The disease is acute or chronic and is caused by a small blood parasite - Anaplasma marginale.
The pathogen in the blood smears of sick animals, stained by Romanovsky - Giemsa, is found in the form of circular formations of dark red color of 0.2-1.2 microns.
The parasite occupies a peripheral position in the erythrocytes. The number of ananlasms in one erythrocyte is from one to four, but with a strong invasion they can be more, in such cases the parasites are found in leukocytes and platelets.
Epizootological data. Anaplasmosis of cattle is common in the North Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Kazakhstan, the Lower Volga Region, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, and Novosibirsk, Chelyabinsk, Smolensk and Kalinin regions. In most of the territory, anaplasmosis is recorded as a carrier, but in some years enzootic flashes appear - when highly susceptible animals are brought into dysfunctional farms.
Carriers of the pathogen-pasture mites (Ixodes) and blood-sucking insects (gadflies, flies, mosquitoes). More often, anaplasmosis occurs in the hot summer months during the period of greatest parasitism on animal mites and insects.
Clinical signs. The incubation period is 15-25 days. In the acute course of the disease, body temperature rises to 40-41 °, the general depression. Appetite is weak or disappears. Anemia appears, and then the yellowness of the mucous membranes. With the development of anemia, rapid pulse and breathing. With a strong invasion lymph nodes increase.
Atony of the anterior gizzards and intestines occurs. Movement of the scar is slow, feces thick, diarrhea in some patients. In severe cases, there may be swelling of the chest and limbs. Animals lose weight, reduce milk yield or completely stop the release of milk. In pregnant cows, abortions are possible, and in bulls sterility comes. In chronic course, indicate lethargy, general weakness. Fever is unstable and usually the body temperature of the animal rises no higher than 40 °. Anemia develops, patients lose weight and reduce milk yield. Mortality occurs in acute.
Pathological changes. The corpses of dead animals are exhausted. The mucous membranes are pale, sometimes with an icteric tint. In the subcutaneous tissue in the chest area and in other places, swelling is possible. The spleen is always enlarged, on a slit of dark cherry color. The heart muscle is pale, with massive dot hemorrhages on the epicardium and endocardium.
Diagnosis put also on the basis of comprehensive research. Take into account the epidemiological data, clinical signs, conduct a study of blood smears. Differentiate anaplasmosis from leptospirosis and piroplasmosis.
Treatment. Patients are left in the room. Assign a diet of easily digestible food. Tetracycline antibiotics are used. Terramycin at a dose of 10-15 mg / kg at an 8% dilution intramuscularly 5-6 days. Morfocycline and olemorfocycline proved to be the most effective - they are administered intramuscularly at a dose of 7.5 mg / kg with an interval of 24 hours 3-4 days in a row.
Prevention. Conduct comprehensive activities. When animals are brought into dysfunctional anaplasmosis farms, they are grazed on long-term cultivated pastures free from ticks. If such animals are grazed on pastured pastures, they are treated (bathed or sprayed) with acaricidal solutions once every seven days.
Stall and stall-walking cattle in the warm period of the year largely protects animals from infection and parabola anaplasmosis.
The cause of the development of anaplasmosis is considered to be intracellular parasites belonging to the Anaplasma marginale group. Ixodic ticks, mosquitoes and gadflies act as intermediate hosts. They infect the victim during a bite. Most often, outbreaks of the disease occur in the summer.
The duration of the incubation period depends on the age and health of the animal. The first signs of anaplasmosis can be seen on day 6 after penetration of the parasites. The danger of the disease is that in some animals it proceeds with almost no symptoms.
Infection is detected with a thorough examination of cattle. Unicellular bacteria live in colonies and multiply by division. In the erythrocyte, several parasites can live in a cow. Anaplasm invades the membrane of blood cells. In the future, they use them as raw materials for the formation of new bacteria.
Important! To identify parasites, you can use the study of smears by the Romanovsky method. In the plasma of the sick animal there are round objects of dark color. The size of the largest individuals reaches 2.2 microns.
Insects are carriers of pathogenic microorganisms. The infection is transmitted to future offspring. Mite lays eggs in which parasites are already present. The causative agent of the disease affects the intestines of the insect.
Mite lay eggs
Signs of disease in livestock
Anaplasmosis can be recognized by the following symptoms:
- Penetration of parasites leads to disruption of metabolic processes.
