It appeared not so long ago, in 2013, and the owners of this variety were satisfied with the first harvest.
Description of raspberry variety "Caramel"
Raspberry "Caramel" refers to medium-sized crops, the height of which does not exceed 1.5 meters. The bush of this variety is dense, steady, upright.
The stalks of the bush are covered with infrequent spikes, which makes it easier to harvest and care for raspberries. The leaves of "Caramel" - typical form of raspberry.
It is possible to grow this variety in small areas and on an industrial scale.The notion of raspberry "Caramel" would not be complete if the description of the variety does not mention the fruits. The berries of this raspberry are rather large - 12-15 g, sweet, juicy, and in taste and aroma they resemble forest raspberries. The stem is separated easily, which is very convenient at harvest.
Fruits "Caramel" - dense, perfectly preserve the appearance during transportation. The bush begins to bear fruit in the first year after planting. The raspberry “Caramelka” deserves a high mark, and the yield is about 5 kg from a bush.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The advantages of raspberry "Caramel" include:
- high and fast yields (fruits can be harvested already in the first year),
- the possibility of harvesting with the help of mechanical devices,
- delicious taste
- resistance to temperature extremes
- appetizing presentation,
- the possibility of eating fruits for 30 days.
Among the shortcomings worth noting the formation of a small number of new shoots. This is due to the fact that this variety was bred in order to obtain a good harvest. In addition, the plant does not tolerate drought, and therefore needs regular watering.
How to choose healthy seedlings when buying
In order to get the desired yield, even before planting, you need to choose the right seedlings. First of all, they must be healthy in order not to die during the growing season. For remontant varieties, this is especially important because fruiting comes early, and the bushes grow quickly.
It is best to buy seedlings in specialized stores. To choose a future bush, you should follow certain rules.
First of all, remember that in spring seedlings leaves are not always present. Therefore, if the selected instance has them, this may indicate that the sapling has suffered wintering and, most likely, the basic rules for wintering have not been observed.
Such sprouts look beautiful, but their acquisition may be a mistake. These seedlings of raspberry "Caramel" took a lot of effort to grow foliage, and after planting they may not bloom in the first year, despite all the efforts and observance of the rules of care. In addition, such specimens will take root worse than non-attractive branches.You should pay attention to the fact that the seedlings were not dried, poorly terminating leaves. This may indicate that seedlings are harvested incorrectly, or they are damaged by insects. These branches simply do not take root in the area.
Last year's shoots should not have signs of mold or diseases (dark or light spots can tell about their presence). The cut of the core of the seedling should be the same tone as the subcortical layer of raspberry.
Before you make the final choice, you need to carefully examine the roots of the young raspberries - they must be alive and easy to bend. It would be nice if the roots are already pre-placed in a special substrate or packed in a film with a nutrient mixture.
When and where is better to plant raspberry "Caramel"
Raspberry likes protected, sunny (at least half a day) areas with well-drained soil. An ideal place for planting - the south side without buildings and high plantings.
Young raspberries are planted in the open ground in spring or autumn, preferably in the evening or in cloudy weather. When planting plants in the spring, it is better to choose the area where the snow comes off first, so it starts to melt faster on small heights well fertilized with manure or organic matter.
In spring, seedlings are planted in early March, when the land is already thawed. In autumn, in September-October, they consider this time preferable, since raspberries will better strengthen the root system for the new season.Well, if the predecessors of raspberries were potatoes, peppers, tomatoes or eggplants. In no case can not be planted "Karamelku" on the same plot, which previously grew raspberries - the soil is tired there, which will adversely affect the yield.
Since raspberry roots secrete special substances, it can be planted only in 5-7 years.
How to plant raspberry seedlings
Two weeks before disembarking, the site should be re-digged and leveled. Then prepare pits with a depth of 40 cm (at 50 cm in diameter). No more than 3-5 plants should be planted per 1 m², because only this way provides additional ventilation. In the fall, one-year-old healthy seedlings with a developed root system are planted, and young offsprings are used for planting Caramelka raspberries in the spring.
In the prepared pits add 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate, the seedlings themselves are shortened to 25-30 cm, immersed in the wells and sprinkled with earth (it is important that there are no voids left in the rhizome).
