Potatoes, like any other vegetable crop, will feel better if they are fertilized in time. What means at the same time to use, depends on growth and development of bushes. Top dressing of potatoes can be made both under a root, and by processing of its leaves.
Before you apply fertilizer, you need to check whether there are not uncrowded bushes in the rows. If there is, you need to annoy the potatoes. In order to make this possible, additional tubers are buried when they are planted on the edge of the field, creating a kind of insurance reserve. Then you can proceed to such an event as feeding potatoes.
If the plants look weak, then most likely the potato lacks nitrogen. In this case, it is fed ammonium nitrate. You can also use ammonium sulphate. You must use about 2 kg of funds per hundred. Feed potatoes can be made mullein. This natural fertilizer is diluted with water at the rate of one to ten. A ten-liter bucket of this liquid is enough for one hundred.
Dry dressing on non-watered soil is best not to produce. There will be no effect from them. In the dry season it is worth using liquid fertilizer options. Urea can be used to support underdeveloped, weak, and pale potatoes. It is diluted in the amount of 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water. In addition, the feeding of potatoes can be accomplished by pouring 500 g of any liquid nitrogen fertilizer under each plant. Sometimes in the soil there is, on the contrary, an excess of nitrogen. In this case, the tops of plants grow very high, there are practically no tubers under the plant. In order to reduce the uptake of nitrogen by the roots, ash is introduced into the soil.
If the dressing is done by the dry method, the fertilizer is carefully and carefully placed in the ground, after which the rows are poured abundantly with water. When embedding the mixture in the soil, they move backwards in such a way as not to trample the penetrated soil. Very useful can be foliar feeding of potatoes. This is a special way in which fertilizer is not applied to the soil, but by sprinkling on the leaves. It is best used during the ripening period of tubers.
A month before harvesting, it is necessary to dilute 400 g of superphosphate in water and spray potatoes. Such a measure can be extremely useful. As a result, not only the yield will increase, but also such an important indicator as starch content of tubers will increase. Such a spraying will be more useful if it is carried out in overcast dry weather. In the dry period, you can do it in the evening. Otherwise, the solution will not soak into the leaves, and dry out. In addition, spraying the plants on a hot sunny day can burn the leaves.
So, the feeding of potatoes after planting is made by mullein or any other nitrogenous agent. Urea can be used. At the last stage of growth is best to apply foliar method of fertilizing. In this way, yields can be significantly increased.
Fertilizers for spring plowing
Before the spring digging of the plot for potatoes, the greatest effect comes from the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers. Combinations can be different:
Option 1. 10 kilograms of humus, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate, 20 grams of potassium sulfate, 40 grams of superphosphate, 450 grams of dolomite flour per 1 square meter.
Option 2. 7 kilograms of compost, 30 grams of nitrophosphate, 20 grams of potassium sulfate, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate per 1 square meter.
Option 3. 1 bucket of humus, 3 tablespoons of nitrophoska, 1 cup of ash per 1 square meter.
Option 4. If siderats grow on the site, then together with the incorporation of green mass, it is enough to add 20 grams of ammonium nitrate, 20 grams of potassium sulfate per 1 square meter.
Option 5. With a shortage of organic make complex fertilizers: nitrophoska at the rate of 5 kilograms per hundred or nitroammofosku (3 kilograms per hundred).
Trace elements can be included in the fertilizer mixture, for example: copper (0.5 grams of copper sulphate per 1 square meter) and molybdenum (0.1 grams of ammonium molybdate acid per 1 square meter). They help the assimilation of basic macronutrients.
Under the early varieties of potatoes, it is recommended to add more mineral fertilizers, they are absorbed faster than organic matter and provide good nutrition to plants with a short growing season.
All fertilizers are usually applied superficially. They are simply scattered over the surface of the soil, and then buried to a depth of 20-25 centimeters when plowing, digging or loosening the flat cutter.
Fertilizing when planted
The second method of fertilizer application in spring is even simpler and even more efficient - all fertilizers are applied directly to the hole along with the planting of the tuber. Fertilizer in the planting hole can be made and organic and mineral.
Organic option: Five tablespoons of ash and 700 grams jar of dry humus in each well.
Mineral option: 1 tablespoon of nitrophobia per well or 15-20 grams of Kemira Potato complex fertilizer.
Top dressing potatoes in summer
If in the spring with fertilizers were late, did not have time, or by the appearance of the plants, it is clear that they do not have enough food, they help out feeding. You can feed the potatoes until mid-July, no longer worth it, otherwise the plants will gain extra green mass, and they will forget about the tubers. Any dressing is best done after watering or rain.
