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Book: All about pigeons

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Knowledge of the classification of pigeons, and of birds in general, characterizes the level of biological literacy of pigeon breeders. To say that Russian golubevody at the height of this area would be too bold. This was confirmed in the course of heated disputes with some pigeon breeders at the exhibition “Doves 2007” regarding the classification of almost all Russian breeds of pigeons to the classification group - Turman. I confess that some time ago, I was also puzzled by the European Union's assignment of the Russian state pigeons to the “Turmans” group. Since childhood, it has been customary that the turmans are black-skinned, red-footed, white Oryol, gray. It happened historically. At the same time, we did not think that the name “turmans” came from a foreign word, and most likely from German. Since the time of Peter 1, many Germans came to Russia and spread European culture. Many foreign words took root in the Russian language. With the advent of real pigeon farming, concentrated with rich people, and the penetration of German into the life of the rich, the term “turman” is likely to emerge, like the names of pigeons spinning. In German “pigeon-spit” sounds like “tyumler”, and in English it is correct “tumblé”, and as we usually say, we read foreign words in Latin letters - “toggle switch” Foreign words are not always easy to pronounce and in our language their transformation is inevitable. Personally, much of the existing classification became clearer to me when I became acquainted with published materials on the biology of pigeons and the history of pigeon breeding. Review of reading, some generalizations and conclusions are given in this article.

So we are arranged, that we perceive the whole world around us as pieces of information. Sound, visual, taste, tactile. Everything that our brain perceives enters it from the outside and is remembered by our memory. Repeated receipt of the same information allows us to feel this or that object or event as familiar. There is a lot of information and therefore it is summarized by individual characteristics into groups. For example, if we hear or see a car, then we have certain associations and we do not imagine birds, but we represent a certain structure.

Now specifically about the birds and more specifically about the pigeons. A lot of birds, more than 6800 species. Domestic pigeons, counting by breed, are more than 1000. Naturally, it is difficult to understand such abundance and there is a need to divide the whole diversity into groups. Groups that make it easier to find information about a particular bird. For example . If we say tit, we will look for information on a specific species among the genus tits (10 species are known in Russia). And not among the ostriches. This is the essence of classification.

And that is why the gradual development of science on earth, as a process of collecting, processing and managing information, led early scientists to develop a classification of all living things.

The first essay on Ornithology (the science of birds) belongs to Aristotle (4th century BC), his work “The History of Animals” refers to 170 species of birds. In the Middle Ages, Frederick 11 Hohenstaufen in his treatise On the Art of Hunting with Birds (written about 1247, printed in 1596) gave a lot of information about birds. In the second half of the 16th and early 17th centuries, works by the French naturalist P. Belon, the Swiss - K.Hesner and the Italian - A.Aldvandi appeared, summarizing information on the ornithology of that time. In 1713, a classification of birds was developed, developed by the English biologist J. Rey. The foundations of the modern scientific nomenclature and classification of birds were laid by Karl Linnaeus in his “System of Nature” (1 edition 1735). In the 17-18 centuries bird research has spread far beyond Europe and J. Buffon published the first in the history of ornithology review of the world avifauna (t. 1–10.1770-86). The full text of the article on the brief history of Ornithology can be found on the Internet at http: // slovari. sosh. ru /.

As for domestic pigeons, Charles Darwin already in 1868 in his work "The change of animals and plants in the home state" (Russian edition 1941) devoted two sections

classification of domestic pigeons.

Now specifically to the theory of biological classification. The basic unit of classification is called “species”. In practice, one species includes birds that freely nest with each other in nature. Species unite in genera, genera in families, families in groups. And the top of everything is class. Now about pigeons.

CLASS - Birds (Latin Aves), it has

ORDER - pigeon-like (lat. Columbiforms). Includes 300 families. One of the families

FAMILY - pigeon (Stock lumbidae) Includes 41 genus.

GENERA - include according to different sources from 297 to 306 species. According to the generally accepted science of classification, the common ancestral form of domestic pigeons is

VIEW - rock dove (Columba livia).

This type of efforts by breeder breeders has evolved into more than 1000 breeds and an unaccounted number of species. And the number of breeds is growing every year.

It is important, when we speak of domestic pigeons, not to use the term “species of pigeons” (all domestic pigeons belong to the same species), but to say “breed of pigeons”. Therefore, when considering the classification of domestic breeds of pigeons, the main unit of classification is the BREED. Within a species, breeds can be divided according to what type of trait into groups — biological races. A biological race is a collection of populations that is characterized by stable biological and morphological traits. Paradoxically, we are also a biological race - “golubovody”, united by behavioral grounds. Or another example. The last years they say about the sport pigeons of V.I. Kharlashin are the race of Harlashin. And it is quite legitimate, although inaccurate. It is impossible to single out sports pigeons in a race just because they live in a particular nursery with a particular person. A biological distinctive feature is required. Collecting and mixing various lines, selecting pigeons for speed qualities, Viktor Ivanovich achieved champion results, that is, a group of pigeons with a high level of orientation and high speed was formed - a biological race. Its stability over time will be provided by the genetic code of manufacturers. Correctly it should be called - speed race sports pigeons Harlashina. The name of the golubevoda in the name of the race should be left as a tribute to his merits to create high-speed pigeons. In Russia, an artificially created population of sports pigeons will receive the right to be called a race only after its recognition by the Federation of Russian Sports Pigeon Breeding on the basis of the results of competitive flights and data of stud books. Recognition of a race must be accompanied by the issuance of an appropriate certificate. For international recognition, it must be approved by international organizations. N.G. Agurbash, creating a race of sports Nicholas Tucherzov. The selection of pigeons is conducted on the duration of the flight, as the main behavioral distinguishing feature.

Explain the concept of race based on morphological features, using the example of peacocks. The original form of all known breeds is the Indian peacock, which by the efforts of breeders has developed into several breeds: the American standard Indian peacock (tufted and lochmonog), the English standard peacock (bare-legged), the garden peacock (tubular tail) and the Hungarian peacock. Together they make up the Peacock race according to common morphological features.

.

According to the scientists themselves, the taxonomy, as a science, is in motion and how many scientists there are, so many opinions on the classification of birds. But if the majority of agricultural birds (and pigeons belong to agricultural birds) exist science, scientists and scientific institutions, then pigeon breeding, at least in our country, developed and develops mainly at the amateur level. This gave and gives the opportunity to express their opinion on the classification of people who do not even have elementary biological training. Before the revolution, decisions on the standardization of pigeon breeds were made by the scientific communities, and later in the foreseeable past, the classification and description of the breeds was the lot of individual authors of books. It should be noted that books on many issues are literate, but still subjective, especially from a biological point of view.

As part of this review, an analysis of classification materials from various literature sources was prepared. But during the search for additional data, I came across Evgeny Shchedrov's Lecture on the Classification of Pigeon Breeds. I fully support the reasoning and conclusions of Evgeny Ivanovich, and since his Lecture was written 20 years earlier than my review, I found it appropriate not to give an analysis of the classification works well presented in the text of the lecture. The monograph of E.I. Shchedrova was not widely spread, and in order to fill the gap on the issue of classification and (I am not afraid of this phrase) “in our science of pigeon breeding,” I quote its text in full.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF BREEDS OF PIGEONS

MOSCOW CLUB OF DOVERS
MSEP

E.I. Schedrov "16" IV 1985

Lecture on the topic: "On the issue of classification of breeds of pigeons."

1. Entry.
- 22 year anniversary of MHC
- main results and objectives
2. Classification of breeds of pigeons.
- to the lassification set forth by Charles Darwin
- international classification 1819
- international classification 1964
- classification given in the book of Sütte 1971
- classification given in the book Pererfi 1977
3. Literary and market terminology in pigeon farming.
4. Reflection of the classification of breeds of pigeons in our domestic literature.
5. Conclusions and suggestions.


In November 1984, the Moscow City Club of Golubovodov celebrated its 22th anniversary.
It should be noted with satisfaction that during this short historical period the club has done a lot of work.
In the language of boxers and wrestlers, during this time we confidently gained not only points, but also achieved “pure victories”.
Our section of the sport pigeon breeding, besides participating in exhibitions of our pets abroad, regularly participates in competitions for the production of birds from ultra-long distances / 1200-1600 km /.
The section of decorative pigeon breeding, along with the holding of city and international exhibitions of pigeons, for which she was awarded diplomas by the VDNH and other organizations, successfully performed at the international exhibition of pigeons in Bu-dapesht / Hungary /.
In addition, an asset of qualified and reputable breeders and organizers of pigeon breeding is active around the club and inside it. This is perhaps the main result of the work, as a result of which our club is increasingly becoming the leading organization of the republic’s golubevodstva.
At present, on the basis of our club, the organization of pigeon breeders at the Central Council of the All-Russian Society for Nature Conservation is functioning.
This circumstance, as well as the entry into the club of young members and developing ties with foreign organizations of golubevodov put forward in front of us the task of in-depth study of the theoretical foundations of golubevodstva.
To start these classes, you are invited to a lecture on the topic: "On the issue of the classification of breeds of pigeons."
The question of the classification of breeds of pigeons is a current topic of the day.
Classification is the key to the further development of our pigeon farming, not only in Moscow, but throughout the Soviet Union.
Whether we take the path of illiterate golubevodstva, whether we will go with the international golubevod, we will speak in a clear language for golubevodov other states.
Please note that this question to speak in understandable language with foreign colleagues is today also a priority issue and it is closely related to the issue of classification. So the report has to cover these issues together.
Before talking about the classification of breeds of pigeons, it is necessary to have a very clear, completely clear idea of ​​what should be taken as the basis of this classification.
In the past century, the great scientist and passionate lover of pigeons, Charles Darwin, answered this question very well and comprehensively.
He noted that the basis for the classification of breeds of pigeons are all sorts of external, visible signs of breeds that are transmitted hereditarily.
In drawing up his classification, he believed that he should dwell only on the most essential features and the most important differences in the structure.
He wrote: “In vain, we would have sought in all the known 228 species of such a small and conical beak, like that of a short-faced turban, or so short and wide as that of the Polish pigeon / Barb-Indian /, so long, straight, narrow with its huge ceramics , like an English messenger / career /, such an extended and large tail, like a trumpet pigeon, or such an esophagus, like that of a duff. ”
And then he expressed the opinion: we must pay attention to all possible signs, the most important and sharp ones, like those of wild birds, seem to be a beak.
Charles Darwin all the breeds and varieties of pigeons known at that time were divided into four groups.
In the first group were assigned all varieties of suffocates. He wrote: “This group encompasses only one breed, namely the infants.
The esophagus is huge, barely separated from the goiter, often inflated by a bird. The body and legs are elongated. Beak moderate size. "
As sub-breeds, they described dutysh of four different states:
1. English,
2. Dutch,
3. German,
4. Belgian / from the city of Lilja /.
The second group of warty includes three breeds: namely, runners, Roman and Polish pigeons, which, obviously, are related to each other.
The following general characteristics were reported: “This group can be generally recognized by its long beak / the exception of the Polish pigeon /, and the skin over the nostrils is swollen and often wrinkled or warty, the skin around the eyes of the goal and very wrinkled. The beak is extremely wide and the paws are big. ”
Charles Darwin called his classification “natural” because he made the division of pigeons into groups depending on the size of the beak in comparison with the length of the beak of the wild field pigeon. But he suggested: “You can perhaps create an“ artificial ”classification, which will present less difficulty than“ natural ”, but for that it will break many similar forms.”
And he wrote about his third group: “The group is artificial and contains a diverse collection of various forms. As a general feature, it can be said that the beak of characteristic specimens of various breeds is shorter than that of a field pigeon, and that the bare skin around the eyes is not too strongly developed. ”
This includes short-billed and medium-billed pigeons:
1. Truby pigeons, i.e. peacocks.
2. Seagulls - owls.
3. Turman.
4. Indian
5. Jacobin and others.