Under the load of fruits, raspberry bushes need a support, therefore “Karamelka” is recommended to be planted in a trellis manner.
Treatment and protection from pests and diseases
Due to the fact that raspberries love loose earth and humus, consisting of rotting leaves and twigs, it can be affected by such pests as:
- raspberry beetle
- kidney mole.
To prevent infection using folk, biological means, so as not to destroy the beneficial insects in the garden. If pests do occur, use insecticides (for example, Actellic, colloidal sulfur, etc.).
Regular wateringTo collect a good harvest of raspberries, you need to water it regularly. It is especially important to monitor the moisture of those who grow “Caramelka” in the southern regions.
The frequency and volume of irrigation depends on the abundance of precipitation, air temperature and the type of soil.
Most often, during the growing season, “Caramelka” needs to be watered once every 2-3 weeks with 5–10 l of water under each bush, and if the summer is droughty, then this amount is increased.
- hose or irrigation systems (a lot of water is consumed, since the soil is also moistened between the rows)
- irrigation watering.
Watering is stopped in August or early September.
Mulching and loosening the soilLoosening the soil has a beneficial effect on the growth and fruiting of raspberries. It is necessary to loosen every 1.5-2 weeks and only the surface layer, that is, no deeper than 6-7 cm. At the same time, it is recommended to combine the loosening process with soil mulching (using peat and humus), as well as fertilizing.
Top dressing raspberries - a prerequisite for a good harvest.
Fertilize "Caramel" three times during the season:
- In March, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied. Natural fertilizer (mullein, bird droppings) is diluted with water and applied 4-5 liters of the mixture per 1 m². It should be borne in mind that 1 liter of mullein is diluted in 10 l of water, and 1 l of litter - in 20. A mixture of ammonium nitrate (15 g) and urea (10 g) is used as a mineral supplement. This composition is sufficient for 1 m². Before applying mineral fertilizers, a groove is dug around each bush, where fertilizing is placed. After fertilization, the bushes are watered, and mulching is performed with peat or straw (layer - 7 cm).
- During flowering fertilizing is made, consisting of 2 tbsp. tablespoons of potassium sulfate, 3 tbsp. spoons of double superphosphate and 10 liters of water. This portion is sufficient for 1 m².
- After fruiting - in the second half of September. To do this, use 1 tbsp. spoon of potassium sulfate, 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate, 10 liters of water. This volume is enough for 1 m².
Raspberry BushesFirst of all, the garter helps increase yields.
Although the raspberry "Caramel" and strong stems, but under the weight of the fruit they can bend down to the ground. With the help of tying, the bush is provided with uniform illumination, good ventilation and prevention of infection with fungal infections.
For the manufacture of a trellis near the bushes (at a distance of 3-4 meters from it), installed two-meter pillars (to a depth of 45-50 cm). Between the pillars, at a height of 75, 100 and 160 cm, the wire is stretched. After that, you can tie up bushes to the support.
After harvesting the raspberry bushes need to be cut. When the leaves completely fall off, the stems are cut flush with the ground so that the plant does not freeze through in winter and give a good harvest in the next season.
If the shoots are not cut in the fall, they need to be tied up and bend to the ground, and for additional protection to cover with agrofiber.
In the spring of new shoots should be thinned so that the bushes have enough space for growth. Perform this procedure in April and pruned branches to the first real bud.
The shoots are cut with sharp shears to the base of the roots.
Terms of ripening and harvesting raspberries
The fruits of "Caramel" reach maturity in late July-mid-August. Ripening is uneven, so first they pick only red berries, leaving others for the next day.
Raspberry is better to collect in the afternoon. In order not to miss the ripe berries, you need to pay attention to the lower stems. Remove the fruit from the bush very carefully, without pressing them with your thumb and forefinger. If the raspberry is not separated immediately, you need to leave it for ripening.
Gathering berries in any container, but without processing to transfer them to another container is undesirable, as this may cause damage to the fruit.
Raspberry "Caramel" enjoys well-deserved respect from summer residents, largely due to its yield, viability and resistance to pests. Knowing the details of caring for this shrub, you can enjoy delicious fruits throughout the season.
