When planning a greenhouse, you first need to decide
- what plants will you plant in the greenhouse,
- what area under the building is ready to allocate,
- how to arrange the beds and approaches.
Only by getting answers to these questions, you can proceed to construction.
In small greenhouses 1.5-2 m wide, it makes no sense to make more than two beds. The most effective is their placement around the perimeter with a central passage between them from the door. In greenhouses more than 2.5 m wide, respectively, it is possible to equip an already greater number of beds.
For the cultivation of low- and medium-sized crops, beds must be placed from north to south. Tall plants (from 2 m) are best placed in a greenhouse in rows from west to east.
The width of the beds along the perimeter should not exceed 50-60 cm. Since it should always be possible to easily reach the farthest corner. The width of the passage depends on its further use: in principle, it is quite convenient to walk along a path 40 cm wide, but you can easily transport a wheelbarrow only along an aisle at least 70 cm wide.
A single greenhouse is convenient for “stepped” landings.
Tall plants are planted along the high wall, and medium-and low-growing plants are planted along the low wall.
Place a lean-to greenhouse from west to east with a high wall to the north.
In the gable you can place racks on the walls, and grow tall plants along the center. In this case, it is located from north to south.
Arched greenhouse suitable for growing plants exclusively in the garden beds. The height of the greenhouse depends on the height of the cultivated plants and vice versa. The rectangular shape provides the most efficient use of space.
Geodetic greenhouse (greenhouse hemisphere) convenient for growing low and medium plants. In the center it can be placed a black barrel with water. Heating up during the day, the tank will maintain the temperature in the greenhouse at night, as well as provide the necessary humidity.
Tip: If the plot is uneven, put a greenhouse on a slope from north (top) to south (bottom). If the slope is not at all towards the south, place the beds in a greenhouse across the slope, so the sunlight will be optimally distributed. Read more about how to locate the greenhouse on the plots in the cardinal points here.
Save space "correct greenhouses"
When planning greenhouses with a width of more than 2.5 m, do not try to come up with a clever layout with wide beds, separated by transverse rows. Long narrow beds and passages along them are the most optimal variant of the functional use of space. If necessary, a wider bed can be divided into one longitudinal row spacing.
The beds raised to 80 cm are ideal for growing early crops. Curbs on the outside are painted black. The bottom of the beds is lined with humus and grass, and the ground is poured from above. Such a layer-lining, heating up, will warm the soil.
3D greenhouse layout
Efficient use of greenhouse space will help a variety of shelves and racks. Of course, if you plan to grow tall plants, the vertical layout of the beds is useless. But growing up seedlings, early greens and root crops, a variety of pots and whatnot, together with your imagination, will help Beepee functionally use the dimensions of the greenhouse.
Reviews and comments: 3
Root crops grow in the greenhouse
The land in the greenhouse is loose and fertile, as we fertilize and mulch it every year. But the tomatoes in it soot spacious, so that the bushes do not interfere with each other. Therefore, every time I want to occupy the free area with something.
Last season, I decided to sow a row of carrots at a distance of 10 cm from the side on one bed (it is made of sleepers and upholstered with metal from the inside), on the other - Margilan radish. From thinning only thinning: no weeding was required, and watering and feeding were taken from tomatoes.
Dug roots in early October - it was necessary to release and prepare the greenhouse for the new season. Carrots, which I’ve been growing this way not for the first time, turned out to be lovely - smooth, dry, healthy, 15-20 cm long. On a normal garden bed, this has never been possible. C 3 am m gathered a large bucket of roots. But with radish there was a slip. Since the second half of July, I stopped watering tomatoes, and apparently the radish moisture was not enough. So she has not grown.
I want the garden to look beautiful, and the plants feel comfortable. This I lead to the story of my ordeal with a cucumber greenhouse.
I used to cover a greenhouse made of 1.7 × 1.5 m arcs with plastic wrap. With a strong wind film flew. And the next year, the material already looked untidy. In addition, even in the rain it was necessary to water the cucumbers growing there, because moisture did not pass through the film.
Last year I sewed a cover from white non-woven fabric. The cloth cut in half and stitched on a sewing machine, making a seam in the middle. To prevent the fabric from flying off during the wind,
let it not only on top, but in two places under the arc.
Carved out the sidewall and stitched them to the base. That sidewall, where the entrance, made a little wider and connected to the main canvas not to the end. Attached to this not sewn side 3 ribbons and exactly the same - to the base. They are easy to tie and untie.
Cucumbers feel great under such a shelter: they are provided with airing, rain irrigation. It is not necessary to open every morning and close the polyethylene in the evening, as before. Non-woven material is perfectly erased and for several years looks like new. It is only important that it be of high density.
After the construction of a polycarbonate greenhouse, a ventilation problem arose. Found on the Internet a ventilation scheme using two cans and air vents on the axes. But the window was constantly jammed, and in the vacuum jar often had to suck water.
Ready devices are on sale, but all of them are calculated on rectilinear surfaces of the greenhouse, and expensive. What I've done?