Root feed potatoes
The first feeding spend at the beginning of growth of the tops. It is needed if the potato stalks are thin and pale green.
Usually it is made immediately before the first hilling.
The first version of feeding. 1 teaspoon of urea (or ammonium nitrate) + 1.5 cups of humus per 1 meter of a strip of potatoes.
The second option is feeding. 3 grams of superphosphate, 3 grams of potassium chloride or sulphate, 2 grams of urea or ammonium nitrate under each bush.
The third option is feeding. 10 grams of nitrophoska per plant.
The fourth option is top dressing. 10 grams of dry bird droppings under each bush or watering the grooves between the potato rows with an infusion of chicken manure in a ratio of 1:10.
The fifth version of feeding. Two handfuls of humus on a bush.
The sixth variant of top dressing. 1 tablespoon of urea per 10 liters of water. Consumption rate under one plant - 0.5 liters.
Seventh version of the feeding. Herbal infusion of nettle or any weed.
The eighth version of feeding. 20 grams of ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water. Consumption rate under the bush - 0.5 liters.
The ninth version of feeding. 1 liter of mullein per 10 liters of water. This solution is watered between the rows.
As you can see, variations of the first dressing abound, so that everyone can choose the most suitable for their garden.
Second feeding carried out during the budding of plants to accelerate flowering. Potash fertilizers will be needed here.
The first version of feeding. 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate and 3 tablespoons of ash per 1 linear meter of a strip of potatoes.
The second option is feeding. 30 grams of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water per 10 square meters.
The third option is feeding. Two handfuls of ash mixed with the same amount of land and added under each bush.
Third dressing do during flowering to accelerate the formation of tubers. For this, 2 tablespoons of a spoon of superphosphate and 1 cup of mullein are dissolved in 10 liters of water. Make 0.5 liters of the resulting solution under each bush.
Foliar nutrition of potatoes
Someone likes to water, and someone is more convenient to spray. If you belong to the second group, then you, undoubtedly, better pay attention to foliar feeding, which are sprayed directly on the leaves of plants. Such supplements quickly deliver nutrients “to the address”, activating the metabolic processes of the plant.
Nitrogen potash supplement. 100 grams of urea, 150 grams of potassium monophosphate, 5 grams of boric acid are taken for 5 liters of water. You can add and trace elements - boron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt in a dosage of not more than 0.5 grams per 5 liters.
This dressing is carried out two weeks after germination. If necessary, repeat again. Such a solution of potatoes can be sprayed before flowering at two-week intervals.
Supporters of organic farming sprayed potato plots with fermented nettle extract or gummate solutions.
Phosphoric top dressing. At the very end of the flowering of potatoes to increase yields and starchiness of tubers, potato bushes are sprayed with superphosphate extract: 20 grams of fertilizer is poured with 10 liters of warm water and infused for two days, stirring occasionally. The consumption rate of this infusion: 1 liter per hundred.
Fertilizer potato beds from autumn
Those to whom spring every minute is expensive, prefer to fertilize the earth under potatoes since fall. This option has quite a few advantages: some phosphate fertilizers (for example, superphosphate) do not immediately turn into forms that are easily digestible for plants, and by the spring they are transformed. Fresh manure is also not put directly into the well, and when it is applied in autumn, it will just have time to perepret.
Potatoes are very fond of organics, so it is recommended to add 5-10 kilograms of humus (or fresh manure) for potatoes in the fall with superphosphate (30 grams) and potassium sulfate (15 grams). All dosages are per square meter.
If with manure and humus tight, helps out a green manure called green manure. After harvesting, all the beds are planted with green plants, under the potatoes the ideal option is oilseed radish and other cruciferous crops. Before the onset of cold weather, siderats will have time to gain enough green mass, and by the next season they will already be in the soil as a useful organic substance. By the way, for those who use (or want to try) a no-till technology for growing potatoes, rye is perfect as a siderata for potatoes.
But if it is very difficult with organic matter, you can apply only mineral fertilizers in the fall. In this case, it is better to use potassium sulfate at the rate of 2 kilograms per hundred and double superphosphate (1 kilogram per hundred).
We wish you success and great harvests!
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Potatoes are a popular dish on the tables of many Russians. However, in order to reap a decent crop, in the process of growth it must be properly fed. The main principle in the cultivation of potatoes is that when they are planted in the soil, it is necessary to add the necessary fertilizers, because the tubers, as soon as they enter the ground, begin to absorb nutrients from it intensively. The more they will be, the higher yield can be obtained.
Important! It should be borne in mind that nutritional deficiencies cannot be replenished further. For potatoes, systematic feeding is important.