- Animals begin to suffer from oxygen starvation, as the infection affects the red blood cells.
- The cow has an iron deficiency. Experts have noted in patients with the symptoms of hemoglobinuria, which is accompanied by the disintegration of blood cells.
- The temperature of the animal rises to 41 degrees.
- Symptoms of infection are discoloration of the mucous membranes. They get a yellowish tint.
Pathological changes in the body
Anaplasmosis is indicated by the paleness and yellowness of the skin. An animal not only loses its appetite. The cow becomes lethargic and apathetic. Her breathing is disturbed. Reducing the number of red blood cells leads to a failure of the heart rhythm.
A characteristic symptom of anaplasmosis is a malfunction of the digestive system. Sick cows suffer from watery diarrhea. Cattle is rapidly losing weight, and stops giving milk.
Important! The infection is especially dangerous for pregnant individuals. Parasites significantly increases the risk of abortion. Metabolic disorders leads to the fact that the animal is trying to eat inedible items.
On examination of dead individuals, changes in the tissues of the kidneys, liver and spleen can be noticed. Edema is considered a characteristic sign of pathology. They are formed in the subcutaneous layers in the abdomen and neck.
In the process of reproduction, parasites secrete toxins. The cow has enlarged lymph nodes. The acute stage of anaplasmosis lasts about 15-30 days. The disease can go into the chronic stage. In many animals, anaplasmosis occurs in a latent form.
Scheme of the lymph nodes of the cow
Usually signs of infection occur at the slightest weakening of the immune system. The difficulty of determining the cause of the disease diagnosis is that the pathology is easily confused with the symptoms of babesiosis or leptospirosis.
To identify the causative agent of the disease, specialists take blood samples. Using a plasma smear according to Romanovsky, you can determine the type of infection. To clarify the diagnosis, doctors conduct a serological examination. At the hotel, cows of antibodies get into the milk.
Unicellular parasites can be destroyed with tetracycline antibiotics (Terramycin, Oxytetracycline). Do not exceed the dosage specified in the instructions. A sick animal needs to administer antibiotics once a day at the rate of 6-10 thousand. Units per kg of weight. The duration of treatment is 4-6 days.
Suppress the activity of parasites can be due to the drugs of prolonged action:
They need to be taken 1 time in 3-4 days. Positive results can be achieved with the help of Brovaseptol. The drug must be given to a sick cow once a day. Sulfapyridazin is considered an effective remedy for anaplasmosis. Before use, it must be dissolved in water in a ratio of 1:10. The optimal dose of the drug is 0.05 g / kg.
To fight the infection, Biovetin is used in the amount of 10 mg / kg per day. Veterinarians prescribe Brovaseptol for sick animals. Injections of this drug should be administered every 24 hours at 0.1 ml / kg.
Anaplasmosis pathogens are sensitive to sulfonamides. A 4% glucose solution is recommended as maintenance therapy. In the treatment of anaplasmosis, Sulfantrol 20% is used. The recommended dose of the drug is 0.003 g / k. The tool is intended for intramuscular administration. You can cope with the parasites, if you give the animal Ethacridine lactate.
Breeders get rid of parasites due to preparations made on the basis of amidocarb dipropionate:
The treatment dose is 1.2 mg / kg. After infection, the animal suffers from metabolic disorders. To restore the work of the digestive system you must follow a diet. The cow needs plenty of drink. The diet should contain vitamins and trace elements.
The risk of infection with anaplasmosis can be reduced by following these rules:
Cows on pasture
- Monitor the state of pastures where animals graze.
- All newbies need to be kept in quarantine for 30 days. During this time, you can conduct their examination to ensure the absence of parasites.
- Anaplasmosis outbreaks can be prevented by treating cows with acaricides. The procedure should be carried out 1 time per week.
- Patients and healthy individuals must be kept separate.
- Be sure to check the availability of veterinary certificates when buying cows.
- Breeders need to conduct regular barn disinfection.
Important! Manufacturers produce special vaccines designed to develop immunity to the causative agents of anaplasmosis. In this way, cows can be protected from infection for 10-11 months.
Anaplasmosis leads to a persistent decrease in the productivity of cattle. Even after recovery, many animals remain carriers of a dangerous infection. To prevent infection by vaccination. Animal hair must be treated with acaricides once a week.