I bought a room thermostat in the store with temperature control from 0 to 30 °. channel cylindrical fan 0 125 mm and metal hose 125 mm
In order for the system to work correctly and without failures, I set the thermostat so that the sun's rays would not fall on it. I have a chipboard, and the end of the metal hose hangs along the edge of the greenhouse at a height of 300 mm from the ground on the north side. On the opposite side of the six-meter greenhouse, I cut two frames with a non-woven fabric with a density of 40, and that provides good ventilation during the day and protection of plants from cooling at night. The thermostat is set to a temperature of 25 °, at a height of 1 m from the ground. When the temperature exceeds 25 ° C, the system is activated and air is forced into the greenhouse.
Fan power 20 watts per hour. The switch of this system is located on the veranda of the house.
And if the greenhouse is nine meters, you can additionally install a second fan, and on the opposite side, cut a wooden frame with a nonwoven fabric into the upper opening above the door to improve ventilation.
Basic principles of choosing a place
The creation of optimal conditions for growing plants and obtaining a large crop depends directly on the correct location of the greenhouse. When installing you need to take into account all the features of your site:
- Soil quality
- Terrain features,
- Direction of the wind,
- Location of communications and other buildings.
Analyzing the landscape features of the site
During installation, it is necessary to analyze the following factors:
- The quality of the soil. Its accounting is necessary due to the fact that the greenhouse installed on too soft soil, may eventually subside significantly or tilt. As a result, the strength of the structure will suffer, the doors may stop closing. Distortion can even lead to the destruction of the coating or damage to the frame. In this regard, you should choose a place where the soil is more dense.
If the choice fell on a swampy area, then you need to make a good drainage, before you put the structure. Having a greenhouse on soft soil, it is necessary to make a foundation.
To determine the composition of the soil on the site dig a hole and check what is under the fertile layer. If there is clay there, then putting a greenhouse in this place is not recommended. Clay will retain water when watering, it will cause stagnation of water and increased humidity inside. This phenomenon is unfavorable for plants. Try to find a place where there is sand under the fertile layer.
If all the land in your area is located on a clay layer, before installing the greenhouse you must dig a pit, replace the clay layer with a sand pad, place a drainage layer under it and then cover it with a fertile layer. Only then can a greenhouse be installed on this place.
If your entire site is on a slope, you can soften it by building a foundation under the building.
Greenhouse orientation to the cardinal points
On how the greenhouse will be located relative to the sides of the world, depends on the illumination of plants grown in it. With the wrong choice of this criterion, the plants will experience a shortage of light, which means that the size of the resulting crop will decrease dramatically.
Of course, you can compensate for the lack of sunlight using artificial lighting, but this will immediately lead to an increase in energy costs. Therefore, it is better to calculate the location in such a way as to maximize the use of free solar energy.
How to locate the greenhouse in the parts of the world? Better from north to south or from west to east? It is desirable to place the greenhouse in a place that is illuminated by the sun all day. It is more expedient to choose the west-east direction. With this arrangement, the plants will be lit as much as possible from morning to evening. And if the greenhouse is operated in winter, the cost of lighting and heating can be reduced.
If it is impossible to build a structure at the place that is as lit throughout the day as possible, try to place it in such a way that the plants receive lighting in the morning. The most dangerous time for plants is dawn, so if the sun does not warm them in the morning, growth may be slowed down and the ovaries may fall.
Lighting the greenhouse in the afternoon is the most unfortunate option. The sun does not have time to warm the inner space, and the plants will freeze overnight. Sunlight on the cooled plants that did not have time to warm up after dinner will cause burns.
Where is the wind blowing?
Wind direction is another important factor to consider when installing. The structure should be reliably protected from gusts of wind. If the greenhouse appears to be in a draft, then the temperature inside it will be too low for growing thermophilic crops.
How to install a greenhouse? Even in a small area, choose the quietest place. Try to position the greenhouse so that it is maximally protected from wind gusts by other buildings. Particularly important is the protection of the building from the north wind.
Alternatively, you can use as a barrier against the winds planting a hedge or installing a deaf fence. In this case, it is important to correctly calculate the height of the fence, and its distance from the greenhouse. Bushes should be planted at a distance of 20 meters, and the fence at a height of 2 meters at least 7 meters.
Accounting for distance to communications
The mistake of many gardeners is the decision to build a greenhouse in the far corner of the site for aesthetic reasons. So that the structure does not spoil the appearance of the site, they try to locate it as far as possible from the house. Beauty in this case turns into additional inconvenience and unnecessary material costs.
To the greenhouse you need to carry water, and sometimes gas and electricity. So you have to pull pipes or wires through the whole section. Therefore, choosing a place, consider the need for installation of engineering systems. Think also about the convenience of greenhouse maintenance. It should be easy to approach and approach.
How to build a greenhouse on the roof of the house?