Description of the external parameters of raspberry Caramel
External parameters are also important for gardeners. Decorative and attractiveness of crops grown on the site depends on them.
- Bush. Medium tall, upright, firm and dense. Garter does not require, than makes it easier for the gardener to care for the plant.
- Stems are powerful, with a rare arrangement of thorns.
- Leaves of the traditional "crimson" shape with a sharp tip and notches along the edges.
- Berries are large, weighing 6-12 grams each with the aroma of forest raspberry. The flesh is juicy with a high content of sugars. Easily removed from the stalk. Productivity makes about 5 kg from each bush, fructification from the first year of landing.
Preparatory stages before planting raspberry seedlings
The stages of planting raspberries are familiar to all summer residents. For the Karamelka variety, all the rules for planting raspberry raspberry are relevant.
- Preparing a place with good lighting and fertile soil without high perimeter fencing. Caramelka grows well on the south side of the dacha. The lack of sunlight adversely affects the yield of the variety. It is necessary to follow the depth of groundwater. It must be at least 1.5 m from the surface.
- Fertilized soil. For seedlings make 3 buckets of organic fertilizer (compost, humus, peat) per 1 square. m square. In addition to the organics, add 200 ml of any of the preparations - Kemira Universal, Growth, and Nitroammophos. Soil dug up with fertilizer
Tip # 1. Highlight for the raspberry Caramelka that part of the site where the snow melts before, in order to get a decent harvest.
The quality of planting material depends on when and how much the gardener will collect raspberries in the current year.. Seedlings choose healthy and strong. At the same time, pay attention to:
- Condition of the roots. They must be elastic, flexible, without thickening and atypical curvature.
- Condition stumps (shoots). They should not be visible stains, damage or moldy areas. Saplings take without leaves. The foliage on the shoots serves as a signal of improper wintering of planting material.
Rules for planting raspberries Caramel on the garden plot
Plants are planted at a distance of at least 80 cm, and the rows are arranged, departing from the previous 120 cm.
The dimensions of the landing pit - a depth of 40 cm and a square with sides of 50 cm.
In each add 2 tbsp. l superphosphate and mixed with earth.
The roots of the seedling inspect and cut the broken. The shoot is shortened to 25 cm.
Put the sapling raspberry in the pit, covered with soil, watered.
Tip # 2. Plant the Caramel raspberry, taking into account the rules of crop rotation, so as not to place the crop on depleted soil.
Care for raspberry bushes Karamelka during the growing season
It is important for the variety to comply with the requirements of agricultural engineering in order to preserve the yield index.
Watering. Rehabilitative varieties demanding irrigation. Observe the regularity of watering 1 every 2-3 weeks. Water consumption per bush is 10 liters. The best way is drip irrigation, but sprinkling or irrigation method is also good.
Feeding. Be sure to alternate organic compounds with mineral complexes. Meals will need three times per season:
- For the first time in March organic matter (infusion of mullein, bird droppings) or mineral complexes.
- The second feeding at the time of flowering. Prepare a solution of 10 liters of water, 2 tbsp. l potassium sulfate and 3 tbsp. l double superphosphate. Volume used for 1 m².
- The third is held in the fall after harvest. In a bucket of water bred 2 tbsp. l superphosphate and 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate. This amount is sufficient for an area of 1 m².
Garter. Required for raspberries during the period of active fruiting, so that the stems do not bow to the ground.
Shelter for the winter. If the pruning is not done, the shoots are tilted to the ground and covered. Cut hemp mulch thick.
Pests and diseases of the repair raspberry Caramel
Caramelka variety is being attacked by parasites and culture diseases. The main method of struggle is prevention. Regular inspection of plants is necessary in order to notice the problem in time. The second stage is preventive treatment of the bushes. For raspberry such diseases are dangerous:
- spottiness (white, ulcerative and purple),
- root bacterial cancer,
- witch's broom
In any case, diseased plants are removed and burned. The rest are treated with special preparations according to the instructions.
Among the pests should beware:
- I am raspberry,
- raspberry bud moth,
- raspberry beetle.
Compliance with agricultural cultivation, beneficial insects and insecticide treatments are ways to control pests.
