daily watering. To maintain the desired plant level of moisture, you can use a spraying plant.
With a decrease in temperature, watering can be somewhat reduced.
The plant receives the first top dressing a couple of weeks after transplantation. Further mineral fertilizers should be applied every two weeks, strictly with the recommendations of the instructions for their use.
As organic fertilizer, you can use manure or humus. During the flowering period, the plant should be fed phosphate potash fertilizers, and in the growth phase to make nitrogenous.
General characteristics and description
Papaya - a tree native to the tropics, can be found in Mexico and Central America. Likes heat and moisture, the slightest frost can ruin a plant. Grown in Brazil, Africa, India, Australia. Papaya grows like a large grass, reaching 10 meters in height. Upstairs is a dense crown in the form of an umbrella.
The leaves are large, about 70 centimeters, the appearance resembles chestnut leaves. The papaya trunk itself is completely bald, green or deep purple. Plant life span is 20 years.
At the base of the leaves develop fleshy flowers, which later turn into juicy fruits. There are male, female and bisexual trees. Men pollinate, and women give fruit. A papaya plant can change the floor after losing the tops or at high temperatures.
Fruits taste and appearance resemble melon. A ripe fruit weighs 3–6 kg, has an amber or yellow shade. The flesh is reddish, with black grains (300−600 pieces) inside.
Varieties of melon tree
There are different types of melon tree, which differ in taste, fruit size and place of cultivation. Delicious varieties are:
- Hawaiian, or Solo papaya. The most common type, which can often be found on store shelves. Fruit weighs about 0.5 kg. The peel has a yellow color and bright orange flesh inside. Grow it began in 1911 in the Hawaiian Islands. The shape resembles a pear, has a pronounced sweet taste. The harvest is easy to collect, the tree grows no more than two meters. For ripening sweet fruits, a temperature of at least 32 degrees of heat is required. If it is lower, the fruits are not so sweet. Propagated by papaya seeds, sprouts two weeks after entering the ground. Gather fruits when they begin to turn yellow. Too soft a fetus indicates that it has retired. Preference should be given to a fruit that is slightly soft to the touch.
- Mexican papaya. The fruit is much larger than Solo papaya. This fruit weighs about 5 kg. The flesh can be yellow, orange or pink, it all depends on the variety. The taste of ripe fruit is reminiscent of cantaloupe. Seeds are also eaten.
- Papaya Red Lady - one of the sweetest varieties. Homeland is America. Fruit is large, orange with red flesh. If you cut the fruit along, reminds salmon. Loves warm and windy weather. After planting begins to bear fruit in six months. On one tree there are about 30 fruits. Each fruit weighs up to 2 kg. Rip off the fruit when orange spots appear on them. After a few days, the fruit ripens. It has fewer bones compared to other species. Some small fruits have only one or two bones. It is grown in the Philippines and Indonesia.
- Papaya torpedo - elongated, not as sweet as other varieties. It weighs about 3 kg. When ripe, it becomes orange and not very soft.
- Wild papaya is a tree native to tropical America. It has a sweet taste. The longer it lies, the sweeter it becomes. The tree loves heat and moisture.
Melon tree grows in warm tropical lands. Produced by growing papaya from seeds at home. From the ripe fruit extract the seeds. For sowing will be enough 10 pieces. Rinse under running water, put on paper, allow the grains to dry completely. After placing in moss or sand, pre-moisten it. Cover with foil and leave for two days.
To grow a tree, suitable weakly acid soil with the addition of humus. You can put in the finished soil for ficus, it should be added sand in the ratio of 1: 2. At the end of the planting mixture to disinfect using a water bath.Fill the container with 10 cm of soil. Lower the seeds into the soil to a depth of 3 cm. After, pour over with warm water and cover with film. Put on the windowsill. Lift the film for 2 hours and moisten with a spray bottle until the seedlings are raised.
Saplings appear after 10 days, you should transplant the sprouted shoots into a separate pot. Papaya is growing rapidly, you need to replant it often. In the first year of life it is transplanted up to three times. Осторожно обращаться стоит с корнями — при малейшем повреждении растение может погибнуть.
Особое внимание следует уделить поливу. Домашние папайи имеют более мягкие листья, поэтому они испаряют большое количество воды. It should regularly moisturize the plant in the summer and moderately - in the winter. Excessive moisture can cause root rot. To prevent this from happening, excess water should flow freely from the pot into the pan.
Grow melon tree should be at a temperature not lower than 22 degrees. It is necessary to ensure the entry of sunlight and heat, including artificial light. Prefers high humidity. The first flowers appear in 11 months. More fruit gives in four years, it can produce all year round. With proper care, the fruit can weigh up to 2 kg.
Home Papaya requires supplements every month. Nitrogen fertilizers should be added to the soil; manure and humus are well absorbed in the soil. Top soil covered with chopped grass.
Pests and diseases
A spider mite is considered a dangerous enemy of papaya. In the early stages of infection, small, colorless dots appear on the leaves of the plant, after which the whole tree envelops the web. A diseased tree can infect healthy plants. To destroy the pest possibly cooked broth from onions, garlic, feverfew.
Can damage the plant and the Colorado potato beetle. You can fight it with purchased or folk remedies (rotten onion husks, pine sawdust, wood ash).
With insufficient heat and strong moisture on the leaves can form a white bloom. Treat the plant with a solution of colloidal sulfur and blue vitriol.
The fruits of the melon tree are very nutritious and beneficial. Particularly useful is the papain component, which is contained only in this plant. It is extracted from both the fruit and the leaves of the tree. The main feature of this substance is the breakdown of protein to the state in which it is completely absorbed by the body.
Leaves are ways to soften very tough meats; to do this, simply wrap them in them. Papain is similar to the enzyme of gastric juice, helps to cope with heartburn, improves digestion. In folk medicine, it is used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. His other ability is to normalize blood pressure. Applied in the treatment of thrombosis.
Papaya juice treats spinal diseases. Effectively helps in the treatment of osteochondrosis and intervertebral hernia. It provides first aid for burns and eczema. Actively used in cosmetology: it lightens freckles and strengthens hair. Papaya fruits restore physical strength and strengthen the immune system. Also used as an antidote for poisonous snake bites.
The benefits of papaya are as follows:
- lowers acidity, relieves ulcers and worms,
- normalizes blood sugar levels
- relieves pain during menstruation,
- accelerates tissue healing, repairs damaged cells,
- removes slags and toxins
- skin becomes smooth and supple.
Papayas are used not only for medical purposes, but also for household purposes:
- it copes well with serious pollution when washing,
- as a soap it actively fights bacteria.
Harvesting and storage
Gather the immature fruits of a greenish-yellowish shade, if they are to be transported. They are dressed in transit and kept for several days.
Papaya can be frozen, pre-washed and packed in plastic bags. You can mash and place in the freezer.
Repeated freezing of the product is prohibited. To preserve all the nutrients, it is better to store the product in the refrigerator for no more than 7 days. Do not eat fruit in large quantities, it can cause allergies.
Papaya is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation, as well as in case of individual intolerance to the fruit.