The fourth group consisted of long-billed pigeons:
1. Trumpeter, trump dove. A bunch of feathers at the base of the beak is twisted forward, the legs are strongly fledged, the voice is very peculiar, it is larger than a field pigeon.
2. Breed barely different in structure from the wild pigeon. Its sub-breeds are laughter, simple fire and others.
I turn to the international classification of breeds of pigeons.
In 1869, at the Dresden Congress of Pigeon Breeders, a new classification was adopted in which all known breeds of pigeons were divided into 10 groups:
1. Airs.
2. Gulls.
3. Warty.
4. Chicken / chicken-piebald, Maltese, Modensky ./
5. Gigantic - / Roman, Montaban /
6. Jacobins.
7. Peacocks.
8. Goose pigeons / long-, medium-e, short-beaked turman /
9. Trumpeters
10. Pied doves / Nuremberg and others /.
This classification is reflected in the book on pigeon breeding I.I. Jurgenson - / edition 1905 /.
Here it is striking that the whole group of Turmans received an arbitrary name - “Ghosts”. Such a name says nothing, explains nothing.
Since the book by Jurgenson must be considered a translation of different authors from German, this is a translation error. In foreign pigeon-water literature, the word “flyer”, “flyers” or “turmans” is often found, hence the flying, chasing, but the flyer does not mean at all that the dove is chasing.
Yurgenson also has other inaccuracies in translation, for example, there is no translation of the word “isabella” - a color meaning yellow o- or red-brown.
Later, a new classification was adopted, which is reflected in the Pigeon Breeding Guide, published in the GDR in 1964, reissued in 1982.
The Guide contains eight groups of pigeons and an additional section 9, other pigeons, just like Barto’s book, Soviet Pigeons. This pigeons are Swiss bullfinch and Hungarian turman. Of course, they can be defined accordingly in their groups, and this is done in the new edition.
1 group color.
These are long-billed pigeons of various colors and patterns, their structure differs from a field pigeon only in elegance and some, in somewhat larger sizes. Bullfinches, starlings, Franconian, velvet shield and others are included here.
2. group molded
Голуби этой группы отличаются тяжеловесностью и большими размерами, имеют хозяйственное применение. Сюда относятся немецкие выставочные, жаво-ронки , кинги , штрассеры и другие.
3. группа куриные.
Включает породы, имеющие по своему строению и весу большое сходство с курами. Also have economic use / Maltese, Modenezerovskie /.
4 group dutyshi.
Have the ability to strongly inflate goiter. Presented by twenty-five titles.
5 group structural.
Characterized by the original structure of the pen on individual parts of the body: lace on the ends of tail feathers, a bow on the chest, birds, a collar hood with sockets on the neck of a pigeon, etc. This group includes: gulls, peacocks, curly and jacobins.
6 group drummers.
Long-billed pigeons, most of them have an ornament in the form of supra-bent beaters, Ukrainians and abundant feathering of the legs, the voice is very peculiar, it is larger than a field pigeon.
The representatives of the groups are Bukhara and other drummers.
Group 7 Turman.
Pigeons tumbling during the flight, according to the size of the beak, are divided into short, medium, and long beaks. They are bare-footed and with abundant foot-feeding, such as Berlin turmans, neck-flipping - Stuttgart, high-flying - Stralzun and Danzig, as well as crested and hopperless, some pigeons included in this group have economic use, like the Rhine Ring-Schlager.
Group 8 warty.
Long-billed pigeons, with developed wrinkled skin around the eyes, above the nostrils, on the lower jaw / pit, dragon, indian /.
There is no other International classification in the west.
There are classifications of individual authors with a large number of groups, resulting from their fantasy by dividing the main groups into several groups.
Example: The following classifications of other authors, such as German Schutte and Polish Peterfi, are basically a repetition of this classification, but with some variations, and a few more.
So Iokim Shyutte in his book “Guide to the breeds of pigeons” –1971 year of the GDR, where pigeons of all continents of the world are represented and there are 494 photographs of pigeons participating in exhibitions, divides these breeds into 13 groups.
Here Shyutte shaped pigeons refers to the meat, adding to them sports and singling out an independent group of giant pigeons.
It distinguishes gulls from the structural group, and Rinslagers from the group of Turmans, forming also independent groups.
Rinslakers are pigeons that have economic use. They are also used for gambling and monetary disputes: the pigeon has the ability to fly indoors in circles over the dove, flapping its wings. We have this breed described in 1910 by V.P. Goncharov.
Rinslagery is not fighting, it is a translation error. In addition, African and Middle Eastern pigeons not previously described here have been included in new independent groups, for example: 9 group of pigeons with a throat fold or full neck / Syrian, Portuguese - in the former colonies of Lebanese and Damascus /, bred from crossing with a seagull .
9 group - Seglers / Egyptian and Syrian pigeons /. Seglers Syrian high-flying pigeons, bred from the crossing of eastern pigeons with seagulls, they are accustomed to fall from their great height to their roofs with a stone. They have five toes on their feet; two of them are the back ones of the same length.
The classification of Peterfrey pigeon breeds in a book published in Polish in 1977 consists of twelve groups, increased by dividing the structural group into 4 groups and incorporating gray-haired ones into the group.
To complete the review of international classifications follows a comparison of the Darwin and international classifications. And this is why, it turns out, that four Darwin groups more than 130 years ago formed 5 groups of the international classification of today.
Three groups - dutysh, warty, trumpeters drummers by their names remained unchanged. From the group of "artificial" were allocated to an independent group - Turman. It is quite legitimate. And the remaining breeds of this group - peacocks, gulls, jacobins and later joined by the curly ones made up the fifth group of the international classification “structural”.
But by other signs. If Darwin combined these rocks in size, their beak is slightly shorter than that of a field pigeon, now they are united in the structure of their plumage: “laces” at the ends of the feathers of the tail of peacocks, bow-dummy on the breast of a seagull,
The hood with “rosettes” on the sides of the neck in the Jacobins and “curliness” are curls of feathers in the curly ones.
The name of the groups of the international classification "colored" and "chicken" was obtained at the Dresden Congress in 1869, and therefore also 110 years old.
It should also be noted that the international classification is the result of the large and organized labor of many foreign golubovodcheskikh organizations and their congresses.
In our pigeon breeding, the fate of the pigeon breed classifications has so far remained in the hands of individual authors and depended on their imagination.
But mainly it depended and depends, oddly enough, on non-literary terminology.
We do not even notice that we are just being held captive by this non-literary market terminology. This is because our pigeon breeders have a completely different approach to pigeons than foreign colleagues. We inherited this new approach from grandfathers and fathers, as if sucked in with milk.
And we have never had the right approach to pigeons, which corresponds to modern pigeon farming.
The fact is that the right approach to pigeons includes two questions that are inseparably connected with each other:
- What are the pigeons called?
- What breed do they belong to?
There are a lot of terms in pigeon breeding, which are understandable only to pigeon breeders. In the foreign pigeon-breeding literature, they are selected alphabetically and there are descriptions of their meanings. They constitute a department of terminology.
Thus, a single international terminology has been created, 90% of the terms of which refer to the coloring and design of the plumage, as well as deviations on them. 10% of terms can be attributed to other parts of the body of the pigeon.
For all these terms, state borders do not exist. They are almost always the same in their names and meanings. This includes such terms as antennae, mane, cockade, etc.
We also need to adhere to and use this international terminology.
Non-literary terminology or as it is called “market terminology” or just “market jargon” has its own terms.
These include the names of pigeons spontaneously arising from the names of the cities and districts where they are bred, according to the style of flight or the manner of tumbling. This should include foreign terms borrowed by us inappropriately used by us, the names in their own way, in their own way, of foreign pigeons.
Example: often the authors do not call the breed to which one or another pigeon belongs. So we call pigeons - Odessa, Nikolaev, Kryukov. For each of this name should indicate the breed: Odessa Turman, Nikolaev Turman, Kryukovsky Turman.
And another example: at the exhibition that was just held, I asked pigeon breeders from Chelyabinsk, what are your pigeons called? The answer is Chelyabinsk. What breed? The answer is Chelyabinsk. It turned out that they are tumbling and should be properly named - the Chelyabinsk turmans, white-tailed bearded bears.
In the foreign literature, when describing our breeds of pigeons by foreign authors, the errors of our authors in the ill-conceived use of certain terms are displayed in the mirror as in a mirror. For example, our authors describe the pigeons under the names of flight, flight-decorative, flight-race, high-flying.
Abroad, the authors conclude that all our pigeons are flying, i.e. flyers, and therefore turmans. And it is not by chance that our pure pigeons and other breeds belonging to the 1st “Color” group of the International Classification are described by the authors Polish Peterfi and German Schütte as turmans.
We have called "clean" - "circled." Look at the book I.I. Jurgenson 1905 This is a translation of the German pigeon-water literature of the last century. Turmans are described under the name “Circumcised”: Budapest Circassian, Viennese Magpie Circumcious, Galician Magpie Circumcious, Datsuy Cirbic Sangy, Danzig Circassian, Stralzun Circled, Caloth Circling Pigeons, Stuttgart Neck Whiskers.
That is why Shutte writes: “The Moscow net kosmach, a circling turman, and a photo of the kosmach, placed it among the photos of the Turman. And Peterfi, in general, drove all the pigeons of the Soviet Union, except for drummers, into the 12th group of Turmans called flying and tumbling pigeons. And by doing this I spoiled my book, so it’s impossible to consider it as an educational tool.
All these “flying” pigeon names are arbitrary and under them the basis of the classification will not fail. And partly make up that “market terminology”.
It becomes absolutely clear that if we want to speak in a clear language with our foreign colleagues, we should not call the classification groups with these sweet “flying” names to our heart.
And it is not by chance that new arbitrary group names have also appeared: lively, high-flying, stately.
In fact, all the pigeons of these groups should be correctly named: live turmans, high-flying turmans, stately turmans and should not belong to three independent groups, but only to one group of turmans.
I draw your attention to the fact that at the just-held exhibition, the presented good stands were also entitled: high-flying, stately, lively. Their proper captioning is high-fly turman, stately turman, battle turman. Imagine - only one name of the breed, and what a deep and huge content immediately acquired these stands, how would they shine with all the colors of the rainbow.
The greatest influence of non-literary terminology was expressed in our approach to foreign breeds of pigeons. Here a striking virtuosity appeared in the crossing of the names and groups of foreign pigeons in its own way. The question is: why is this necessary?
For us, it seems that there are no established for centuries names of breeds and names of groups of foreign pigeons that have been established for decades. It is not for us to combine the two groups into one, or to include the breeds of pigeons from different groups in the group, also under new names. So for example: the “molded” and “chicken” groups, whose pigeons are of great weight and having economic use, are crossed by us into the “meat pigeons” group. Doves then we do not have these.
Author N.A. Vasiliev when describing foreign breeds called "decorative" and "flight-decorative" included in each of this name are pigeons from three different groups. Here the author showed the most real "circus". It is as if he, by request, jerks — the dutys from one group, the Jacobins, peacocks and curly ones from the structural group and the Schmalkalden blackhead from group 1 and receives decorative pigeons.
We need “flight-decorative” - please, we pull the Elben white-headed from the group of Turmans, the German exhibition and Homer from the mold, and the Indian from the group of warty. Finish: flight decorative.
The term “decorative” should also be given special attention. In general, the term ornamental in our country is widespread in many areas of our life, it is not surprising that it penetrated into our pigeon farming.
At the end of the last century and the beginning of our century, the most spectacular, foreign breeds dutyshi, jacobins, peacocks in our markets were called simply decoration, and when describing them decorative pigeons.
The name stuck, and then they began to believe that these breeds of pigeons are called abroad.
At V.P. Goncharova 1910, they already appear as a subgroup of foreign pigeons –decorative. It was believed that we do not have decorative pigeons.
But in 1931 F.Krokhin already wrote: “In the USSR there are no such breeds and they are bred mostly in Western Europe and England, the most interesting of them are Jacobins, dutysh, peacocks and, thanks to their imagination, add Bukhara from Russian breeds”.
Ornithologist L.B. In his 1956 book, Boehme combines domestic pigeons in groups to name one of them decorative pigeons. And apparently it also believes that this group of pigeons is foreign, but we also have decorative pigeons. Here is how interesting he writes: “The group of decorative breeds of pigeons called“ Russian pigeon breeders ”by water pigeons in the USSR is represented by a number of breeds of pigeons of exceptional quality and beauty. The most famous breed of water pigeons in our country are the Moscow Gray Turmans. ”
It also attaches to the water pigeons the Taganrog aquatic "broad-shouldered" turmans. Moreover, dividing them into two groups: water and gonnoy. Pigeons are the last in their appearance close to the water. It can be understood that the water pigeons of this breed are standard, and the race animals are not standard. In general, one breed belongs to the two groups of decorative and gonnymi.
I.D. Yams –1957 year dividing pigeons into types, also refers to decorative type as duffers, jacobins, peacocks, i.e. foreign breeds.
In 1971 N.A. Vasiliev, when describing domestic and foreign pigeons, has already named two names: decorative and flight-decorative.
Then decorative begins to dignify all pigeons captive content.
And now we all call all decorative pigeons, except sports ones.
In the Moscow city club section referred to as sports and decorative. It would be better to call it the section of domestic pigeons or the purebred breeding section of pigeons.
The question is, what about the situation abroad with the term - decorative. Just look at the 1964 International Classification, as well as the 1869 Classification, as reflected in the book of I.I. Yurgenson, where there are no decorative names for pigeons or groups, to say that there were no decorative pigeons there. And the description of N.A. Vassilyev foreign pigeons called decorative and flight-decorative are continuous misinformation, and therefore a deception of our golubevodstva.
Finishing the question - in captivity in the market terminology I would like to say that many of our pigeon breeders, firmly standing on the platform of modern pigeon farming, versed in international pigeon farming look at the name “meat”, “decorative” “flight-decorative”, “decorative-chasing”, as on jokes.
But arbitrary code “flying” names, as well as names that tend to substantiate the names of groups with third-party signs, such as stately, fighting, are no longer anecdotes. They should be considered fairy tales of our days. And if you do not get rid of them, they will put us on the brink of illiterate golubevodstva.
I turn to the issue of distribution of pigeons by our authors.
Most of our authors, in their works on pigeon breeding, offer division, it should be noted on a global scale, into post, decorative, raven, meat pigeons.
It is difficult to offer a classification in the context of the pigeon breeding of Russia or the Soviet Union, since we do not know where any breeds are divorced.
Chairman of the Society for Agricultural Poultry Production V.P. Goncharov, in his book “Blue-Breeding, as a Branch of Agriculture” - 1910, proposes to divide the pigeons bred in Russia into the following three groups:
1. Sisari / ordinary pigeons /
2. Russian national breeds and their variants.
3. Foreign breeds of pigeons divided by:
A / Post
B / Breeds are not postal / in turn also shared /
- Heavy / breed / breeds of agricultural significance.
- Decorative rocks.
As you can see the name "decorative" here refers only to foreign breeds.
In short, such a division, although into groups, cannot be called a classification, since here the basis of the classification cannot be failed.
Dear our Moscow authors - our contemporaries, in part, the use in their works of the international classification for pigeon farming turned out to be inconsistent.
I.D. Yams in the book "Breeding of pigeons" - 1957 divides pigeons / again on a global scale / into 4 types:
1. Postal and sports / careers, dragons, postal, German exhibition /.
2. Ghosts / net, turmans, gulls /.
3. Decorative / dutysh, jacobins, peacocks / u.
4. Meat / kings, Roman, chicken /.
Here, the term decorative and meat describes foreign breeds. It is also striking that each main type is a mixture of two, three groups of breeds of pigeons according to the international classification.
Vasiliev has a description of breeds by name, distributed in the following order:
Domestic breeds of pigeons.
1. Pure pigeons.
2. Turman / short-beaked, middle-beaked /.
3. Flying-decorative / Astrakhan, Kiev light, etc. /.
4. Fighting.
5. High-flying.
6. Decorative / drummers, bullfinches /.
Bullfinches - a foreign breed. Herald Nov - 1886 describes them under the name "archangels", but in any way Archangel. The word "archangels" comes from the warped French word rainbow.
Of course, the division of pigeon breeds by Yamov into types and Vasiliev by name, just against market terminology, cannot be called a classification.
But it is necessary to take into account that Yamov wrote 28 years ago, and Vasilyev 14 years ago. But here is a new classification that appeared in the magazine "Poultry Farming" in November 1980 and additions in October 1982, based on the opinion of the decorative section, signed by V.А. Romanov, Chairman of the Moscow Club of the Pigeon Breeders, is alarming, puzzling and annoyingly upset.
Эта систематика по группам, за исключением нового названия «статные» является точным повторением наименований пород голубей Н.А. Васильевым.
Сравните наглядно по следующим таблицам:

Романов – 1980 г. Васильев – 1971 г. Романов –1982 г.
1.Турманы 1. Чистые 1. Чистые кружастые
2. Бойные 2. Турманы /коротко- 2. Турманы /коротк о-
клювые и средне- клювые и средне-
клювые клювые
3.Высоколетные 3. Летно-декоративные 3.Летные
four.Drummers 4. Slams 4. Slaves
5. Stately 5. High-flying 5. High-flying
6. Decorative 6. Drummers
drummers, 7. Stately
bullfinch.
In this systematics, the names of the groups drummers and turmans coincide with the name of these groups according to the international classification. We have pigeons of these groups, we must agree with their name.
As for the arbitrary names of groups - high-flying, lively, stately can not agree because I have already indicated that the pigeons of these names are turmans. This is their regular place. And on the basis of signs, as I also noted, should not be classified. In the group of Turmans, they can and should be distinguished: Turmans are militant, Turmans are high-flying, and urmans are neck-borne / stately /.
The name "flight" - an arbitrary name under which the basis of the classification will not fail. This term has also been said.
As for the “pure” group, the following should be said: according to the international classification, this breed belongs to the “color” group, which includes a very large number of names. Apparently, we have a similar group in composition, which is also extensive under the same name "colored" or otherwise. So the name of the group “clean” will not be its corresponding name.
As a negative phenomenon in our pigeon breeding, it should be noted that this systematization of medium- and long-billed pigeons is absent in the group of Turman.
We called the pure ones - circle ones, they became turmans, we would not call medium and long-billed turmans, they gradually cease to be turmans.
It is no secret that our pigeon bred for years pigeons hryvnia, monks, nuns of the cross, Nikolaev, Odessa, and do not know that these pigeons are turmans.
Our breeds of pigeons can be divided into the following groups of the international classification:
- to the 1 color group of long-billed pigeons of different plumage in pattern and color are our shield pigeons, i.e. clean of all varieties, bugs of various names, monochrome - white and other colors, with colored tails, etc.
- to the second molded group of pigeons, having a smooth curvilinear outline of the hull, a large weight and economic use can perhaps be attributed to the Moscow exhibition postal pigeon, which also has a large weight.
- 3 groups - chicken-shaped and 4 groups - we have no pigeons of our own.
- To the 5th structural group can be attributed the granular-headed seagull
- The 6th drummer group includes Bukhara pigeons and Torkuts.
- To the 7th group of Turmans, as to the most numerous, are short-billed in a pebbled pattern - tape, blacklegged, one-colored: White Oryol, Tula beetles, Smolensk fawn. Sredneklyuvye-Tula with a ribbon, Syzran, fighting various types, Astrakhan and others.
Long-billed - manes, armored, Odessa, Nikolaev, militant, and others.
- 8 groups of wart pigeons are not ours.
As you can see, with such a distribution of our pigeons into these groups, the terms “flying” and “decorative” are absent.
I turn to the last question of the report - to the conclusions and proposals.
1. The biggest illiteracy in our pigeon farming is the re-breeding of the names of breeds and groups of foreign breeds.
2. The influence of market terminology is ultimately expressed in our inability to correctly name our breed in the context of the international golubevodstva of today.
3. It is necessary to create an editorial group to prepare, within three months, for the publication of the book of standards for pigeons. In which should be taken as a basis for the international classification of the eight groups.
4. Its internal classification of the USSR should be developed and adopted at the level of republican Councils of the pigeon breeding ..
5. The Darwin basis for the classification of breeds of pigeons is immortal because it reflects the nature of the breed, i.e. :
- Pigeons are called breed when they are distributed in the locality and pass on their trait by inheritance.
- A group of breeds of pigeons may consist of one breed or several breeds that have common features.