The idea of building greenhouses in buildings is not new in modern conditions. In Europe, this practice has long been ingrained and began to be in demand. In Russia, there is no such mass distribution of greenhouses in various buildings. At the same time, this option is quite interesting in terms of space saving, and as the creation of the most favorable conditions for growing plants.
Judge for yourself, the greenhouse on the roof is the maximum of solar energy and it means a greater amount of heat for the plants. In combination with the saving of space for growing vegetables on a small plot, this solution has only positive sides on all sides. And the greenhouse can be built not only in a private structure, but also on the roof of an apartment building.
Of course, the building located on the roof has its own special requirements for the design and the technology for growing vegetables in it. Without addressing the second question, which requires a separate article, let's talk about the features of the location of the greenhouse on the roof.
The design should be as light as possible and at the same time strong enough. The coating should not be glass, but polycarbonate. This is due to the fact that on the roof of a high-rise building there are very strong gusts of wind. The material must be shock resistant. It is unacceptable to build on the roof a structure with a coating of plastic film - the first strong wind will blow it away or tear it up. Strength should have a frame.
The most suitable for the roof is the arched shape, contributing to the reduction of snow and wind loads.
There are several options for the location of the greenhouse:
- Construction of an additional transparent bay window.
- Install the finished greenhouse directly on the existing roof.
- Rebuilding the roof by setting up on it a kind of floor with transparent walls (that is, alteration of the attic).
To provide air access to the plants, it is necessary to provide the maximum number of vents, as on hot days the temperature may be too high on the roof, and your plants will simply burn out from overheating.
A greenhouse on the roof of an apartment building is an excellent option for practicing gardening for residents who do not have country dacha plots.
Compliance with all the rules for the location of greenhouses in the suburban areas, gardens and roofs of houses, as well as taking into account all the listed nuances will allow you to get the maximum yield in your building.
In the following photos you can familiarize yourself with the options for locating greenhouses on the garden dacha
The location of the greenhouse on the site and the scheme of orientation to the cardinal points:
In the examples of greenhouse placement can be found on the following video
Single greenhouse usually adjacent one wall to any good country house building. And some gardeners attach it to the southern part of the country house.
Saw greenhouse. Photos from parnikiteplicy.ru
Such an extension is very budget and allows you to save space on the summer cottage. And if the room to which the single-sided greenhouse adjoins is heated, then in general it is wonderful! You spend less effort on its heating. But, unfortunately, the snow from the roof of the single-pitch greenhouse does not roll itself, and you will have to watch the snowfall, regularly cleaning the roof of the greenhouse from the snow drifts.
The most common type of greenhouses - gable, where the roof is framed in the form of a triangle.
The main advantage of this structure is the space for you and your plants. Some gardeners even build a kind of recreation area in a gable greenhouse, combining business with pleasure.
In addition, all types of greenhouses can be divided into winter and summer.
The winter greenhouse must necessarily be heated, so consider a place for it closer to the communication system of the house, because the heating pipes you will “cling” to the centralized heating system.
Although there is another option: to equip the greenhouse with a stove. But this is unnecessary trouble: the stove must be regularly flushed and constantly monitored for temperature. Constructing a winter greenhouse with your own hands, it is necessary to put it on a solid foundation and to strengthen the base and the roof well. Indeed, under the weight of snow, the structure can easily be deformed, or even completely collapse, alas ... and it happens.
Greenhouse thermos, recessed into the ground. Photo from city-met.ru
You can build, so-called thermos greenhousewhich is deepened into the ground by 2 m. Accordingly, it is necessary:
- dig a trench under it
- strengthen the foundation
- to build walls of thermal blocks
- make a special warming,
- conduct heating and perform a lot of time-consuming and financially costly work.
Therefore, such greenhouses are built with their own hands much less frequently than others.
Summertime is usually called greenhouses, the frame of which is covered with a dense polyethylene film. This is the easiest and cheapest version of plating, and with careful use of plastic film is quite capable of serving a couple of seasons.
Под пленочные теплицы, как правило, сооружают деревянный каркас, на который по весне легкими движениями наших заботливых ручек накидывается плотная полиэтиленовая пленка и крепится к деревянной основе обычными гвоздями с широкой шляпкой (можно закрепить и специальным строительными кнопками). А можно использовать для каркаса пластичные поливинихлоридные трубы (ПВХ). Build a film greenhouse with your own hands is not very difficult even for summer residents who do not have good skills in construction. Therefore, I will tell you about the construction of a film greenhouse with a PVC frame. So, we proceed.
How to build a greenhouse with your own hands
At the first stage of work you need prepare a flat area under the greenhouse, thoroughly tamp it and knock down the board perimeter, treated with antiseptic. In the corners of the box from the boards it is necessary to reinforce the reinforcement, as shown in the photo.
The foundation for the greenhouse. Photos from the site oteplicah.com
Fasten around the perimeter of the foundation a few rods of reinforcement at equal distances from each other. For a 3 × 6 m greenhouse, you will need 30-35 rods. Dig the rods into the ground to a depth of 40-50 cm and strengthen them well, because they are designed to hold a fairly large weight. The height of the bars above the ground should be at least 60 cm.