Errors of summer residents when growing remontant raspberry Caramel
When growing remontnaya raspberry gardeners make typical mistakes:
Planted young seedlings on the site of the old raspberries. Soil depletion and disease transmission reduces the productivity of new plantings.
Do not carry out regular pruning of bushes, which leads to their thickening and lower yields.
Questions gardeners on growing varieties of raspberries Caramel
Question number 1. How to propagate the variety Caramel?
Remontant variety gives a little overgrowth, so the method of reproduction by division of the bush is better suited.
Question number 2. What crops are considered the best predecessors for raspberry variety Caramelka?
Organize a bed in the area where the solanaceae had previously grown - potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants or peppers. Do not plant raspberry seedlings in the area where raspberries are grown.
Gardeners reviews about raspberry repair Karamelka
Peter Vyaznikov, Bryansk
I grow a variety for sale. I noticed that the yield is higher if I cut the shoots for the winter. Previously, I did not do it and there were fewer berries. Well transported and lay within a month. For commerce is a big plus.
Tatyana Horova, Voronezh
A good variety - fragrant, sweet, fruitful. It is important not to shift the berries from one dish to another. Collect immediately in the container in which you are transporting, otherwise the berries may be damaged.
Stepan Vaskov, Rybinsk
Among the varieties on the site that I consider more fastidious in the care. But, to taste and yield overshadows the rest. Fruits all summer, which is important for small areas.
The repair raspberry is demanding of the landing site. For Caramelka variety choose a sunny place without a draft and with a nutrient soil. It is not recommended to plant raspberries on acidic soils. Carry out the soil preparation procedures in advance - deoxidation, fertilizer, digging.
Observe crop rotation. Soil depletion by previous crops affects crop yields.
Raspberry Caramel needs regular good pruning, proper watering and dressing. Если эти условия нет возможности обеспечить, то получить урожай в полном объеме не получится.
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Полезные свойства и химический состав
Ягода малина обладает не только прекрасным вкусом, но и целебными свойствами. Due to the chemical composition of the berries, they are widely used in alternative medicine.
- vitamins B1, B12, C, PP,
- folic and organic acids,
And this is an incomplete list of useful components. Also, the chemical composition of raspberry berries includes many other macro-and micronutrients that positively affect the human body. Berries have a good diuretic effect, remove excess fluid from the body, contribute to weight loss. Useful berries for both women and men.
Planting and care
It depends on planting whether the plant will develop properly and give a good harvest, therefore, the event should be approached seriously. It is best to plant seedlings according to the step-by-step instructions:
- Dig a hole 50–60 cm deep and 50 cm deep.
- In each hole to make 4−5 kg of humus. This will help to stimulate the roots with the help of nutrients and a positive effect on the yield of the bush.
- The humus is covered with a small layer of soil, making a small mound, so as not to burn the roots of the seedling.
- Place the root system of the plant on a mound and gently spread it over the fossa.
- Cover the roots with soil, periodically slightly trampling it.
- Pour the seedling with water in the amount of 5 liters per 1 bush. Watering is necessary, even if landing occurs in rainy weather.
- After the moisture is fully absorbed, around the seedling it is necessary to mulch the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm.
It is very important that when planting the root neck of the plant is at ground level. It can not be deepened into the ground. Planting raspberries do not have to be solid. It is recommended to plant raspberries in 2 rows, leaving a distance between plants of 70−90 cm, and between rows - 1.5−2.0 m
Watering cultureThe root system of raspberry caramel is located superficially in relation to the level of the soil, this feature makes the shrub moisture-loving. Water the bushes should be about 1 time in 1.5 weeks, moderately. The soil around the shrub should be 4 cm deep.
Waterlogging is not recommended. The plant will be sick for a long time and recover from excess moisture. During the season, it is necessary to shed the culture abundantly 3 times This must be done before flowering, at the time of the ripening of the crop, before preparing for the winter period.
Raspberry "caramel": variety description
This hybrid remontant high-yielding variety was bred a few years ago by breeders of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Outwardly, the raspberry remontant variety “caramel”, as described, looks like a medium-sized, non-sprawling bush with powerful shoots growing to a height of just over one and a half meters. Shoots do not need to mount on supports. There are few spikes on them, they are not too sharp and do not cause inconvenience during work. Medium-sized leaves are slightly pubescent, dark green colored, have a trefoil shape typical of raspberries and are pointed at the ends. The flowers are large, white, clustered in racemes.