After the publication of the Lecture, many years passed and some changes occurred in the classification system, to which we turn your attention further. I also consider it necessary to draw the attention of readers to such a segment of classification as RACES. In the monograph of E.I. Shchedrov, this issue is not only not covered, but a direct distortion of the works of Darwin, in which PACA is a biological concept and an essential element of the classification, is given. It happened most likely because of the misunderstanding of the term “race” by E. I. Generos.

If you look at the modern process of classification of pigeons in Europe, we will see that a certain stable system has been formed. How it was formed and what kind of scientific potential was involved at the same time is already insignificant. Today this system suits everyone (in any case, members of the European Union, including Russia) and its essence is as follows.

There is a list of breeds approved by the European Union Standards Commission.

All breeds are divided into nine classification groups:

  1. Useful or shaped pigeons (English UTILITY PIGEONS).
  2. Warty Pigeons (WATTLE PIGEONS).
  3. Chicken Doves (UTILITY PIGEONS).
  4. Bottles (POUTER / CROPPER)
  5. Colored pigeons (SB LOUR PIGEONS).
  6. Trumpet drummers (TRUMPETERS).
  7. Structural pigeons (STRUCTURE PIGEONS).
  8. Owls (gulls) (About WLS).
  9. Turman (TUMBLERS).

The groups themselves have settled in time and are not disputed by anyone, and only the issues of assigning specific breeds to a particular group are discussed. Our domestic breeds, and there are only 11 of them in the list, are classified in the Turman group.

Registration of rocks in Europe was based on materials submitted by the leaders of the pigeon before the collapse of the USSR. In the following years, standardization in our country and, of course, registration in the European list was not carried out. Materials were not published. And that is why most pigeon breeders are not familiar with the European classification. Of course, we need to develop, taking into account the developments of previous years and the European system, the Classifier of domestic breeds and justify the inclusion of existing Russian breeds in specific groups. EI Shchedrov clearly marked the direction of such works and it is a pity that during his lifetime he did not have time to bring them to a logical conclusion.

Scientists note that the classification of birds is based on morphological features (external appearance), which is a priority in systematics. There are not so many domestic fully formed breeds. Therefore, the creation of a classification by morphological features does not seem to be very capacious and difficult work. Although questions to specialists in different breeds will arise a lot. I suggest the following system:

Pigeon Breed Classification

In the amateur world of pigeon, there are more than 800 species of domestic pigeons, differing in size, shape, color, pattern, and flying ability.

In the Soviet Union there were about 200 domestic breeds of pigeons, almost every republic had its own birds.

The greatest number of breeds of pigeons contain lovers of Russia, who live in different regions (territories, regions and cities) and often breed local birds.

Conventionally, for practical use, all domestic pigeons are divided into four main groups: sports (postal), decorative, flying (chasing) and meat.

Even Charles Darwin at one time, according to similar morphological and physiological characters, divided all the breeds of pigeons into four groups. This was the first classification of domestic pigeons. The first group of this classification included dutysh English, Dutch, etc. The second group united the wart and pigeon pigeons, because at that time sometimes quarries and dragons were used to communicate. The third is a heterogeneous group, and included: peacocks, English turmans, gulls, and turmans of various breeds. The fourth group includes curly pigeons, monks, swallows and drummers.

In his book "Breeding pigeons" (1977) prof. S. Peterfi offers a wider classification and divides all breeds into 12 groups:

1) simple pigeons (sizaris),

2) field or color,

12) flight and tumbling.

Czech pigeon breeders have their own conditional classification, which provides for the division of all breeds of domestic pigeons into 8 groups. According to the 1970 catalog:

1) useful pigeons,

2) large pigeons,

4) dutyys (large, medium, small),

5) decorative (colored, seagulls, drummers, structural),

7) flight (Turman - short-beaked, medium-long, long-beaked),

8) sports (postal).

The standards of the GDRs of 1978 were taken as the basis for evaluating pigeons at the international exhibitions "Intergolub", which were held with the participation of European socialist countries. The classification of all pigeons covered by the 1978 GDR standard provides for their division into 7 groups:

Our domestic breeds of pigeons mainly belong to the flight-decorative, but have their own specific features. The pigeon breeders of the Moscow Club in 1982, taking into account these features, proposed the following classification for flight-decorative domestic breeds of pigeons:

2) short-tailed turman,

By origin, all 6 of the first breed groups belong to flying pigeons, but due to the fascination with decorativeness in recent years, pigeons of many breeds have lost their flying abilities. Therefore, our fans need to restore the former glory of the flyers to all flying pigeons or think about creating a separate group of decorative pigeons (colored and stately) that have lost their flying qualities. As in all countries of the world, in Russia, sports pigeons are divided into an independent group (breed) that has numerous races and lines within it.

Very often, when describing various breeds of pigeons, authors of books adhere to the territorial origin of the breed (pigeons are Ukrainian, Ural, pigeons of Uzbekistan, the Baltic states, foreign breeds).

In the domestic pigeon breeding there are representatives of many breeds of pigeons from Germany and several other countries. They all have their own characteristics.

From the group of breeds of colored pigeons, whose main indicators are the color of plumage and the correctness of the pattern according to the standard, our pigeon breeders have few copies of the Nuremberg and Saxon swallows, lapwings and starlings.

From the group of breeds where the main indicator is body shape, in our country there are relatively small numbers of German exhibition, Roman, Kingi, Mondayn, Strasser, Polish lynx and rare seam Homera, Teksan, Maltese, Lagor, Coburg lark and Hungarian pigeons giants

We are widespread in our country, but in small quantities, dutysh of various breeds. These birds first of all assess the main indicator - the ability to inflate goiter, and only then give an assessment of their physique and pattern. Of all the great variety of breeds, we have large English cannons, Brno, Pomeranian and Czech saddles.

Gulls, peacocks, jacobins and curly doves are extensively represented in the domestic pigeon breeding.

Our pigeon breeders had, as yet in small numbers, German drummers of various breeds - two-half, two-nose and two-Dresden. Birds of this group are assessed according to the main indicator - a peculiar cooing, resembling the sounds of a distant pipe, drumming or some kind of mumbling.

The most common among us is an overseas group of goose pigeons: crusader monks, various Elsters, Budapest and Segedin high-flying, Vienna, Elbin, Stargarde, Stralzund, Comorese, Budapest mirror, Gdansk high-flying and storks. Birds of this group are assessed for flight performance, compliance with the exterior and pattern according to the standard.

Wart pigeons are assessed mainly for highly developed warty-shaped wax clumps and wide eyelids, as well as for skin lesions under the beak (wart). The exhibitions often show quarries, Indians, dragons and bagdets.

Sport pigeons

Since the times of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, this species of pigeons was very much appreciated by the military and was used for the prompt transmission of messages. In the Middle Ages, birds also regularly performed the role of postmen, but only they did it already for kings and sheikhs. No need to argue with the fact that then the pigeons were the fastest postal service in the world. The prepared pigeon can accelerate to 86 km per hour. These intelligent creatures are capable of covering thousands of kilometers in a short time, while returning to a well-defined place without fail.

People continued to use the services of "pigeon mail" until the 20th century. Currently, a variety of postal breeds of pigeons are actively used in sports: this mainly applies to such discipline as competitions in high-speed summer. Belgium has been actively involved in breeding sports breeds since the mid-20th century. The best birds during the competition could return on the same day, flying a distance of 1200 km.

Since the mid-twentieth century, Belgium has been actively involved in breeding sports breeds.

The main breeds of this group are:

  • Bel sports (or postal) dove,
  • English quarry.

The price of the first breed of pigeons comes to several hundred dollars for one individual. Such a high price is based on the fact that the Belgian homing pigeons are considered to be the best in speed flying, and more than once they have proved this in many competitions. The appearance of birds is very similar to the characteristics of a wild rock pigeon. The selection of individuals of this breed is carried out strictly due to the available speed, as well as the ability to orientate on the ground.

The English quarry was developed in Western Europe. The bird genotype belongs to the ancient Asian pigeon quarries. Also Baghdad pigeons actively participated in the selection of this species.

A distinctive feature of the English quarries are the so-called growths, which are located both on the bird's cropper and around its eyes. Due to such properties, the pigeon can be attributed to the decorative types. However, its flight properties were highly appreciated, and now they are actively used in sports competitions.

Fighting group

The name of this breed is given, thanks to the characteristic battle of the wings, which is heard during the bird's tumbling in the air, the higher this sound, the more expensive the bird is considered, the peculiarity of this pigeon is that its tumbling movements can be made both through the head and tail.

At the same time, they can be horizontal and vertical (the so-called “pillars”), in the latter case it is considered that the lower the bird descends, the higher it is valued, before especially talented individuals were exchanged for horses,

These pigeons make somersaults through the wing, however, they rise into the sky by means of helical jumps, such movements become possible by rotating the pigeon around its own axis.

The main common breeds include the following common breeds:

  • Gdansk turman,
  • Berlin short-eyed turman,
  • German monk
  • Oriental Roller,
  • Berlin dlinnooklyuvy turman.

