In nature, there are so-called "twin-fungi", similar to their healthy and tasty fellow tribesmen, but not really. How to distinguish from the photo false boletus from edible? There are some simple tips that will help both beginners and experienced lovers of quiet hunting not to bring in the basket a product that can cause serious disorder of the digestive and other body systems.
Everyone knows the most dangerous mushrooms in the world, which, when released into the basket, can ruin the entire crop harvested in the forest. This is the fly agaric and pale toadstool. They are deadly, and often cause deaths. But there are less famous representatives of species growing in the forest.
For example, mushrooms that look like chanterelles, boletus and other popular varieties. They are generally not as dangerous as the aforementioned species with a high level of toxicity. But their use can lead to impaired liver function, digestive system, metabolic processes in the body. In general, after eating them, a significant eating disorder has been achieved.
These include false boars, how to distinguish them from edible photos will be described below. They are very similar to usable mushrooms. Representatives of false braces have a pleasant shade of the cap, a thick sturdy leg, even a mucous film, almost the same as that of ordinary brass. But, nevertheless, these mushrooms belong to a completely different species.
The main difference lies in the structure of the cap. In a conventional oiler, it has a tubular structure. That is, under the cap there are small pores, passing through its entire thickness to the very top. False boars belong to agaric, if you look under the cap, it will resemble an umbrella.
It is important for a beginner mushroom picker to know that tubular fungi are extremely rarely poisonous, the bulk of the toxic representatives are in the lamellar species. Therefore, if there are doubts about whether to put the mushroom in the basket in the basket, first of all you need to look under his hat.
In nature, there are about 50 varieties of oil. They differ in appearance, taste and place of growth. The most famous in Russia are the following varieties:
The most famous of them - autumn boletus, growing almost throughout the country. Their name is due to active growth in the beginning and middle of autumn. The upper part of their cap has a brown color of different shades, the leg and the lower part of the cap are light yellow or beige, depending on the age of the oiler.
A characteristic feature of this type is the presence of a skirt, which forms a white veil under the cap. Over time, it cracks and departs. The leg has a cylindrical shape and a rough surface. False oil has no such feature.
Where grow boletus
Maslata are fairly common for Russia mushrooms. They can be found in both deciduous and pine forests. Often oil can be found in plantings and on fields located near wooded areas.
The best soil is sandstone and loose, clayey soil. Maslata do not like too dark places, because they are difficult to meet in the old, densely overgrown forests. Often grow along with them and similar to edible - false boletus. They look almost the same, but have a cap with a small funnel and a lamellar structure.
Gathering oil quickly and easily, they grow in small families, where you can see both large and very small mushrooms. If you get to the "mushroom" place, in a short period of time, you can collect a large number of fragrant, delicious mushrooms.
Periods of growth
This species loves moisture, which means it grows after the rains, especially in the period when the weather was sunny after the cold snap. The ripening of mushrooms begins from June to the very frost. But if the summer was hot with a little rain, oil in the forest would be rare. This species loves a mild, mild climate and a fair amount of moisture.
When choosing a butter, it is worth remembering that small copies, the diameter of the cap of which does not exceed four centimeters, are much tastier than the overgrown butter. They have a delicate texture and a sweetish taste with a pronounced mushroom aroma. Older specimens should be left in place, in which they will have time to throw away the pores, after which the number of fungi in the places of their growth will increase significantly.
How to recognize false boars
False mushrooms can easily be identified by their photos and descriptions, although they have a certain similarity to edible ones. There are several obvious signs that give out the "twins" of classic oil:
- the inner surface of the cap has a lamellar structure,
- the upper surface is gray with a slight violet tinge; in real oils it has a brown color,
- a ring on a leg, or a skirt, in false oils of white or light lilac color, usually dries quickly and hangs down the leg.
This plate in classic boasts has a purple hue and for a long time rests on the stem, forming a film under the cap. One of the main features, due to which the false butter dish is often confused with the edible, is the oily surface of the fungus. But, this factor definitely should not be guided during a quiet hunt.
If you get into a common portion, at least one such mushroom, the whole dish should be thrown away. But hurriedly doing this is not worth it: if someone has already managed to eat a poisonous specimen, it is possible that mushrooms will still be needed to analyze the source of the poisoning.
What are dangerous false boars
Mushrooms, similar to the usual edible butter, although they are poisonous, but this phenomenon is quite rare. They usually have a low level of toxicity. Eating a false boarder, as a rule, leads to the following consequences:
- general malaise,
- excessive sweating
- in some cases - fever.
What to do in cases of false oil poisoning
If, after eating cooked mushrooms, you feel at least one of the above symptoms, you should do the following:
- Immediately call an ambulance or take the patient to the hospital point yourself,
- before the arrival of the doctors you need to wash the stomach,
- if the victim has signs of dehydration, give him strong, sweet tea.
But do not wait for the negative effects of eating toxic mushrooms. It is better to have instances that cause you even the slightest suspicion to leave in the forest or discard instead of chasing their number.