Description of berries
According to the description, the raspberry variety “caramel”, in the photo, in the period of full maturity, is distinguished by large juicy berries up to three and a half centimeters of dark red color. The average weight of a berry is six to eight grams, the largest copies weighing up to fourteen grams.
It is difficult to talk about the taste of the fruit, looking at the photo. According to the description and reviews, raspberry variety “caramel” is very sweet. The high sugar content and the very low acid content make the taste of these berries really look like caramel. Usually remontant varieties are slightly sour. But raspberry "caramel" according to reviews of the tasting commission, has become the sweetest variety of remontant raspberries, among all those bred in Russia. The high content of vitamin C in the berries makes them not only very tasty, but also useful.
In addition, the fruits are characterized by a pronounced aroma of wild forest raspberries. Tasters put the berries "caramel" the highest rating among the varieties of Russian selection.
Commercial characteristics of berries
In the description of a variety of remontant raspberry "caramel", in the photo and in the reviews of gardeners, it is noted that the fruits are dry, dense, elastic, easily separated from the stalk, do not crumble, do not soften and do not flow during harvest.
Such qualities make it possible to mechanize harvesting, and, consequently, to grow this variety by industrial means. Berries are well tolerated transportation, stored collected for several days, without losing the presentation. Such reviews and a description of raspberry variety “caramel” in the photo make its cultivation commercially viable.
The yield in the description of the raspberry variety “caramel” is indicated at the level of five to seven kilograms per bush. The average industrial yield is 112 centners per hectare. Such an indicator is stated in the official description of the variety; according to reviews, raspberry “caramel” in the first year for industrial cultivation gives up to one ton per hectare, on the second - eight tons. The maximum yield of ten to twenty tons of raspberries of this variety is gaining by the third year. Such yield indicators promote good payback when grown on an industrial scale.
Agrotechnical characteristics of the variety
The raspberry remontant variety “caramel” presented in the photo, as described by the copyright holder, is a variety of dessert type universal purpose. Fruits on the shoots of the current year. Fruiting medium to early. Berry picking begins in late July - early August and continues until frost. The shoots that did not bear fruit in the first year, in the second year produce two crops: the first - from mid-July, the second - in late August - early September. Berry picking in this case continues until the onset of cold weather.
The saplings bought and planted in spring give a good harvest already in the current season. With a two to three-year bush, you can get up to eight replacement shoots. If Caramel is cultivated as an annual crop, that is, in the fall all its stems are cut, the shoots of the next year grow very quickly and gather green mass, which is necessary for the formation of a new crop.
The variety is characterized by good winter hardiness and not too strong drought tolerance.
Choosing a place for raspberries
Like any raspberry, caramel prefers areas with maximum illumination, nestled from the north with a fence, buildings or tall trees. It does not tolerate heavy acidified soil and close adjacent groundwater. Therefore, for planting you need to choose a plot with light fertile soil, located on a hill. Earlier, solanaceous crops and raspberries of other varieties were not supposed to grow on it. The old raspberry jam takes all the nutrients from the soil, and the nightshade leaves behind the pests that threaten the crop.
The plot is prepared for planting, at least a month:
- if the soil is infertile, manure, humus, peat, chicken manure or compost, as well as potash-phosphorus fertilizers and wood ash are applied to it,
- coarse sand is added to the clay soil,
- lime or old cement must be added to the acidic soil.
In order to avoid fraud when buying seedlings, planting material should be purchased in nurseries or specialized stores. Cuttings or hemp with open roots should be without leaves. The root system of raspberry "caramel" consists of a set of thin threadlike roots. They must be flexible, white on the cut and treated with clay mash. Cuttings in pots or bags with a clod of earth may have leaves.
Potted or packaged raspberry seedlings can be planted throughout the summer season, from spring to autumn. Cuttings with open roots are planted in March or at the end of September. Plants planted in spring will yield in late summer - early autumn. Seedlings planted in the fall, next year will give two crops per season.