The first species is a Polish breed. Gdansk turman was bred with the help of Indian and Persian pigeons. The crest of feathers located on the nape of the bird allows it to belong to decorative breeds.

Berlin short-tailed turman belongs to the militant breeds. The main difference of this breed is the presence of rounded shaggy feathers on the legs. The German monk does not fly at high altitude, but at the same time they are capable of attaching other birds to their flock. At first, this breed was actively used to steal pigeons from other dovecotes. The feathers on the nape of the bird form a dark "hood".

The breed of pigeons belonging to this group also takes a circular take-off.

Breed called oriental roller can surprise its owner with unexpected tricks. The wings of the pigeon are located below the tail, and the color can be both monophonic and patterned. Berlin long-billed turman also belongs to the militant breeds. Characteristic signs of the bird are angular head, set vertically and very long neck, as well as a thin beak of great length.

Decorative pigeons

This group is the most extensive of all. The decorative nature of the bird can affect the shape of the body, the structure of the feathers, and the color of the feathers, as well as its design. Very often, because of the appearance of decorative birds, their breeds were named after different birds: bullfinches, peacocks, swallows.

The most common and interesting breeds include the following birds:

  • barba
  • Pomeranian blow,
  • Marchenero,
  • Egyptian swift hair,
  • Bohemian Cosmonogue Magic Swallow,
  • Saxon priest,
  • curly pigeon.

Mostly decorative rocks are used for weddings. By themselves, such breeds of pigeons do not have any agricultural purpose.

Meat pigeons

Previously, this group of birds was very common, but now their popularity is noticeably decreasing. Breeding individuals in Western Europe, as a rule, do not go for meat. Over time, the breeding of meat breeds resulted in the selection of a separate breed of domestic pigeons, created specifically for industrial purposes.

Со временем разведения мясных пород вылилось в выденение отдельной породы домашних голубей, созданных специально для промышленных целей.

Самыми распространенными породами на территории Европы и США считаются:

Первая порода была выведена при помощи генотипа древнейшей породы модена итальянского происхождения. Размеры ее очень крупные. Хвост птицы поставлен высоко вертикально. Из-за своего тяжелого экстерьера эти птицы совершенно неспособны летать.

Kinga were withdrawn in the United States.

This breed owes its appearance to several breeds of pigeons:

These birds have a very rounded shape and developed musculature. Despite its large size, this breed of pigeons can be grown as a decorative bird.

Dubovsky pigeons

Named for the city Dubovka, located on the river. Volga - this is where the high-flying breed was bred. The second name is Kondratieff.

Description. The bird is of medium size, with an elongated body. The tail is slightly raised. Paws are short, without feathers. Oblong head, neck - curved. Beak is white, long - up to 24 mm. The body, tail, head and neck may have a shirt, white, gray-blue, gray-white or pure white. The wings - colored feathers - "epaulettes." The eyes are light silver in color.

Features of the breed. The breed differs unusually lingering and muffled cooing coming from the womb. This breed is able to spend 8 hours in the sky. Spatial orientation is developed. Fly in a small circle at high altitudes.

Breeding. Bred for flying competitions. Undemanding to the content. Well developed parental instinct.

Black Peg Thurman

It is assumed that this old flight breed was bred in the 19th century. by crossing Oryol boroduns with Oryol whites. The best Turmans belonged to Kaluga pigeon breeders, so the breed is often called Kaluga. Officially approved in 1912

Description. Body length - 34-36 cm. It is characterized by long, sweeping wings, descending below the tail. The head is rounded, the forehead is high and convex. Big dark eyes. The beak is white, slightly bent down. The plumage is black, it is green. White - cheeks, hips, abdomen, chin and wings. Short paws without feathers. May be present forelock.

Features of the breed. The unique flying qualities of the Oryol pigeons were lost in this breed. Turmans have a short flight duration and a heavy turn. Usually the flight takes place on a wide and high circle, and is accompanied by somersaults.

Breeding. Previously bred as flying, today Turmans - decorative bird.

Kamyshin

Breed comes from the town of Kamyshin, that in the Volga region. The formation time is the end of the 19th century. Created on the basis of gray rock. Kamyshintsy was brought out for favorite entertainment of golubyatnikov - rut.

Description. Proportional-winged bird. Body length - 35-38 cm. The main plumage is black. There are varieties with plumage of yellow, blue, fawn, coffee, red. Standards allow for metallic shelling on the chest and neck. The color of the wings, regardless of color - pure white. The head is pulled in, the forehead is shallow. Eyes are yellowish or pinkish gray. Beak pink, tightly closed. Long wings, tail - flat, raised up.

Features of the breed. Excellent flight performance. Very attached to the house. In any situation, find the way to the native nest. Fly alone or in high circles. Unusually resistant - climb to great heights in any weather.

Breeding. Breed breed for the sake of excellent flight qualities.

High-flying breed bred in Ufa. The formation of the rock is the middle of the 19th century, but the final formation took place in the 50s. 20 in. Ancestors - Staroufimskie pigeons. The second name is Bashkir. Breed standard adopted in 1981

Description. Small body - 33-35 cm in length. Strong, slim and strong body. Plumage dense - red, gray and black shades. It does not mix with white feathers. White - belly. Head wide, forehead low. Near the beak - deepening. Eyes - yellow-red. The beak is straight, white. The back of the head is decorated with a forelock. Particularly prized are birds whose forelock is larger than 5 mm.

Features of the breed. Fertile and viable breed. Prefer flight flight. Fly for a long time, cutting small circles. Fly at very high altitudes.

Breeding. This high-flying breed is popular in its homeland - in Bashkiria, in other regions it is not particularly known. Breed enthusiasts breed for great flight qualities.

Rock dove

These pigeons belong to wild breeds. Their second name is Sizari. Distributed throughout Russia. Named for coloring plumage.

Description. Body length - 35 cm. Mass - 200-400 g. Plumage is of gray color. But it can vary - it is almost black or coffee color. Sisaris bred by humans, the plumage may be brown or white. The beak is dark or pink. The eyes of the house sisaris are dark, not orange, like those of the wild.

Features of the breed. They are sedentary, tied to a certain territory. They live mainly in colonies.

Reproduction. Sisaris usually breed from spring to autumn. It happens that some couples make their nests even in winter. One pair gives from 3 to 5 clutches. Sisaris are very useful for agriculture - they clean the fields from uncollected grains.

Rock dove

This wild breed of pigeons lives in Ussuri and Primorsky Krai. It nests also in the mountainous regions of Tibet, Altai, Himalayas.

Description. The plumage is almost the same as that of the sizar. But the tail is lighter. The beak is black. In size less blue-eyed pigeon. Coloring gray color. On the head and neck - darker, and with a metallic sheen. The color of the back of the back is white. Paws - red.

Features of the breed. Breeds in pairs or groups. She likes to settle in gorges, rocks, and also on abandoned construction sites.

Reproduction. A rocky pigeon can be a source of hybrid offspring when crossed with domestic pigeons. In laying - only two eggs.

These are wild pigeons living in the woodlands of Asia and Europe. This is a relative of the city pigeon.

Description. The case is small. Torso length - 32-34 cm. Weight - 300-370 g. Plumage - bluish-gray. Neck with a greenish tint. The back, neck, wings - without stripes and spots. The top and bottom are monotonously colored, practically the same.

Features of the breed. Migrates to warm countries. It has two subspecies, the eastern and western populations, which are distinguished by plumage.

Reproduction. The population is numerous - not threatened with extinction. Breed from spring to autumn. Have time to sit out two clutches of two eggs each.

Armavir pigeons

Breed bred in the city of Armavir. Selection work has been going on since the end of the 17th century. Armavir white-headed cosmachs were bred on the basis of North Caucasian long-beaked cosmatists.

Description. Standards breed - hoisted high, feathered, with spurs. Proud to become. The beak is long, white. Color - yellow, black with a reddish tint. On the head and wings - white plumage. The edges of the wings have a dark border.

Features of the breed. The characteristic difference of the breed is the splendid plumage on its paws - kosmas. There are two varieties of kosmachs - cup and bezchuby. Able to fly up to 1.5 hours at an altitude of 50-100 m.

Reproduction. The breed is listed in the International Pigeon Catalogs. It ranks among the most beautiful breeds - these are expensive elite birds. Armavir breed is grown for the sake of decoration and fighting qualities - this breed is included in the fighting group.

This is one of the most valuable breeds. Breed of short-beaked almost disappeared during the Second World War, but was restored by the efforts of breeders. Turmans have many subspecies, the most popular are Viennese, Odessa, Oryol, Kursk, tape, Moscow gray, Wolsk.

Description. Most Turmans have a small head and a compact body. Weight - about 800 g. Eyes - dark, and the eyelids - bright. Paws are short, widely standing. The tail is raised, it has 13 feathers.

Features of the breed. They have small sizes and excellent flight qualities. Flip flies over the head, tail and wing in flight. Differ in strength and endurance.

Breeding. Breeders carry out intensive training with turmans. For the special abilities of Turmans abroad they are also called scooters. Most Turman combines flight quality with decorative.

Coffee Turman

Breed from Tula. Golubevodov have no accurate information about the origin of the breed. It is assumed that coffee Turman created on the basis of Smolensk chubaty Lobach.

Description. The head is cubic, faceted. The forehead is wide. The eyes are large, light silver color. The eyelids are white. Wide forelock Plumage - red-brown. Shades range from pale yellow to dark coffee. The bill is powerful, thick, short.

Features of the breed. The bird is distinguished by its demanding conditions. Choosy to feed, requires careful maintenance.

Breeding. The bird is very beautiful, it is bred for decorative purposes. But its main advantage - outstanding flying ability. This is an expensive breed, it is difficult to grow it. Like all breeds with short beaks, the coffee turman is not capable of feeding his offspring, therefore it is necessary to provide the chicks with special feeders.

Voronezh white-tailed

Beautiful breed, one of the oldest among domestic. Its history is from the time of Empress Catherine the Second.

Description. The strong case with the developed muscles. Body length - 33-34 cm. Chest convex and wide. The plumage is gray-blue, glitters. The head and neck are light gray or white. The head is elongated, with a beard. There is a small flat bar. Eyes and beak - dark color. The wings are long, tight to the body. Tail straight.

Features of the breed. They have a special flight style. Do not make circles when climbing. Slowing the flight, and turning on the spot, they rise in height. Having reached a great height, a group of pigeons lined up with a chain. During the descent make circles.

Breeding. Breed is considered decorative. Breeding does not require large investments and complex care.