Symptoms of false oil poisoning and first aid
False boletus mushrooms do not exist as an independent species. There are no healthy twins. However, it is worth remembering that if the fungus causes the slightest doubt, it is better not to take it at all than to pay for its greed.
It is possible to poison with oil only if real mushrooms were collected along the road, near a large industrial enterprise or in an environmentally unfriendly area. Any mushrooms quickly absorb all toxins, salts of heavy metals and other "chemistry". No soaking and heat treatment can remove them from the fruit body.
It can be bad for children, because mushrooms are quite heavy food, and you should not include them in the diet of a child under 5-6 years old. It is also not recommended to use mushrooms for pregnant women, nursing mothers and people who have problems with the digestive system.
The first signs of mushroom poisoning are almost the same - weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Usually they appear within a few hours after consuming the gifts of the forest. Here it is important not to miss the moment and immediately provide first aid before the arrival of the medical team. First of all, you need to wash the stomach and take the adsorbents, for example, activated charcoal.
But knowing how real butterheads look like, how to distinguish them from false ones, knowing how to properly assemble and prepare, you should not worry about your health.
General description of oil
Maslata are light-loving mushrooms that grow in coniferous or coniferous-deciduous forests. They can be found on the outskirts of the meadows, along the edge of the roads. Mushrooms are called boletus for the reason that they have a slippery cap that resembles an oily consistency.
Hats are convex or flat, smooth, sticky or mucous. Their skin can be easily removed. The legs are solid, smooth or grainy, come with rings. White or pale yellow flesh after cutting from the ground changes color to blue or red. A spore product powder comes in all sorts of yellow shades.
The fruit body ripens by early May and grows until November. Mushroom pickers begin to actively collect at the end of the summer. The collected product is consumed fried, boiled, pickled, dried or salted. The peel is cleaned to have a softer taste, the caps remain light, and the marinade is not darkened.
What edible bolettes look like (popular species)
There are several of the most popular types of edible oil that have special external characteristics that help distinguish them from other species. They will help to identify the edible mushrooms.
The gray butterdish in diameter of the cap reaches an average of 8 cm. Despite its naming, the fungus is gray-white, yellow-olive, red-gray. If you touch the oil can, you can feel the stickiness of the surface and small scales. The peel is easy to peel. In gray fungus spores are colored brown.
The leg of such a butterdish is hard, yellowish, around it there is a ring. The flesh is white, but after the incision acquires a bluish tint. The taste is pleasant, the smell - without specific impurities. This type of boom grows from July to October. It is advised to eat marinated.
White butter dish
White, pale or soft - these are the three synonymous names for the second variety oil. It grows in both deciduous and coniferous forests and plantings. Growing in groups or singly. It is credited to a rare type of mushroom.
Spherical or convex caps are usually about 10 cm in diameter. White actually has a white and yellow tint. The hat is prostrate or concave. The surface of the fungus is smooth, and during the rain it becomes mucous.
The white-yellow flesh has a rather soft and juicy texture. May get red outflow. Legs are white, up to 9 cm high. They are curved, without a ring. Maturation occurs from June to November. Experienced mushroom pickers recommend collecting white boletus by young. Since they quickly become useless, they should be prepared immediately after collection.
Ordinary bolettes are also called late, yellow, real, or autumn. They grow in young pine forests, but sometimes they are seen under birches or oaks.
They do not need a sunny habitat, so they are suitable and the edge of the forest, and the curb. Ordinary love to hide in conifer needles and leaves. Excellent survival on the ground with a large percentage of sand. Near reservoirs never grow.
Round brown hats become straight and flat-convex with age. They are smooth and covered with a mucous substance. The white-yellow flesh is characterized by a dense, soft and fleshy structure. The common butterdish has a short dirty-yellow stem 5 cm tall in the form of a cylinder. Grows in July and stands up to the first frost. Fruits at a temperature of +15. +20 ° C. He likes to grow in groups near chanterelles, white mushrooms, syroezhek. In the summer it is hit by worms and insects. The most delicious are young.
Grainy, summer or early oil sprouts grow in pine forests, young plantings, clearings, glades or edges with sandy or limestone soil.
The round-convex tip of the granular fungus is 10 cm in diameter. The skin may be yellow or brown, and after the rain it may be slippery. Almost no smell. The grainy no ring on the leg. The latter has the shape of a smooth cylinder with grains. Its height ranges from 6 to 8 cm. The dense white flesh is very tasty in any form. Grainy grows in several oil spots near the beginning of summer until the first frosts.
Marsh butterdog grows in swampy pine or deciduous forests in moss. A convex hat is 7 cm in diameter and has a smooth mucous surface. Dense reddish pulp complements the pleasant aroma. The fungus has grainy long yellow spores.