Cuttings are planted in pre-prepared holes with a depth of up to half a meter or grooves at a distance of slightly less than a meter between the bushes. The distance between the rows should be at least two meters. The soil removed from the holes is mixed with compost, old manure, bird droppings and wood ash. This mixture is filled with a third of the hole and transplanted in them cuttings, gently straightening their roots. Then they fall asleep with ordinary soil and water each seedling with one bucket of water. The soil around the cutting is tamped and covered with sawdust, straw or dry grass.
To achieve such a high yield, as in the description and reviews of raspberries varieties "caramel" on a photo, The plant must be provided with proper care.
Raspberry "caramel" does not tolerate drought badly, so watering for it is mandatory. The soil under it should be wet to a depth of forty centimeters. It is recommended that you dig up shallow grooves along the rows for irrigation or equip drip irrigation. If the bushes are few, you can make the hole around the trunk. With this method of watering is usually enough two buckets per bush.
Especially abundantly raspberries need to be watered before the onset of spring and summer flowering and during the period when berries are tied and grown. If autumn is warm and dry, then for the second autumn harvest you will need two or three buckets per bush.
Raspberry bushes are watered every other week. It is not required during the rainy season, because stagnation of water can cause root diseases and, as a result, a decrease in yield.
If fertilizers were applied to the soil before laying the raspberries, no additional fertilizing is necessary for the next couple of years. Then the bushes will need an annual top dressing three times per season:
- Immediately after the snow melts and the end of spring frosts, organic fertilizers are applied - slurry, bird droppings or weed infusion at the rate of four to five liters of solution per square meter. Instead of organic, you can use urea or ammonium nitrate at the rate of fifteen grams per square meter.
- With the beginning of the first flowering spend the second feeding. For it use potassium, superphosphate, as well as compost, herbal infusion or water-diluted wood ash.
- The third dressing is carried out at the end of summer during the second flowering. If raspberries are grown in an annual crop, fertilizers are applied after harvest. To do this, under each bush make at least one bucket of compost or manure, diluted in water. If autumn is dry, you should deposit at least three buckets per bush.
Before fertilizing the soil under the plants must be watered so as not to burn the roots.
If you plan to receive one crop per year, in the bushes of raspberry "caramel" in the fall cut off all the branches at the root. In the spring, the roots will give new shoots that will bear fruit this season. Such pruning allows you to increase the future harvest, removes all diseases and pests with pruned branches and eliminates the need to cover the bushes for the winter.
If you plan to get two harvests per season, in the fall only shoots are removed, and the young branches pinch the tops at a height of no more than one and a half meters.
If the autumn pruning was not carried out, in the spring, usually in April, the branches that have dried out or froze over during the winter are selectively removed. In May, some gardeners pinch shoots of remontrant raspberries for later and abundant fruiting.
Summer pruning is carried out in the case when the bush grows heavily, and there is a need to remove weak, thin or damaged shoots. Five or six of the strongest branches are left on the bush to save the plant's strength for fruiting and to avoid excessive shading of the bush.
Shelter for the winter
Raspberry varieties "caramel" has good frost resistance, but despite this, it needs a winter shelter. Preparing a bush for winter is as follows: the shoots remaining on the bush bend to the ground, fixed in this position and covered with any geotextile. In areas with snowy winters, the raspberries are covered with snow.
Despite the fact that the stalks of raspberry variety “caramel” are distinguished by high elasticity and strength, during the ripening of the crop under the weight of a large number of berries they can bend down to the ground. Therefore, the garter to the support, at least in the form of an ordinary single-strip trellis, is still needed for this sort of raspberry. It helps not only to support the stems, but also contributes to the uniform distribution of shoots. And this, in turn, leads to good lighting and ventilation of the entire bush, which helps in the prevention of various fungal diseases.
"Caramel" is one of the best modern varieties of remontant raspberries, so it deserves close attention as amateur gardeners, and farmers-entrepreneurs.
Description of raspberry variety Caramelka
Raspberry bushes are erect, have a small number of thorns. A distinctive feature is the size of the berries. The fruits are large, their weight reaches 12 g. The berries are very sweet, with juicy flesh, the aroma resembles forest raspberries. The peduncle is easily separated, which greatly simplifies harvesting.