We drive in reinforcement. Photos from the site oteplicah.com
Now you should put on pre-cut PVC pipes on well-strengthened rods, which will connect opposite reinforcing rods to each other.
We put on PVC pipe fittings. Photos from the site oteplicah.com
Fix PVC pipes with metal loops using a screwdriver.
We fix the pipes with metal loops. Photos from the site oteplicah.com
Next, reinforce the construction with a bar with a cross section of at least 50x50 mm.
To ensure the stability of the frame, additionally strengthen the corners of the structure with a bar:
We strengthen the corners of the construction bar. Photos from the site oteplicah.com
Fasten several PVC pipes between you so that the total length of the resulting pipe is equal to the length of the greenhouse, and then attach the long pipe to the transverse arcs of the frame.
Attach the long tube to the transverse arcs of the frame. Photos from the site oteplicah.com
Now cover the frame with thick plastic wrap. It is attached with special brackets (you can use a wooden batten, which fixes the film more securely, not allowing it to tear).
Cover the frame with thick polyethylene. Photos from the site oteplicah.ru
Cover the back and front of the frame with foil, while wrapping the front of the frame where the doorway is intended, fold the film inward.
Tape the front and back of the frame. Photos from the site oteplicah.ru
Now measure the doorway as accurately as possible and knock down the timber to its size. Fasten the plastic film on the door, and cut off its excess. Then attach the door to the frame of the greenhouse, using metal hinges. In the same way make the vents.
Making the door. Photos from the site oteplicah.ru
Such a greenhouse can be easily built in one weekend, and in its completed form it will look like this:
Ready greenhouse. Photos from the site oteplicah.ru
So we built a simple summer greenhouse that does not require special heating. Now it remains only to equip racks, fill them with fertile soil, along with mineral and organic fertilizers and plant seedlings for all sorts of goodies)
How to choose a greenhouse
The cost of construction depends on the type of material from which its base is made. The frames of the cheapest greenhouses are made of plastic pipes that bend under the weight of snow in winter.
Therefore, it is better to choose more expensive options with a strong frame. Different greenhouses and coating thickness. It is recommended to choose products coated with polycarbonate in 6-8 mm. Two-layer polycarbonate is protected from ultraviolet radiation and condensate.
Another point that is worth paying attention when buying a greenhouse - the presence of seals. If not, then the temperature in the greenhouse will be much lower than desired.
This means that planting will be possible only after the end of the frost return time. While the greenhouse in the country is needed in order to receive the harvest as soon as possible.
Expensive models of greenhouses have 2 doors and a few transoms: the higher the temperature outside in the summer, the more sources of fresh air is needed. But for regions with a cold climate, single-door options are more convenient.
So, the product is selected. How to install a greenhouse with their own hands on the summer cottage?
We collect the greenhouse at the cottage
Building a polycarbonate greenhouse is not so difficult, but you should pay attention to some of the nuances. First of all, you should choose a flat, well-lit place. If the surface is not flat enough, it should be treated independently. Otherwise, the installation of polycarbonate sheets without kinks will be impossible, and the doors and vents will not fall into place. When performing work it is necessary to use the construction level.
It is not recommended to install the product directly on the ground, therefore, a foundation is built first.
The simplest option is a wooden base, which, before installing a greenhouse, is collected from a bar treated with a special compound. Elements are connected using construction brackets.
- Building a greenhouse begins with fixing the end wall. The top center guide is fastened to the two side using the supplied mounts and screws. For greater convenience, you can use a screwdriver.
- Next, the end arch is placed on the base and attached with clamps.
- Then the sidewalls are measured, the resulting value is divided in half. The profile is marked. 2 meter profiles are attached to both sides of the end wall. In the center of the arc is fixed 2-meter transverse beam. Installing a greenhouse requires care in the work. Stiffeners must be at the same level.
- By means of roofing self-tapping screws arches fasten to guides. Alone with this task can not cope. The details of the greenhouse must be held and fastened simultaneously.
- The assembled arch is placed perpendicular to the foundation and firmly fixed.
- All other arcs and guides are mounted in the same way. The quality of work is checked with the help of roulette and level.
- After mounting the frame, the doors and transoms are put in place; they should not open independently.
- If the doors do not fit, check that the frame is installed correctly. If necessary, eliminate all the shortcomings and install doors.
After the frame is mounted, the assembly of the greenhouse comes to an end, it can be covered with polycarbonate.
- The material is unrolled and laid on a horizontal surface. The protective film is removed from the inside of the product. With the help of a partner, the sheet is placed on the finished frame. Since the material is lightweight, it must be held on both sides.
- After checking the correct installation of the sheet it is attached to the frame. Subsequent parts are overlapping.
- Now you can remove the protective coating from the outside of the polycarbonate. The material is fixed with screws in increments of 50-60 cm.
- We are starting to close the end sides. Manufacturers of greenhouses recommend first to cut the arch of the desired size, and then fix it. However, in the manufacture of drawings errors are not excluded, therefore, experienced builders advise how to act correctly: the sheet of polycarbonate should be divided into 2 equal parts.