The legs of the swamp oil can have a cylindrical shape, thin, about 6 cm in height. Whitish ring under the hat becomes brown or green. Near the ring the pulp is covered with scales, softish, with a pleasant mushroom smell. Such boars grow in groups. Most often, they are collected in late summer and autumn, while it is warm. Marsh oil can be used in different forms. It is very tasty and high in calories.
Cedar maslati grow in Siberia and in the Far East. Grow in forests where there are cedar trees, near the moss on the southern slopes. The diameter of the top is on average 10 cm. The shape is in the form of a ball with the edges of a brown color twisted in the middle.
The pulp has a loose structure. The cut point becomes orange after a while. It smells like cedar needles. This species releases a light liquid through the pores near the cap, so his name is still floating.
The cedar legs are 10 cm in height. Their appearance resembles a cylinder covered with "grains". This species is pale yellow or bright yellow. You can collect them in the summer and autumn, as they bear fruit in stages.
Bellini live among coniferous trees, as well as on the edge and in a young planting. Best of all fruit on sandstones. Ripen throughout the summer and until the end of autumn. Can grow alone or ten pieces nearby. The diameter of the cap is 12 cm, which has a semicircular shape, in the center - depressed. Sometimes cream or brown color.
The flesh is difficult to detach from the top. The legs are massive and short (about 6 cm), sticky, without rings, covered with granules. The food is used in any form. Characterized by a mushroom smell and delicate flavor.
Belted braces are also called chestnut. They grow mainly in the deciduous forest or in the park, in Eurasia and North America. Belted mushroom is characterized by a thick hat of 10 cm diameter, chestnut-red color. The yellow flesh has a fleshy structure.
Cylindrical legs reach a height of 12 cm. The flesh consists of brown fibers and flakes. Belted grows in small groups. Begins to bear fruit in July and ends in October.
Tridentsky is a rarely seen mushroom, which is found in the mountains under coniferous trees on calcareous soil. The top is 8 to 15 cm in diameter, semicircular in shape and yellow-orange reflux. A thin film connects the tip to the foot. The product is covered with scales with a red shade of fiber.
As for the legs, they are red in the form of a cylinder, fleshy, 11 cm in height. Active growth is observed from mid-summer to October. The food is used in different forms.
Yellow-brown - butterdish, which after breaking off or cutting off a piece becomes blue. It grows from July to October. Loves marshlands overgrown with coniferous trees. The diameter of the top reaches 15 cm. The peel of the surface is dark yellow with brown scales, does not shine. The leg is characterized by a density, gray-yellow color with a brown tint, the shape of a cylinder. Notable is the absence of a ring on the leg. Eating this product is prohibited.
In no case should the Siberian species be eaten. If this happens, the person will have dermatitis. This type of fruits in coniferous forests, located in small groups. The top is pale yellow, convex, with age covered with red spots.
The pulp has a yellow, dense, odorless structure and taste. If you make an incision, the mushroom will turn purple-brown. The leg is distinguished by curvature, curvature and small spots, which is not the case with edible species. Fruits appear in summer and autumn.
A newcomer may be confused by the butterdish with the wet fir. It grows in the summer and autumn season in coniferous-deciduous forests. But it is extremely rare to find. The top of its gray color, mucous. Fruit body - tubular, lamellar.
Mokruha is white in color, but over time it acquires a brown tide. Below the cap there is a film that becomes a skirt. That is why mushroom pickers take wet spruce for oil.
First aid for oil poisoning
A person who has eaten a poisoned mushroom develops vomiting and diarrhea. He urgently needs a cure for nausea, flush the digestive tract by taking two liters of water and pressing the back of the tongue (to induce vomiting).
Washing can also be carried out by dissolving potassium permanganate crystals in water at room temperature until a pink color is obtained. The victim must drink it and induce a gag reflex.
As soon as symptoms are detected, use absorbents: activated carbon, Enterosgel or Smecta. Strong tea with plenty of sugar or non-carbonated water will also help.
Description of false boars
В средней полосе действительно ядовитых маслят нет. Это радует! Но двойники настоящих маслят практически несъедобны и способны вызвать расстройство желудка.
Among the 50 varieties of oily beauties there are 2 inedible species: yellow-brown and Siberian. They are not toxic, but completely tasteless. Such masla are externally similar to edible, the wrong side of them is tubular. The main difference: at the cut or break, the flesh becomes bluish-purple.
Often, edible mushrooms are confused with pepper flywheels. They are tan and the inside of the cap has a large cellular structure. These mushrooms are not poisonous, but very bitter in taste. Although some mushroom pickers do not abhor them and boil 15 minutes before cooking to remove the bitter taste.
More often under the oiler masked mokruha fir. This mushroom has a grayish or purple slimy cap. Its inside is not tubular, but lamellar, gray. Knowing these nuances, it is not difficult to visually distinguish a mushroom.
This is important because a strong intestinal upset is possible after eating mokruhi.
All twins grow under the same conditions as the edible gifts of the forest, ripen about the same time - in summer and autumn. Mushrooms prefer to live in spruce, pine and mixed forests.