Berries have a dense structure, in the process of transporting a good appearance. The yield is an average of 5 kg per bush. Fruiting occurs in the first year of planting. Raspberries can be grown on both large and small areas. The variety is suitable for private and industrial production.
This variety is remontant - berries appear on both annual and biennial shoots, and you can harvest during the whole summer.
Caramel is demanding on soil composition, light and temperature. Even a slight shadow can delay the ripening of berries, as well as reduce yields. For this reason, when choosing a place, give preference to an open area on the south side of any buildings. This will not only provide the raspberry with sufficient lighting, but also protect it from wind gusts.
Caramelka variety prefers loose fertile soil. Therefore, before planting in the ground it is necessary to make fertilizer. For 1 m² 2–3 buckets (with a volume of 10 l) of compost, humus or peat are required. To organic fertilizers add 200 ml of the drug Growth, Stimulus, Kemira wagon or Nitroammofosk. Cultures should be predecessors of tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants or peppers.
Important! It is impossible to plant a plant on a plot where raspberries have previously been growing, this will lead to soil fatigue and adversely affect the yield.
The root system of culture allocates specific substances that hinder the development of new shrubs. Therefore, it is possible to plant raspberries on the former site only in 5–7 years. Variety sensitive to high humidity.
Raspberries are planted in the spring, before the growing season - in March, or in the fall - in the third decade of September or October. It is not recommended to perform the procedure at another time, as the plants will take root poorly due to insufficiently formed root system.
The distance between groundwater and the soil surface should be at least 1.5 m.
Landing takes place in the spring
- The shrub is placed in a well 40 cm deep and 50–60 cm wide.
- The pits should be located 70–90 cm apart from one another.
- Between the rows you need to leave a free space of 1.5-2 m. This will help prevent infection of the bushes and provide the necessary ventilation.
- In the wells previously added to 2 tbsp. l superphosphate.
- Saplings are shortened to 25–30 cm, placed in pits and covered with earth.
One of the stages of care is the systematic loosening of the soil. The procedure is carried out every 1.5–2 weeks. Loosening depth - 6–7 cm. When tilling the soil near shoots, be careful not to damage the root system.
Watering raspberries every 2-3 weeks, for one bush takes 5-10 liters of water. The process can be carried out in several ways:
- Sprinkling is the most common.
- Another method is the use of hoses or irrigation systems. But this consumes a large amount of water, because in addition to the bushes the soil between the rows is also moistened.
- The most economical method is considered irrigation irrigation. Around 15 cm high ground rollers are formed around each row, into which water is then poured. In late August or early September, watering is stopped.
Important! Waterlogging should not be allowed, as this may cause the roots to rot.
Feed the raspberries three times during the season. The first time fertilizer applied in March. Raspberry responds well to both organic and mineral substances. For the preparation of natural top dressing dissolve in 10 liters of water 1 liter mullein. You can also use bird droppings that mix with a 1:20 liquid. For the treatment of 1 m² area, 4–5 liters of mortar will be required.
To prepare the mineral dressing, mix 15 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of urea. The resulting composition is enough for 1 m². Before feeding, dig grooves around each bush and apply fertilizer to them. Then pour the raspberries and mulch. Spread straw or peat around the bushes in about 7 cm.
The second feeding is made in the flowering period. To do this, 10 liters of water diluted 2 tbsp. l potassium sulfate and 3 tbsp. l double superphosphate. The prepared mixture is used for 1 m².
The third time raspberries are fed in the fall after fruiting (in the second half of September). The composition is prepared from 10 liters of water, 1 tbsp. l сульфата калия и 2 ст. l суперфосфата, полученного средства хватит для 1 м² участка.
Сорт Карамелька обладает прочными стеблями, но под весом плодов может клониться к земле. Поэтому кусты рекомендуется подвязывать. Это будет способствовать равномерной освещённости растений, хорошему проветриванию и предотвращению развития грибковых инфекций.
Малина на шпалере
To make a trellis, place pillars with a length of 2 m at a distance of 3–4 m from one another near the bushes. The supports are buried to a depth of 45–50 cm. Then stretch the wire from one pillar to another at 75 cm, 100 cm and 160 cm. Tie up the bushes to the support.