- A half of the sheet is applied to the end of the greenhouse and fixed to the guides. We get a completely closed end surface.
- Now the top of the sheet is cut in a semicircle. On the vertical guides form a doorway.
- A cut piece of polycarbonate is used to cover the door. In the same way, the second end wall is closed.
That is, in fact, all that can be told about how to collect the greenhouse with his own hands.
Where to locate the greenhouse
Any greenhouse is vital flat, leveled and well drained surface. Try to locate the greenhouse in the place where it will be protected from the wind by a house, fence or trees, because any even a slight breeze will affect its internal temperature.
Arrange the greenhouse so that the main wind falls on the side wall - this will allow it to be much more efficiently ventilated.
How to choose the shape and size of the greenhouse
The size and shape of the greenhouse directly depend on:
- land size
- the types of plants that will be grown in the greenhouse,
- material capabilities - the more building materials needed for the greenhouse, the more investment it will require.
In the same greenhouse will not grow plants with different agrotechnical indicators. For example, you can’t grow tomatoes and cucumbers around, because tomatoes need well-moistened soil and moist air, and cucumbers, on the contrary, prefer a drier climate. Also it is necessary to take into account the different light and temperature regimes of plants.
There are many different greenhouse designs. You can build a greenhouse in the form of a pyramid, tent, geocupol, arch, and so on. Naturally, the simplest greenhouse with his own hands is a gable roof and ordinary straight walls. A greenhouse of this type is easily sheathed with glass and films. To give strength to the structure, the walls are covered with wooden panels.
The choice of material and tools for creating greenhousesFor many years, greenhouses have become indispensable in country affairs, because, thanks to them, vegetables and fruits can be grown almost all year round. According to experienced gardeners, the most optimal and affordable material for the greenhouse — polycarbonate.
Winter greenhouse with your own hands from polycarbonate will provide a sufficient amount of penetrating light, and this is one of the key points of growing plants. Due to the air gap, additional thermal insulation is provided. Polycarbonate greenhouse surpasses glass and film greenhouses in terms of heat retention.
How to build a foundation
Before you make a wooden greenhouse with polycarbonate, you need to prepare a foundation for it. It will serve as a support for the frame and will be able to protect grown plants from the influence of negative environmental factors and its microclimate. The foundation can be:
- Timber. The foundation of the bar - this is the easiest and cheapest version of the greenhouse base. You will need a bar, roofing felt and the necessary fasteners.
- Concrete. Sand is poured into a dug trench, poured over with a solution of concrete, leaving holes for the frame. The depth of the trench should not exceed 40 cm.
- Brick, which is an analogue of concrete. It can also be used as a superstructure above a concrete foundation. He erected, like concrete, the main thing is to accurately mark the site.
- Concrete blocks. This foundation is perfect for places with high humidity due to its waterproofing properties.
Create a frame for the greenhouse
For the frame is better to use a galvanized profile. Assemble the T-shaped element and attach it to the foundation with screws.
Constructing the frame for the greenhouse, you need to accurately calculate the pitch of the transverse lath and longitudinal supports. If there are strong winds or heavy precipitation, the stiffening ribs will provide additional stability.
Sheathing greenhouses do it yourself
To sheath the six-meter greenhouse, you will need about four sheets of polycarbonate. It is better to cut polycarbonate with an electric jigsaw. Take into account the radius of the bends in the elements of the arch and the width of the bands at the ribs.
After preparing the polycarbonate sheets, insert them into the grooves of the profile and secure with screws. Use a thermal washer - they will protect the material from deformation in the field of fasteners. Inside use perforated tape - it will seal the joints. Outside for this purpose, suitable self-adhesive aluminum tape. Do not forget to drill holes in the profile - this will prevent the accumulation of water condensate on the inside of the panels.
How to equip a greenhouse
Having built the foundation and made the lining, you still do not get a finished greenhouse, because its interior arrangement is an important process.
Based on the size of the greenhouse, you need to decide how many beds you will have. Between the beds it is better to make paths of bricks or boards: such materials do not slip if water gets on them during watering. To create high beds, use curbs.It is better to buy the soil for beds, as it is cleared of various infections and saturated with useful substances. In addition, you can purchase a special soil that will be suitable for a particular type of plant.
A greenhouse made with your own hands will bring you only joy. But best of all, if you decide in advance on what you will grow and what kind of it will suit you.
Vegetable beds attract to summer people like a magnet. Constantly there is a desire to grow a new variety of cucumbers or to expand the planting of carrots, but not all such experiments can be carried out in the open air. Avid gardeners know that there are crops that can not withstand heavy rainfall, frost or the scorching sun and require shelter. Then the question of the need for a greenhouse becomes acute. It is necessary to make only a superficial search for possible options, as it turns out that greenhouses can be of different shapes, with different frameworks and covering materials. The experience of numerous summer residents collected by us and useful tips will help you choose a greenhouse that is ideally suited to specified conditions and goals.