Curly Dove

There is no exact information about the origin of this pigeon. It is assumed that the breed came to us from Asia or Southeast Europe. In Europe, it is known from the 17th century. A special, curly structure of feathers was obtained after many years of breeding, in which pigeon breeders from different countries participated.

Description. They look like ordinary pigeons, but there is one important difference - their wings are covered with small curls. Similar curls are on the paws. The body is wide and short. The head, chest and neck are absolutely smooth, without curls. On the head there is a crest of only a white curly dove. The crown is sloping, forehead low. The eyes are orange. The wings and tail do not touch the floor surface. Plumage - black or white. The color should be rich, white - without yellowness, black - with a green sheen.

Features of the breed. The breed is difficult to achieve the correct color. It is necessary to display it for several generations.

Breeding. Breed has a decorative orientation. Not demanding to care.

Nikolaevsk

The high-flying breed bred in Nikolaev (Ukraine) at the end of the 19th century. Breed obtained by crossing pigeons brought by sailors from abroad, with local birds.

Description. They have thick plumage, a streamlined body shape and powerful muscles. The hull length is 25-30 cm. The plumage is cherry red, black, orange, white or gray with dark stripes. The head is rounded or oblong. The eyes are gray, black or dark yellow. The beak is white or milky. The wings have a dozen feathers that do not overlap the tail. Regardless of the basic color, the tail is always white. Paws short, covered with feathers above the knees.

Features of the breed. These pigeons are able to climb up without making circles. They reach great heights in the shortest possible time. With proper maintenance and training, in flight can be up to 10 hours. Can perform single flights, demonstrating various techniques. Able to soar, spreading its wings wide. Or they can often wave them, rising steeply upwards.

Breeding. Breed breed for high flight qualities. Distinguish face and serpastic Nikolaev pigeons. The first climb up only vertically. Sickle fly horizontally.

Volga tape

The homeland of this breed is the middle strip of Russia. In their creation used the winged pigeons from Rzhevsk and Syzran. Decorative Volga pigeons inherited from the Volga red-breasted. Breed is considered one of the most beautiful. They have a memorable look - unusual even for connoisseurs of pigeons.

Description. The plumage is cherry-white, brown-white or beige-white. The tail is wide, flat and raised. It is crossed by a white strip 1 cm wide. Round head, crown - flat. The eyes are dark, the beak is light pink. The body is short, the chest and back are wide. Long wings, lower than tail. Paws are short with plumage.

Features of the breed. Capable of circular slow flight for 2-3 hours.

Breeding. This breed, being extremely beautiful, is bred not only for decorative, but also for the sake of flight qualities. With proper training and good maintenance, the Volga pigeons demonstrate excellent flight qualities.

More information about the Volga pigeons is presented here.

The time of breeding is unknown. It is believed that their birthplace - Nizhyn (a city in Ukraine). Breed almost exhausted during the Second World War. The recovery began in the 70s. 20th century.

Description. The main plumage is white. The head, beard and tail are dark. The head is small, no forelock, forehead high, eyes black. Bill is long and light. Full rounded chest, wings tightly pressed to the body. Flat tail, short paws.

Features of the breed. They are distinguished by a beautiful flight - they fly by "plate". So called small closed circles. Their wings tremble, and the body rolls alternately left and right. For a second, the birds freeze vertically. They sit down swiftly, folding their wings and making swinging movements.

Breeding. These pigeons are valued for unpretentiousness, external grace and unique flight qualities.

This breed was bred in the early 20th century. The basis was taken Perm breed. Breeders tried to create a breed with improved flight qualities, and they managed to translate this into Izhevsk pigeons.

Description. In appearance, they look like Permian pigeons, but they do not have a forelock, and their paws are short - without feathers. They may have one-color plumage - white, black, yellow, red. They have a powerful body and strong muscles - they are excellent flyers. The body length is up to 34 cm. The beak is light, the eyes are bulging and dark. The wings are long, their tips touch a rectangular tail.

Features of the breed. Never fly away from home. They rise very quickly, and fly so high that they are not easily visible from the ground. Good terrain orientation skills. Without difficulty returning to the house.

Breeding. Valued for excellent flight performance. The content is simple, the main thing is to properly feed and regularly train flight abilities.

Ochakovsky

In Ochakov long been engaged in the breeding of pigeons. The Ochakov breed was created by breeding; serpastic Nikolaev pigeons were taken as the basis.

Description. Outwardly, they practically do not differ from the Nikolaev ones. They have an elongated body and slender camp. The head is small, and the eyes are bright. Dark doves with white eyes. The wings are elongated, take out the tail. Crested specimens are rare. But many individuals in stockings.

Features of the breed. The main advantage of the breed is a beautiful flight. Able to soar in one place for hours. They soar upward, then rapidly fall. In the sky, keep one by one.

Breeding. These unpretentious pigeons are bred for the sake of flight qualities.

Klaipeda

The breed was named after the city in which it was bred - Klaipeda (Lithuania). Not very common in Russia, they are mainly kept by Latvian golubevody.

Description. The body is strong, long - 35-37 cm. The head is wide-eyed. Forehead and beak form a straight line. Beak is small - 15-16 mm. The neck is small, and the chest is wide. The wings are located on the same straight line with the tail. Paws are short, without feathers. Plumage of fawn, white, red, black, gray shades. Neck with ripples - brown or gray. The ends of the wings are white. The eyes are bright, small.

Features of the breed. They love to fly in groups of 2-4 birds. They prefer to climb to a great height and circle above their home. Some individuals may tumble, but then they spend less time in the sky.

Breeding. These high-flying pigeons are easy to breed - they are unpretentious in content, prolific and very viable.

Pakistani

This is one of the best flight breeds in the world. They have several subtypes that differ in appearance. There are feathers on their feet, no feathers, there are species in which feathers in length reach 20 cm.

Description. Like most flight breeds differ modest plumage. Rounded chest prominently forward. A small elongated head. Black or orange eyes. Muscular legs of medium length. A long tail. The wings are black. The main plumage is white. Each individual has its own wing pattern, which is maintained throughout life.

Features of the breed. They are characterized by high duration and unusual flight style. Able to climb to great heights and make somersaults.

Breeding. Unpretentious to the content. Valued for unique flight abilities.

Homeland first domestic pigeons - Persia. And today in Iran, pigeon breeding is a sacred tradition. Iranian pigeons have many varieties. They are called "fighting" because of the flapping of the wings, which they emit in the air.

Description. Various plumage - changing color and pattern. More often, Iranian pigeons have red, yellow, gray-gray, almond and black plumage. The length of the body is 34-37 m. The head is round or oblong. There chub or crest. Глаза небольшие, их цвет зависит от окраски перьев. Клюв розовый или темный, длинный и загнутый. Лапы – голые или с оперением.

Особенности породы. Many subspecies of the Iranian breed have been derived, the most common are heads, Tehran's high-flying, Tabriz, Hamadan. The common feature of all battle pigeons is the style of flight. They roll over in the sky. They can fly 3-5 hours, the hardiest - 8-10 hours.

Breeding. When growing Iranians, you need to devote a lot of time to training. 2-3 times a week they are trained in the morning - before feeding.

A relatively young breed - Hungarian pigeons began to be bred officially in the early 40s. last century. Budapest stork pigeons served as breeding material.

Description. Simple exterior, no frills in appearance. The head is a small, dense body. The eyes are large, the beak is small, triangular, lowered down. Round head with a smooth line of the forehead. The tail does not touch the ground. Plumage of different colors, usually - brown and gray shades, at least - white. Body length - 34-37 cm.

Features of the breed. High-flying breed with a strong temperament. It has a good memory, including topographic. May be returning home hundreds of kilometers away. The duration of the flight without a break is 8 hours.

Breeding. The breed is not capricious, does not require special care, but the conditions of detention should be provided decent. Bred, first of all, for the sake of good flight qualities. Well can incubate and feed offspring.

Budapest

No data on who and when the Budapest breed was bred. It is assumed that it was bred in Budapest.

Description. It has a proportional body of medium size. Tight plumage. The plumage is pure white, stork, spotted. The head is neat, smooth, the crown is slightly concave, the forehead of the hollow comes down to the beak. Eyes bluish-white. The beak is long, slightly bent. The chest is wide, the wings are adjacent to the body, touching the tail.

Features of the breed. Have a lively temperament. They are distinguished by high circular flight.

Breeding. These are decorative flying birds that do not require special conditions for maintenance.

English typepler

Bred in the UK in the 19th century. They were created on the basis of the English turman and the French high-flying pigeons. In Russia is rare.

Description. The case is medium in size, streamlined. It has a broad chest and a smooth head. Light eyes, long beak. The wings are powerful, tightly pressed to the body. Plumage of different shades - black, gray, yellow, red, blue.

English high-flying tippler, suits - sesopstriny.

Features of the breed. Have a sports body structure. Differ in the big endurance. Superb flying flock, cutting circles. They do not need wind - tipplers can soar without effort.

It was the English tippler set the record for the duration of stay in the air - it was 20 hours 40 minutes.

Breeding. The breed is often used in racing flights. Special conditions do not require.

Perm high-flying

The breed is named after its place of creation - it was bred in Perm. When crossing used local and imported birds.

Description. The plumage is diverse, there are monochromatic birds, and there are also patterns. Strong body, strong muscles. Beak light, medium size.

Perm white-headed high-flying pigeons

Features of the breed. Fly at very high altitudes - alone and in groups. Flight duration - up to 12 hours. Flight style - circular. Tied to the loft, have an excellent orientation. Eyes bulging, black. Long wings touch tail.

It is very difficult to find thoroughbred “Perm” today, even eminent breeders mainly implement culling.

Breeding. Birds are bred for flying properties. Perm pigeons are used for sports. They have a strong attachment to the dovecote. Bred this breed throughout Russia.

Belgian

The Belgian breed is one of the best among sports pigeons. The breed in Belgium has been improved since the 19th century.

Description. Strong body. The rounded head is small. It has a powerful neck. Well developed chest.

Features of the breed. They have excellent aerodynamics, thanks to the hard and dense tail. The tail is thin and narrow. Paws are powerful and short. The eyes are dark, almost black.

Among the most popular Belgian breeds are Antwerp pigeons. It is they who most often win sports.

Breeding. The maintenance of sports breeds is practically no different from the content of decorative pigeons.

Unusual decorative breed from the group of wart pigeons.