Varieties of fertilizers
Potatoes more like organic feedings: peat-compost, manure or bird droppings. Recently, the use of siderats - green plants (clover, peas, barley, rye, etc.), which serve as a source of micronutrients for growing crops, is gaining popularity.
As a mineral dressing can be used: urea, nitrate, potassium, double superphosphate and similar substances.
Important! Some agronomists recommend using chlorine-based products to feed potatoes. To do this is strictly prohibited, because this substance gets into the potato tubers, forms chemical compounds hazardous to human health. Care must be taken to apply nitrogen and calcium.
Considering this group of elements, it should be noted that one of the most important elements required for the growth of tubers is potassium. Its main source is wood ash, which is also rich in calcium and potassium.
Nitrogen plays a significant role in the growth of potatoes. Preparations based on it should be made in accordance with the recommended proportions. If the required dose of the substance is added to the soil, it is consumed directly by the tubers, but if the amount is exceeded, then all growth will be directed to the vegetable tops. Consequently, high yield can not wait.
Most of the popular organic fertilizers are composed of a complex of nutrients necessary for the cultivation of high-quality crops. Because of this, they are the most useful fertilizers. Organic elements are easily digested in tubers, which leads to their rapid growth. In addition, they contribute to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the soil, which also has a beneficial effect.
Organic fertilizers include all types of manure, compost, rotted waste, and green manure plants.
Manure for potatoes
Cow dung is a popular organic fertilizer. Due to its availability, every agronomist applies it for growing potatoes. Fertilizer should be applied to the soil long before planting potatoes. This is usually done in late autumn so that over the winter the earth can be enriched with micronutrients. For the procedure, you can use the manure, both in liquid and in dry form.
Immediately before planting, it is recommended to feed them for each tuber. It is necessary to ensure that the manure is dry and rotten. Otherwise, the culture may rot immediately after planting.
Chicken droppings are considered the second most popular organic fertilizer. In composition, it surpasses cow dung, because contains even more beneficial trace elements. However, it must be used carefully. Fresh chicken dung placed in the same hole with a tuber can burn it, therefore using this fertilizer, it should be added in small quantities and only in dried form.
If the litter is wet, and the crop is already planted, then based on it you can make liquid fertilizer. To do this, in a bucket of water, add chicken droppings in proportions of 1:10, mix thoroughly and leave to stand for 1-2 days. Then, the resulting solution should be planted tubers, at the rate of 0.5-1 liter for each bush.
Top dressing potatoes in spring
The maximum yield of potatoes is obtained in cases where mineral and organic fertilizers are combined in the right proportions. When selecting substances, you should consider what kind of culture will be grown. It is known that early varieties of potatoes absorb much more nutrients than later ones.
Accordingly, for these varieties more suitable mineral fertilizers. They are easier to dissolve in the soil and faster absorbed by tubers, which affects the quality of the crop. For later varieties, it is preferable to use organic additives. Gradually decomposing in the ground, they will be able to saturate culture with the necessary elements for a long time.
Fertilizers during planting
Experienced farmers, based on their many years of experience, recommend fertilizing potatoes with the following organic substances: rotted manure, wood ash and compost. As mineral additives, you can use: superphosphate, urea and nitrate.
Almost always, the roots of potatoes are located in the upper layers of the soil, so in the process of planting fertilizer should be applied to the wells with tubers or in plowed rows. No need to try to add as much fertilizer as possible. the culture will still take as much as needed, and the surplus of certain substances can be harmful.
Important! Before you calculate the proportions of nutrients, it is desirable to know the type of soil fertility. This indicator can have a significant impact on the number of micronutrients required.
- If the soil fertility is above the average, then one weave takes: 2.5-3 kg of dry manure or compost, 2.5 kg of superphosphate and about 1.5 kg of potassium-based preparations.
- Approximately 3.5 kg of manure, 4 kg of phosphorus and 2.5 potassium substances must be added to the middle soil.
- Low fertility should be fertilized more abundantly. To do this, use: 10 kg of humus with manure, 3-4 kg of superfasfat and 1 kg of ammonium nitrate.
- All the above proportions are approximate. A more accurate amount can be calculated based on personal experience, or by seeking advice from experienced agronomists.
- By planting potatoes at the stage of planting should be approached responsibly. After all, on how much fertilizer was applied to the soil, will depend on the further growth of the crop.