№1. We decide on the main tasks of the greenhouse
Surely, anyone who is looking for a greenhouse, understands why he needs it and for what purposes it will be used. However, before you begin to deal with the advantages and disadvantages of different materials and forms, it is necessary to very clearly describe tasks assigned to the greenhouse. Some summer residents will be quite enough to make her look good and look good on the site. Those who consider the building as business fundamentals or help in the household, although they will pay attention to the appearance of the building, they will not emphasize it when choosing a greenhouse.
Usually greenhouses are built to grow vegetables and berries for their own use, but some gardeners plan to do business in the future. If in the first case financial investments will not be so significant, then in the second they will become a serious investment, on the size of which maintenance costs will largely depend.
Another question that requires a clear answer is the type of greenhouse model: collapsible or stationary. If you are in the country all year round and you are not afraid that in your absence someone could damage or even steal the structure (and it happens), it is better to choose a stationary model - there is less trouble with it. Collapsible greenhouse - ideal for those who are at the cottage only in the warm season, it will have to be assembled and disassembled twice a year.
The choice of certain parameters of the greenhouse also depends on what plants will be grownBecause each culture has its own requirements for light and humidity. The height of the greenhouse also depends on the characteristics of the plants. For example, for tomatoes and other tall crops, it is better to choose a rectangular structure.
№2. Where to put the greenhouse?
The choice of location for the greenhouse is a matter of no less important than the selection of the most appropriate design. If the greenhouse is not positioned correctly on the plot, the money for its purchase and installation can be considered wasted, as well as efforts to grow plants. When choosing the optimal place for the greenhouse, consider the following factors:
- light level - A key parameter when searching for a suitable place. Greenhouse during the day should receive maximum lightDo not be shaded by trees or houses. Otherwise, the cost of artificial lighting will increase, but it will not help grow the crop in the expected amount. Experts advise to locate a greenhouse so that one end looks to the west and the other to the east. With this arrangement, it is possible to achieve maximum illumination. If the plants will be grown in the winter time, then artificial lighting is indispensable, so it will be necessary to think in advance about leading the communications,
- winds. Greenhouse must be placed in the most peaceful and quiet place of the plotprotected from winds and drafts, because they will significantly cool the structure, which will lead to serious heating costs in the winter season. A nearby house can be a good protection from the winds, but it will cast a shadow, so it is best to protect the greenhouse with hedges or a small fence at a low height located at a distance (for example, for a greenhouse 2-2.5 m high, the hedge can be positioned at a distance 7-7.5 m),
- topography and soil type. Greenhouse must be put only on level groundif there is none, you will have to artificially level the ground. Sandy and swampy soils, like lowlands, are not very suitable for greenhouses, and clayey soil will need to be covered first with gravel, and only then with a layer of fertile soil,
- convenience of placement. Many gardeners place greenhouses on the outskirts of the site. This is justified if for all other factors this is the most suitable place. The farther the greenhouse is located, the less convenient it will be to maintain it and the more expensive it is to bring all communications.
Places where you should not put a greenhouse
Number 3. Greenhouse frame material
От каркаса зависит стойкость теплицы перед всеми негативными факторами окружающей среды: ветры, вес снега, механические повреждения и т.д. Лучше один раз потратиться на более надежную и прочную конструкцию, чем каждый год ремонтировать или менять ее. Сегодня производители предлагают каркасы из дерева, пластика и металла. Разберемся, какой из них лучше.
Дерево – most affordable material for the construction of the greenhouse frame, so on the domestic expanses of its popularity is consistently high, despite the imperfection. Many craftsmen who decide to build a greenhouse with their own hands, choose the tree, as it just in processing and has low weight. Among other benefits:
- high environmental friendliness
- corrosion resistance
- good thermal insulation qualities
- low cost.
The main disadvantages are:
- low strength, according to this parameter, wood is inferior to plastic and metal,
- ability to absorb moisture and rot,
- the need for constant care to protect against moisture, mold and pests,
- small durability and the need for constant repairs.
If you do not consider a system for removing water from the greenhouse, the wooden frame will not last long. Popularity such structures hold only at the expense of low cost.
PVC frame is one of the most suitable options for greenhouses, but so far it is rarely used because high costwhich is explained by the complexity of processing the material.
- high aesthetics
- resistance to alkalis, acids, fertilizers and other chemicals,
- resistance to corrosion and decay,
- low weight and ease of installation do it yourself
- low thermal conductivity.
Aluminum frames are assembled from pipes or profiles, their characteristics are almost identical, and Main advantages are as follows:
- rust resistance
- minimal care and ease of installation.
- high price,
- low thermal insulation.
Steel frame - best choice for today in terms of price and quality. Main merits: strength, durability, ability to withstand heavy loads, and all this at a fairly low price. Main limitations - low thermal insulation properties and susceptibility to corrosion.
Steel frame can be made of:
The difference is significant, each material has its own advantages, and the controversy over which option is better resembles the reasoning, what was first, the chicken or the egg.