Description. The bird has a distinctive feature - special skin growths around the eyes. The forehead is convex, the beak is small. The plumage is black, red, white.

Features of the breed. These pigeons are never motley, only monophonic.

Breeding. To preserve the decorative qualities of the barb, they must be kept clean.

Bohemian kosmonogaya magic swallow

Breed with a unique plumage was bred in the Czech Republic - in Bohemia.

Description. The Bohemian swallow has a large constitution, on the back of the head there are lush feathers. On the paws - plumage. On the wings and legs - an amazing chess pattern. On the head there is a mark in the form of a cockade.

Features of the breed. The breed is very elegant, for its unique beauty it is called "magic."

Breeding. Breed decorative - its deduce for the sake of beautiful, unusual plumage.

Saxon priest

A real decoration for dovecote. Breed from Germany. She was introduced on German soil - in Saxony.

Description. The bird looks unusual. She has a rich feather plumage. On the paws - extremely long feathers, and on the head - two tuft. A characteristic feature of the breed of Saxon priest - white forehead.

Features of the breed. Whatever the basic coloring, the forehead always remains white. Plumage is like a monk's hood - hence the name.

Breeding. Breed requires care and attention in order to maintain its unusual beauty.

Peacock dove

The origin of the peacock pigeons is not known, but it is assumed that they come from India. The breed owes its name to the luxurious tail.

Description. The body is rounded, compact. The back is concave. The head is small, without marks. The eyes are large, dark. The beak is small, reddish or flesh-colored. Widely placed red paws. Plumage color from white-yellow to gray-blue.

Features of the breed. Not adapted for long flights. A graceful bird that loves to show off its beauty - freezing its gorgeous tail, freezes.

Breeding. These beautiful birds are usually used at celebrations and weddings. You can learn to make circular flights.

Berlin long-billed

Very rare German breed. You can meet her only in several cities of Germany. Bred breed in Berlin in the 19th century.

Description. Have a slender posture, a vertically located head and body. The neck is also vertically located. Beak - thin and elongated.

Features of the breed. Excellent fly flock. Good climb.

Breeding. Breed decorative, contain pigeons in spacious rooms with cells under each pigeon.

Breed King

This meat breed was bred by American breeders using postal pigeons, Romans and Maltese.

Description. The dominant color is white. Less common are silver, red and black pigeons. The head is large, with a strong beak. Eyes are yellow or black. Thick long neck, broad chest. Little tail raised up. Feet without feathers.

Features of the breed. The weight of a pigeon is 700-800 g. A maximum is 1-1.5 kg. This is one of the best meat breeds.

Breeding. Breed breed for the sake of meat and decoration. Demanding conditions and feeding.

Modern veterinary drugs prolong the life of domestic pigeons to 25 years.

The variety of pigeons is impressive - different breeds, different plumage, appearance and features of practical application. Anyone who is interested in pigeons, can choose their pets, based on their interests.

Domesticated birds

The ancestors of modern breeds of domestic pigeons are considered gray and rocky. Since they live in a fairly wide range, it is very difficult to draw any conclusions about the first place of taming the pigeon by man.

Modern pigeon breeding numbers about 800 species of these birds, there are also many lines that have a chance after some time to form the newest breeds. There are several specialized areas in golubevodstvo:

  • wild,
  • meat,
  • flight
  • postage,
  • decorative.

Only in the territories that were once united by the Soviet Union, not less than two hundred breeds were bred, at least one was bred in almost every region. At present, the fascination with pigeons is no longer of an indiscriminate nature, however, there are fans of their work who take real pleasure from such a hobby and are engaged in the selection of their pets.

Golubevody united into clubs in the directions and breeds of pets bred by them. Those who breed sporting or postal flyers, train them and hold competitions afterwards. The work of those who breed decorative birds is similar to jewelry, because these connoisseurs of the aesthetic component can work with drawings, feather color and other signs.

Meat direction is engaged in farmers, not breeders. They grow fast-ripening and large pigeons in order to get dietary high-calorie meat.

Wild pigeons

Every day in almost every locality we meet pigeons, which seem to us exactly the same. This is not true, because wild pigeons, and it is they, are represented by several species.

Sisaris are painted in a dark-gray color, their wings are gray, of a light shade, they have two transverse stripes. They differ from other wild varieties, for example, clintukha, with white nadkhvostiem, from rocky - with dark color of tail. It is found throughout the world in cities and villages, in the mountains, in meadows, in steppes. They can lead both sedentary and nomadic lifestyles.

The rocky color resembles a sizar, but has a lighter tail, and the beak is black. This bird is smaller than other species. It lives, as the name implies, in mountainous areas. It behaves in the same way as gray, but their voices are very different: the cooing of the rocky is shorter, thinner and more abrupt. Crosses both with blue and gray, and with domestic pigeons, from which hybrid progeny is obtained.

Feathers of a clintukh are painted in a bluish-gray color, on the neck is a green tint with a purple tinge, the craw is a shade of wine-red, and at the beak is brown-red near the base and turning yellow to the tip. On the wings, a transverse strip is drawn, which, however, may not be expressed at all. The color of the females is more matte.

Birds living in the northern regions are nomadic, southern birds prefer to live sedentary. The cooing of a male clintukh is similar to the constantly repeating exclamations of “ugu-hu”, which he publishes, inflating the goiter, settling down near the place where the nest will subsequently be. It can mate with both domestic breeds and sizar. Deforestation adversely affects the number of clintuhovs.

The wood-goblin has a bluish-gray color, the beak is the same as that of a clintukh - red-yellow.

Crowned

Crowned pigeons are rather large, about the size of a hen, and extraordinarily beautiful due to the original plumage. Extravagant crest gave the name of this species.

Their color is also extraordinarily beautiful: the body is blue or blue from above, the chestnut-brown on the bottom, a beautiful white stripe on the wings, which is underlined by a blue-gray line. Live more often in the marshland. Caring for the lady, the male, in addition to performing a marriage dance, makes sounds that resemble drumming. With a female who has favored courtship, they start mutual cleaning of feathers.

Meat breeds

The pigeon meat breeding industry is popular in America and Western Europe. They are grown on farms and specialized factories. Residents of Eastern Europe, in general, are not interested in this delicacy, and, if necessary, use outbred pigeons for culinary purposes.

Kinga, American pigeons, quite prolific. For a month and a half, depending on the conditions of detention, the king can be grown to a mass of 630–800 g of live weight. The female is able to produce 14–18 fleshy well-fed chicks in a year. Depending on the conditions of detention, the weight of the king fluctuates: an aviary will give a less well-fed bird than a walking one. Despite the conditions in which the kingy were bred, his carcass contains 50% meat, 16% fat, 5% edible liver, and the rest is not consumed. Show copies of the breed king can reach a weight of 1.5 kg.

The breed Modena is named after the city of the same name in Italy, where it originated. Currently there are two varieties of fashionable:

  • English (shitti) - more often of a uniform color, on the wings and head there are colored blotches,
  • German (gazzi) - very decorative, with patterned feathers and white body.

Carnot - French aviary breed, one of the most precocious. You can grow a bird to a weight of 500 g, and this is not the limit. Young birds are tastier, their meat is softer. This meat breed occupies one of the leading places.

Monden is also a “Frenchman”, a native of the city of Mont-de-Marsan, who gave it a name. It can be grown to a kilogram of weight. During the month, the bird is gaining 700 g.

These "Italians" can grow to a kilogram of weight and more in some cases.

Strasser bred in the province of the same name, which gave the breed a name. The male Stasser can gain up to 1200 g, the female - 800 g. At a monthly age the bird weighs 700 g. In order to avoid shredding the offspring, it is recommended to contain representatives of this breed for no more than 5 years.

Depending on the conditions in which the bird was kept, the percentage of slaughter output varies: 58% with the captive variant and 62% with the free-range.

The Texans are very prolific "Americans." In the year they are able to give from 12 to 24 chicks.

They are quite large, can reach a kilogram mass, but more often it is 750 g with a lethal yield of 65%.

Flying breeds

Flight breeds of pigeons vary in style of flight:

  • high flying: their way of taking off - in circles, the time spent in the air is 2–15 hours, they can reach a height at which they will not be visible from the ground,
  • mountain: during takeoff, they practice sharp, rapid turns, resembling somersaults, while making a circle,
  • battle: not too high-altitude flyers, taking off, they tumble over their heads or tails, emiting characteristic sounds like battle, using wings,
  • scooters: rotate spirally around its own axis during takeoff.

Nikolaevsk

Bred in Nikolaev, pigeons have a rather characteristic, flight-looking lark, flight. They are medium in size, with a narrow head on a rather short neck. Representatives of the breed have long wings and a very muscular chest. Paws are not feathered, short. Nicholas dove to be painted in black, blue, white, yellow and red.

This is a bird of high flight. Taking off, the Nikolaev pigeon does not tumble. This is the only flight breed that both takes off and lands vertically. Although trained individuals demonstrate other beautiful styles.

Short-billed turman

The short-billed turman was created in Berlin. This is a small bird with a small not long beak and a proud beautiful posture. The location of the wings - below the tail. Feathers of feathers grow on their paws. The bird's color is uniform blue or black or motley. They belong to the fighting birds, which were bred in the XIX century.

German monk

The German monk does not fly high, but rises into the air at the sight of a strange bird, inviting his relatives to him. They are medium in size, with a rather prominent forehead.

There are no feathers on their paws. The back of the head is provided with a peculiar decoration, in the form resembling a hood, for which it owes its name. The German monk is a battle pigeon.

Post pigeons

During the absence of modern means of communication, people widely used the ability of pigeons to orientate themselves and overcome long distances, which made it possible to conduct correspondence with them, although this method did not apply to operational ones. Now that the postal qualities of the birds are no longer in demand, they participate in pigeon races.

The best postmen considered:

  • quarries
  • badgetov,
  • skanderunov.

English Quarry

The English career has the same distinguishing feature: there are characteristic growths at the beak and around the eyes. Due to their high decorative qualities, careers are like representatives of decorative groups, but they are intended to fly quickly and cover long distances. The bird is large, has a broad chest. The neck is long, legs too. English careers are often monotonously painted: white, red, black, blue. The flight of these birds is swift and straightforward, they have been used as postmen for several centuries.

This breed is the direct heirs of the postman from England and Holland. They, despite the long neck and legs, are quite compact. Their beak is small, the eyes, on the contrary, are large, the tail is short.