Top dressing after landing
Everyone knows that the beds with potatoes need to periodically weed, loosen and spud. However, correct feeding of plants has a smaller effect on the final yield. If we consider the period from the appearance of the first shoots to the excavation of tubers, then fertilizers should be applied in three stages:
- The first stage is optional and depends on how the pre-plant fertilizer was carried out. If weak and thin stalks of pale green color emerge from the ground, the culture should be additionally fed. Для этого нужно смешать 3-4 стакана жидкого перегноя и 2 чайных ложки карбамида, из расчёта на 1 квадратный метр. Полученный раствор внести под самый корень растения.
- Второй этап подкормки проходит во время бутонизации. Для этого применяется сульфат калия (1-2 чайных ложки) и древесная зола (4-5 столовых ложек) на один кв. метр.
- Final fertilization is carried out at the stage of flowering plants. The main principle is to speed up the process of formation of inflorescences, so that all the nutrients are “delivered” to the tubers. In this case, used superphosphate, which must be made at the rate of 4 stl. spoons per 1 square. meter.
If it becomes visually noticeable that the potato grows more slowly than usual, then in the periods between the main fertilizer application it can be additionally fed. To do this, you can breed manure or bird droppings in the water and water under each bush of culture. It is necessary to ensure that the solution does not fall on the tops.
Why fertilize potatoes
Potatoes, unlike other crops, need many nutrients. This is due to the poor development of the roots and the large size of the tubers. Along with the harvest, we take some useful elements from the soil, therefore it is important, planting potatoes for the next year, to bring in the nutrients it needs for normal development and growth. Lack of fertilizer will gradually lead to a decrease in yield, the tubers will become small.
Types of fertilizer for potatoes
Each type of plant responds better or worse to the same fertilizer. If you want to achieve positive results of your labors and collect a good harvest, you should understand which dressings are more suitable for potatoes.
The highest cultivation efficiency is achieved using:
- organic fertilizers (compost and manure). Organic contains elements that are necessary for the normal development of the plant. Decomposing, such fertilizers contribute to an increase in carbon dioxide in the aerial layer of the air, as a result of which the tubers grow large and healthy,
- chicken litter.Chicken dung as a fertilizer for potatoes is popular due to its high concentration and rapid effects on plant growth. It is forbidden to use undiluted. Before use, litter is diluted with water 1 to 15 and placed in a warm place for 2-3 days. Water 1 liter per bush,
- ash. Contains the substances necessary for healthy growth of tubers. For each weave contribute up to 10 kg. Ash as a fertilizer for potatoes is often used by gardeners, as it contributes to obtaining high-quality large yield,
- urea. It contains the required amount of nitrogen for potatoes to increase yields, but you should carefully observe the dosage,
- ammonium nitrate. It has the same effect as urea,
- bone meal.
Autumn plot preparation
To get a rich harvest, you need to take care of the soil in the plot prepared for potatoes. With each season, it loses nutrients, so in the autumn time you should definitely fertilize it.
Ideally, it is recommended to combine mineral fertilizers and organic matter. At 1 square meter of soil must be left 5-7 buckets of manure. At the same time it is necessary to carry out mineral supplements. For this, superphosphate is added (30 g per 1 square meter), it is also recommended to add potassium sulfate and phosphorus - 15 g per 1 square meter.
After the tops have been removed from the potato field, you can land the siderats on it. Perfect for this mustard white. For three weeks, it forms the necessary mass, and with the arrival of spring, it will be necessary to dig the ground along with the mustard.When preparing the site in the autumn, you can perform a deep digging. If you plan to use the walker, you will need 2 times to process the area on clay soil and one - on sandy. When digging by hand, you need to dig a spade to the full depth of the bayonet. In the presence of acidic soil in the autumn, its restoration is carried out. To do this, you should fertilize it with dolomite flour, lime or ash (200 g per 1 sq. M). If the site appears sorrel or moss - this means that the pH of the soil has changed.
Fertilizer when planting
You can achieve greater benefits if you apply fertilizer to each bush individually. If the decision is made to feed the plant with organic matter, it is necessary to pour a 700-gram jar of dry humus and 5 tablespoons of ash into each hole. If you use agrochemicals, it is worth putting 1 tbsp into each hole. spoon Nitrofoski and 100 g of bone meal.
Adding an article to a new collection
To improve the "health" of potatoes, you must use fertilizers. Sometimes gardeners are afraid to use them, considering that the roots will absorb a lot of "chemistry". But there are safe drugs that do not harm the crop, but rather increase it.
Potatoes are truly unique “inhabitants” of our gardens. It differs from other crops not only by its properties, but also by the special order of fertilizer application. In particular, the bulk of the fertilizers are applied during the planting period of the potato, since during the growth they are assimilated worse and do not have a significant effect on the growth and development of the plants. On this and other features of the application of fertilizing, we describe below.