Steel tube frame - ideal strength and durability. He is not afraid of snow and wind loads, he does not bend and does not deform in winter, but he will have to pay for all of this: the pipe frame is much more expensive than the similar one from the profile. Moreover, it is worth considering the large weight of the structure and complexity in transportation and sometimes in installation.
Profile frame It is cheaper, it is simpler to install, it is not a problem to install it with your own hands, but it is inferior in strength to a pipe analogue, therefore it may require reinforcement.
Steel is corrosive, and to protect the frame zinc or paint. The second option is cheaper, but involves periodic tinting to avoid corrosion on the metal and rust stains on the covering material. The galvanized frame will cost a little more, but it is considered to be the preferred option, as it will not need additional protection for the next 10 years at least.
To make the metal frame last more than one season, pay attention to the following parameters:
- the fewer elements used to produce arcs and gables, the better. Ideal - curved arc and welded gables,
- profile section - 20 * 40 mm, it is impossible to find more,
- metal thickness - not less than 1.2 mm,
- distance between arcs - not less than 0.67 m, otherwise, with the first light snow, covering material together with the frame will bend.
№4. Do we need a greenhouse foundation?
Experienced gardeners prefer to build a foundation for a future greenhouse. He helps solve a lot of problems:
- preservation of heat and protection of plants from frosts,
- protection of soil and greenhouses from the flow of rain,
- ensuring reliable fastening of the frame,
- protection of the frame material from destruction.
And if in some cases it is still possible to do without a foundation, then its sure to have to equip, if:
- greenhouse is used all year round
- the frame is made of wood,
- the design is recessed into the soil below the level of its freezing,
- the greenhouse has a large size (more than 6 m in length),
- the structure is located on a slope or in a poorly guarded place.
№5. What is the best foundation for a greenhouse?
Depending on the tasks pursued, choose one of the following foundation options:
- tapewhich is organized with concrete, less sleepers, bricks or gravel. Earlier arrangement of such a foundation was considered mandatory, but now it is performed by many gardeners. The building is almost capital, it can not be moved to another place,
- block foundation made from reinforced concrete blocks, it is suitable for regions with loose soil,
- pile and point foundation easy to set up and allows you to build a solid reliable greenhouse,
- lumber foundation recently it is used more and more often, it can be equipped even with not the greatest professional in the field of construction. The tree will require pre-treatment with antiseptics, but a greenhouse with such a foundation can be easily transferred from one place to another - an ideal option for growing vegetables.
№6. Types of greenhouse coverage
It is easy to see that the largest area of the greenhouse is occupied by covering material, so the gardeners give his choice the maximum of their attention. Presently Such materials are actively used:
Each of these materials handles its direct functions differently.
Previously, glass was almost the only suitable material for decorating a greenhouse. Today everything has changed, but it continues to be used in view of such advantages:
- good light transmittance
- high thermal insulation characteristics
- resistance to temperature extremes, chemicals,
- a lot of weight, requiring a very good frame,
- fragility. Hail can damage the material, and using laminated or tempered glass is too expensive,
- long and laborious installation process,
- the absence of a filter against infrared radiation, which can be harmful to some plants.
Glass choose not less than 4 mm thick. The larger the sheets, the higher the light transmission (reduced frame area), but the higher their fragility.
It is worth taking a look at any dacha cooperative to notice that plastic film is used for arranging greenhouses most often.
- good light transmission and the ability to gently diffuse light,
- low price,
- ease of use and low weight
- protection of plants from light frosts (up to -3 0 C),
- suitable for greenhouses of any shape.
- fast wear, especially at the attachment points, so you have to change the film every year,
- the accumulation of condensate on the surface of the film, which can lead to a number of diseases in plants.
For a low price and ease of use, summer residents forgive polyethylene for its fragility.
If you look, the material is on the market several varieties:
- ordinary plastic film. It is sold in rolls of 120-300 cm wide, it requires special care when mounting on the frame, since the slightest cut may soon increase many times. Particularly dangerous places to guarantee better to stick with tape,
- PVC film more expensive than polyethylene, but much stronger, can serve as 5-7 years, retains well the heat accumulated during the day, retains the infrared rays,
- reinforced plastic film can serve several seasons in a row, as it is supplied with an internal frame made of fiberglass, polypropylene, woven polyethylene or other materials. Can withstand hail and strong wind.
The most modern and balanced in price and quality material for covering greenhouses is cellular polycarbonate. Please note that the market also has monolithic polycarbonate, but it is not suitable for arranging greenhouses. Cellular Polycarbonate it has a special structure: inside it there are partitions (honeycombs) filled with air. This structure provides many advantages:
- high strength, 200 times higher than the same parameter for glass. Rain, strong wind and even hail will not harm polycarbonate,
- excellent light transmission and much better than glass ability to trap heat,
- simplicity of work, because the material bends well, is easy to cut and drilled, has a small weight,
- relative durability (up to 15 years),
- great appearance.