Czech postmen are not designed for long distances, they quickly and easily overcome short distances.

In addition, this bird is a frequent exhibitor. The neck of the “Czechs” is long, the tail is small, there are growths on the beak and near the eyes.

Если задаться целью найти признанный эталон спортивного голубя, это, несомненно, русский почтовый. Ноги у него длинные, клюв острый, головка маленькая, изящная. Закруглённые вверх концы перьев придают птице элегантности. They come in a variety of colors.

Decorative species

Those who breed decorative birds, have the goal to get beautiful individuals with distinctive external features, for example, tail, outgrowths, plumage, wings.

Barbs - wart pigeons, the skin around their eyes and nose has the characteristic, characteristic of the breed, growths resembling warts.

Blowers have a very original and unusual look: a long body with a lagged body, long legs, an extremely swollen goiter, which gave the breed its name, the lower body as if it were tightened by a belt.

When the male breathers care for females, they tiptoe, that is, they step on the fingers alone, and besides, they do not bend at a 45-degree angle.

Their color can be very diverse:

  • monophonic,
  • half-length,
  • stork
  • speckled.

Breeds of pigeons with photos and titles

Exists several pigeon classifications. The most convenient classification based on the practical use of rocks:

  • decorative
  • sports (old name postage)
  • flight (chasing)
  • meat
  • wild

These five groups are domestic pigeons.

Decorative rocks

Breeding of decorative pigeons pursues purely aesthetic purposes. These breeds have an unusual appearance. The ornamental pigeons are decorated with tufts, the original form of feathers, a rare color, a special statism.

Some breeds of decorative pigeons resemble other species of birds, for which they are called storks, gulls, and falcons.

The most common are:

Peacocks. The most famous and popular decorative breed. Pigeons attract the attention of the stunning beauty of the lush, most often white plumage. Their solemn, majestic view explains why peacocks are chosen to run into the sky during various ceremonies, parades, holidays.

Barbs. Have a monochrome color. Can be white, black, also brown, yellow, red shades. A distinctive feature of the breed - skin folds in the eyes and beak.

Brno dutys. Pigeons have a peculiar appearance. Slender, stately with a long body, gently rolling in the paws. This breed owes the extravagance of a very large goiter, which in the lower part will be strung as it were. When walking, the Brno dutys do not stand completely on the foot, but move on the toes.

Jacobins. Another name - wig pigeon. A distinctive feature of the Jacobins is a wig of feathers in the neck. Color plumage varied. During breeding work, the breed lost its flight characteristics, but the wig began to stand out brightly. Now the Jacobins are exclusively ornamental birds.

Bohemian Cosmonogues. Breed bred in the Czech Republic, refers to the colored pigeons. Birds with a powerful body, fluffy. The wings and legs of the original color in the box.

Saxon priests. The head plumage resembles the hood of a Medieval priest's cassock. Color can be any, but the forehead is necessarily white. The birds are also decorated with two tufts, long feathers on their paws.

Curly. Popular breed. Attracts pigeon breeders with unusual plumage. The tips of the feathers on the legs, wings, tail of these pigeons hover. The color of plumage is plain or spotted.

Until modern means of communication were invented, the carrier pigeons were the most important of the domestic breeds. They were valued like gold. Military and commercial business could not do without the timely delivery of correspondence.

Currently, there are sports competitions with postal pigeons, so now they are called sports. Mail pigeons have a truly extraordinary ability for orientation and fast flight. Birds of this group can reach speeds of up to 80 km / h. Other breeds do not have such abilities, they cannot be developed, the hereditary factor is of decisive importance.

The group includes many varieties, the most popular include:

Belgian. Fleece appearance, the highest speed of flight. Due to the streamlined shape of the body, birds are considered the fastest sports birds. Developed pectoral muscles, smooth and dense feathers, body, wings, tail of medium size - all this helps to achieve the best effect.

English careers. They are descended from the posthunks of Asia. A distinctive feature of birds is growths on the beak and in the area around the eyes. The neck is straight and long. Because of the spectacular appearance there is an opinion that the birds should be attributed to the group of decorative. Nevertheless, careers are derived for fast flights and long distances.

During the flight of the bird, people pay attention not only to speed, but also to the beauty of the performance. It has been observed that some breeds of pigeons have a natural inclination towards this. They decided to combine such birds into a separate group - flight ones. But since all these birds have their own style of "air dance", there are the following subgroups.

  • High-flying. They soar upward and can fly there for hours. Some breeds are able to climb 1.2 - 1.5 km. At the same time, the birds perform incredible somersaults in the air, then abruptly gaining height, then falling stone down.
  • Ghosts. The flight of these pigeons is short and goes on a circular path. Their peculiarity is the ability to “lie down” on the wing, as if turning over.
  • Bocky. Birds soar low, but they can do somersaults through the tail, emitting characteristic flapping wings. They are able to perform similar somersaults in different planes.
  • Scooters. Like the racers, they fly, turning over the wing, only do it all the time. As a result, it seems that the trajectory of a pigeon’s flight is spiraling.
  • Nikolaevsk. These high-flying birds are considered the most popular among their fellows. For the first time were presented in Ukraine in the city of Nikolaev. The bird soars up sharply and remains there in one place, helping itself with the flapping of its wings. Since they are large enough, she can easily do this. There is a white, gray, red and black color of pigeons of Nikolaev breed.
  • German monks. Birds were bred in Germany in the 17th century. There is nothing remarkable about the flight style of these birds, but other pigeons join them, creating a whole air festival. By the way, they used to be used as “thieves”, luring groups of birds. German monks are small, with a prominent forehead, small beak and a fluffy hood at the back of the head.
  • Short-eyed Turman. Among the pigeons of warlike species, the short-tailed turman are the most numerous. Were withdrawn in Germany in the 19th century. Feathered small size, with small head and forehead moved forward. They differ from other breeds by lowered wings. In flight, they are mobile, it is not for nothing that these birds are popularly called the “pigeon tumblers”. Turmans have many subspecies, and Tula beetles are considered one of the most famous.
  • Armavir Whiteheads. This fighting breed was bred in Russia in the city of Armavir. Birds soar low - up to 100 m, but at the entrance to the 10-meter vertical pole, the frequency of coups reaches 3 - 5 times. Armavir white-headed animals are distinguished by an impressive cover of feathers on their legs.
  • Berlin long-beaked. To date, these are rather rare pigeons of the militant breed, found only in certain German cities. Berlin dlinnooklyuvye have a slender posture - the head and torso are located vertically, neck - horizontally. They got their name due to the elongated thin beak.
  • Tipplera. The breed, the progenitors of which are the English turman and the French high-flying pigeon, also belongs to the high-flying. These birds stand out for amazing endurance - a record duration of stay in the air was almost 21 hours. The appearance of the birds is unremarkable, the body is athletic, gray, black, red.
  • Andijan. Birds of the Andijan breed belong to high-flying, lively pigeons. In addition to excellent flight qualities, they differ in their original appearance - a small tuft on an oblong head and long feathers on their legs. Andijan is able to make somersavers for 4 to 8 hours.
  • Kursk. The breed was obtained by crossing Oryol and Nikolaev pigeons. Kursaki are high flying birds and show excellent performance, rising to a height of 4 km. The color was originally black and white, but lately various variations have appeared - pockmarked, red, and coffee. There are also yellow and red-tailed representatives of the breed.

Even in antiquity, it was observed that pigeon meat has excellent taste. The first breeds of domestic pigeons, bred by breeding, served precisely these goals. Such birds were even served at the imperial table in ancient Rome. And during the war, they often saved people from starvation.

Such gastronomic addictions are not surprising. Pigeon meat is not only tasty, but also useful. It contains vitamins A, B, PP, as well as a lot of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium, zinc and other substances important to the body. It is considered dietary and at the same time combined with various vegetable and sweet snacks.

All types of pigeons of meat breeds are difficult to describe, since there are about 70 of them. Consider the main ones.

  • Kings. This breed was bred in the 19th century. Kings have received the greatest distribution in the USA. The distinguishing features of birds are the fleshy body, developed muscles and a strong skeleton. The plumage may have a white, black or brown color, and the tone of the color is distributed evenly or in spots. Because of their large mass, these birds are not able to fly.
  • English modena. Their ancestors were the famous Italian Modena, so popular in the old days. Birds have a wide body with large muscles, and the weight of adults reaches 900 grams. These birds also practically do not fly. Color is monotonous or weedy. The peculiarity of the pigeon modena body structure is the highly raised tail.
  • Carnot. Among others, it stands out for its excellent meat taste. Pigeons carnot grow very quickly, gaining weight up to 700 grams. The plumage is dark, unremarkable.
  • French Mondens (Mondains). This is a very large breed of pigeons - some individuals weigh over a kilogram. In addition, 60% of the entire mass of poultry accounts for clean meat, so mondens are so popular among breeders.
  • Roman red. The meat of these birds is very useful, besides it comes out a lot from each bird. For breeders, the Roman Red Pigeon is interesting in disease resistance.
  • Strassera. Large breed with high reproductive abilities. The meat of the strassers is very delicate, as it has a fine fibrous structure.
  • Teksany. Of all the meat birds, the texan is considered the most prolific. Mass pigeon reaches kilograms.

Wild pigeons are spread all over the world. Consider what species these birds are, depending on the climatic conditions of residence.

  • Gray. The most numerous type of pigeons, received such name because of a gray color. Residences - Eurasia and North Africa. In the wild, the bird builds nests on the cliffs, rarely migrates.
  • Rocky They differ from blue-gray pigeons by the presence of light feathers in the tail and black beak. They nest in mountainous regions or abandoned cities. Habitat - Altai, Tibet, Himalayas, Korea.
  • Klintuhi. This breed is common in China, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Africa. Klintuhi have a blue color with a motley greenish spot on the neck and red goiter. Birds living in countries with a cold climate migrate to warmer lands in winter. Nest in the hollows of trees.
  • Vyahiri. In appearance, these pigeons are similar to Clintuchi, only larger in size. Places of residence - mainly Eurasia. Weavers make their nests in the trees.
  • Crowned. Birds are found in tropical countries, prefer warm moist forests. A distinctive feature of these birds is the presence of a mobile tuft on the head. Crowned pigeons of small size, with long legs.

The variety of the pigeon family is not limited to breeds. Breeders display a variety of domestic pigeon suits, striking the eye with amazing colors and shades. So, there are birds of heaven, peach, lemon, tin and other flowers.

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