What is anaplasmosis cattle
This disease is caused by microorganisms whose size is between 0.2 and 2.2 microns. These creatures penetrate into the red blood cells and parasitize them. Anaplasms violate redox and metabolic processes, worsening oxygen transmission in animals. As a result, anemia is observed in infected cattle.
Incubation period and signs of infection
Since the period of incubation of the disease lasts 6–70 days, an animal that has received an infection in the summer can also become ill with the onset of cold weather. Inadequate or improper treatment, as well as inadequate livestock maintenance can lead to the fact that the infection can lurk in the organs of animals and then manifest itself almost all year round, not excluding the winter.
However, most often the outbreaks of this disease occur in spring and summer during the maximum activity of carriers of infection.
Its signs are:
- elevated temperature of the animal,
- blanching of the mucous membranes,
- a sharp deterioration in appetite
- respiratory failure,
- accelerated heartbeat
- the occurrence of cough,
- disruption of the digestive system,
- weight loss
- cessation of milk production
An accurate diagnosis of anaplasmosis is complicated by the fact that this infection is often associated with other diseases and is difficult to distinguish from them.
Most often, anaplasmosis can be confused with:
For an accurate diagnosis, they resort to laboratory studies, as well as to the study of the epizootic situation in the adjacent territories, time of year, and climatic conditions.
Serology methods are also actively used when antigen and antibodies are used to study a disease, and by analyzing their reactions, the disease is diagnosed. However, the study of a blood smear is still crucial in the diagnosis of anaplasmosis.
Sick and recovered cows acquire immunity, which is of short duration for a maximum of four months. But in calves that were bred by a cow that had been ill during pregnancy, anaplasmosis either does not occur at all, or takes a very mild form.
The representatives of the cattle who died from these parasites are observed:
- severe exhaustion
- pallor and flabbiness of skeletal muscles,
- traces of hemorrhage
- an increase in the spleen and gallbladder,
- signs of pulmonary emphysema,
- enlarged kidneys, lymph nodes and liver,
- muddy urine
- subcutaneous edema.
The disease occurs in animals in acute and chronic forms, and the chronic course is easier. In acute form, the disease lasts up to a month, recovery does not occur immediately and is delayed for a long period.
Antibiotics and all kinds of drugs with a dosage and treatment regimen
Currently, there are proven methods of combating this disease and a complex of drugs that successfully fight parasites.
The following drugs are used for this:
- “Terramycin”, “Tetracycline” and “Morfitsiklin”, which are diluted in a two percent novocaine solution and injected intramuscularly at the rate of 5–10 thousand units for each kilo of cow's weight. The drug is administered daily for 4-6 days.
- Oxytetracycline-200, which is a long-term therapeutic agent that is administered intramuscularly once a day every four days.
- "Sulfapyridazin-Sodium", 0.05 g of which for every kilogram of weight of the cow is bred in distilled water in the proportion of 1:10. The tool is introduced for three days once a day.
- "Biomitsin", which is given to the animal inside at the rate of 10 mg per kilogram of live weight every day for a week.
- “Ethacridine lactate”, 200 mg of which is diluted in medical alcohol (60 ml) and distilled water (120 ml) and injected into a cow intravenously 1 time per day.
Water and green succulent feed in the diet
A cow that has become ill with anaplasmosis suffers from a disturbance of metabolic processes in the body, therefore a diet that is a banal juicy green is extremely important for her. There is no better food for a sick cow. In addition, plentiful drinking is very important for the recovery of the animal.
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Since during the cold season, the development of anaplasmosis is provoked by vitamin and mineral deficiencies in cattle feeds, and the disease itself causes a disturbance of metabolic processes, which, in turn, further aggravates the deficiency of vitamins and minerals in the body, it is difficult to overestimate the importance of vitamin and mineral supplements feed animals in the form:
- calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, the lack of which impairs cow's appetite, makes the animal fearful and inhibits its growth,
- copper, which must be present in any balanced feed,
- vitamin A, manganese and cobalt, whose deficiency is fraught with inadequate digestion and exhaustion,
- zinc and iodine, the absence of which in the feed leads to a drop in milk production,
- vitamin E, whose deficiency leads to anemia and even dystrophy.