When choosing a polycarbonate for the greenhouse is pay attention to the thickness: she must be not less than 4 mm, and preferably 6 mm, for arranging the roof of the greenhouse it is better to look for sheets of 7-8 mm thick. Without special protection, the material is not resistant to sunlight, therefore Be sure to have a protective layer - do not believe the sellers who talk about the use of protective additives in the mass, this is all short-lived material. When heated, polycarbonate tends to expand; therefore, experienced specialists recommend mounting at a temperature of at least +10 0 С and fixing sheets with overlapping.
Other materials for shelter greenhouses
The following materials can also be used to cover the greenhouse:
- spunbond - non-woven material obtained from the polymer melt with the addition of stabilizers for resistance to ultraviolet rays. This is a dense canvas of white color, often referred to as agrofibre. It has good strength, light transmission, high thermal insulation properties, resistant to rotting, temperature changes and chemistry, will last up to 5 seasons,
- plexiglass - durable material suitable for northern snowy areas. Of the minuses - the high price
- glass fiber It is made of polyester resin, reinforced with reinforcement, retains heat well.
№7. Greenhouse shape
To ensure a good harvest, it is not enough to choose a suitable frame and covering material, it is also necessary to find the optimal form. The most common options are:
- arched greenhousesas well as dome and droplets in the form of excellent heat retention, easy to arrange, do not contain sharp corners, therefore they require much less covering material, precipitation does not linger on them. Such constructions can be transformed, but they are limited in the choice of coating - mainly polycarbonate is used. In addition, access to the extreme beds will be difficult,
- dual roof greenhouses will require more material for the arrangement, but the area for planting them is much larger. The design provides excellent lighting even with a cloudy sky, withstands snow loads well, but costs more than arched,
- single greenhouses often they build around the wall of the house, which allows to save well. It is better to direct the slope of the roof to the south side,
- greenhouse pyramid - An option for those who love everything unusual. The structures are complex in design, in demand among gardeners,
- polygonal greenhouse - spectacular and expensive construction, but due to the presence of a large number of faces, the structure is well heated at any time of the day.
№8. Greenhouse size
Everyone decides for himself whether to purchase a ready-made greenhouse or construct it independently, what type and size it should be, but when choosing, consider some useful recommendations. The optimal width of the greenhouse - 3-3.5 m, if it is already, then the required number of beds will not fit, and on the aisles it will be necessary to save. The length can be any, a common option - 4-6 m. Make a greenhouse longer than 6 m is not recommended - it will be more difficult to care for plants. It is better to make two greenhouses 6 m each than one at 10-12 m. The optimum height to the ridge is 2.5 m, the height of the low wall is 1.5 m. The doors should be wide enough (about 1 m) so that you can easily It was to call in the greenhouse with a garden cart.
№9. Attention to a complete set
If you, like many gardeners, have opted for finished greenhousethen when buying pay attention to what is included in the kit. In addition to the frame and covering material, there must also be seals, as well as doors and vents. The location of the latter is of great importance: in the summer heat, without normal ventilation, the plants in the greenhouse will burn, so ideally the doors should be on both sides, the presence of air vents is also necessary. Prefix "economy" in the name of the greenhouse model, it means that the greenhouse can be used only in the warm season or substantially modifying its structure, since often the step between the arcs is too large. The responsible manufacturer will always provide the design with assembly instructions.
№10. The best greenhouse manufacturers
The secret to choosing a quality greenhouse is simple: do not buy at too low prices (often products made in China and of very poor quality) and trust large producers, and it is advisable to contact the company store or to the company's website, and not to the intermediary. Little-known one-day firms are not the best option - they can close soon, you can’t make any claims, and you can’t buy a new greenhouse for a couple thousand rubles saved.
Among those represented in the domestic market, the products of such companies show themselves best:
- "Will" - the largest domestic enterprise in the sphere, operating since 1993, produces polycarbonate greenhouses, film greenhouses, various materials and accessories for greenhouses, as well as industrial greenhouses and a number of related products and irrigation systems,
- company "New Forms" produces only polycarbonate greenhouses. The frame is distinguished by a reliable zinc coating, firmly welded, polycarbonate is represented by products from different manufacturers. Product warranty 7 years,
- "Factory of finished greenhouses" It has its own production of polycarbonate with a thickness of 4 to 16 mm and a steel square pipe. Warehouses are located in all regions of the country
- "People's Greenhouse Plant" independently produces a metal square tube for the construction of the frame, ready-made greenhouses complete with domestic polycarbonate 4-10 mm thick with a protective coating. The range also includes a number of related products.
- "Rus-Greenhouse" offers easy-to-install greenhouses made of painted and galvanized pipes with polycarbonate coating,
- "Greenhouses of the North". The company has been operating since 2010, it produces galvanized profile frames with polycarbonate coating of various shapes and sizes.
The choice of finished greenhouses is impressive, and gardeners "with hands" can try to build a greenhouse on their own. Whatever it was, when choosing and erecting a greenhouse, consider the nuances described above.