In the autumn (after fruiting - in October or November) using a pruner it is recommended to remove the ground part of the bushes to the ground level. During this period, the leaves die off, the nourishment of the bushes stops. Only roots are left for winter. This technique allows you to prevent the stems from freezing in winter, because they simply will not be.
If the shoots in the fall were not cut to the ground, they need to be tied and bend to the ground. This will help keep the raspberries in winter when the temperature drops below -20 ° C. To protect the bushes from frost, they can be covered with agrofibre.
By the onset of spring, new shoots will grow. They need to be thinned out so that the plants were not crowded. In April, the shoots are cut to the level of the first healthy kidney. Some gardeners leave shoots until spring - this makes it possible to hold the snow on the site, so that plants tolerate the winter more easily. In this case, pruning is carried out before bud break.
Trimming is carried out in the summer - in June. The purpose of this procedure is to remove weak stems and root shoots. For 1 m² 5-6 of the most healthy and powerful stems are left. Unnecessary shoots are cut with shears near the base of the roots.
Description of the raspberry variety Caramelka
Caramel is a repair raspberry. The name she received for a very sweet taste and a pronounced aroma of forest raspberries. The variety was launched at the breeding station of Nizhny Novgorod, first appeared in retail in 2015. Many gardeners are familiar with the variety Nizhegorodets, but he gets skeptical reviews about the taste - not enough sweet berries. Breeders decided to correct the defect and created Caramel by crossing Nizhny Novgorod and super-sweet and fragrant donors. The tests were carried out in the middle band.
Remontny varieties differ from the usual ability to bear fruit not only on the two-year, but also on the annual shoots. Raspberries produce two crops a year: the first - in the summer, and the second - in the autumn.
Caramel berry is not only tasty, but also beautiful - red, has the shape of an elongated cone. The maximum weight of one is 12 g, the average is 6 g, the yield of 1 bush is 5 kg. The flesh is juicy, the drupes are firmly connected, the raspberry is well behind the stem, transportable. The beginning of ripening occurs at the end of July or the beginning of August, before frosts (September-October). The caramel has time to give 90% of the second crop.
Caramel shoots, slightly prickly, upright, 1.5 m high, can be grown without trellis. The variety is suitable for both industrial and private cultivation. As a result of the active formation of shoots, in the first year a fruit wall is created, the next year after planting a commercial crop can be harvested.
Terms and soil preparation
Caramel can be planted in the spring (from April to mid-May), and in the fall (after September 15). Culture is very tenacious, quickly mastered in a new place and starts to grow. When spring planting, the first berries will ripen in the same year. Traditionally raspberries are grown along fences or walls on their south side. That is, we need shelters that protect the landing from the wind, but not from the sun. In the shade of a good harvest, you do not get a spring, the soil thaws there for a long time, rainwater stagnates in the summer. As a result, the roots rot, plants suffer from fungal diseases.
Raspberries in one place can grow 10–12 years old.
The area under the raspberries digging and fertilizing six months before planting seedlings: in the fall, if spring planting is planned, and in the spring for autumn rooting. 2–3 buckets of compost or humus, 50–60 g of superphosphate and 30–40 g of potash fertilizer are applied per 1 m². On heavy clay soils, 0.5 buckets of coarse sand are added to fertilizers. Raspberry loves breathable loose soil on which there is no waterlogging.
Criteria for selecting plant seedlings
- The height of the stem is 30 cm. Moreover, a thick stem is not an indicator of quality, in a raspberry seedling the main thing is the root.
- Root - fibrous, that is, with a lot of thin roots. Seedlings with thick and bare roots will take a long time and slowly grow.
- On the roots there are several renewal buds or young shoots already beginning to grow.
Planting raspberry seedlings in a permanent place
- Saplings before planting process biostimulant and fungicide for rapid rooting and prevention of disease. You can powder the roots with a dry mixture of Kornevin and Fitosporin (10: 1).
- On the prepared site, dig the landing holes on the spade bayonet under the scheme: 50 cm in a row and 1–1.5 m between the rows. The rows of raspberries are oriented from south to north, so that the aisles are well lit and warmed by the sun.
- To spread out seedlings in the pits, straighten the roots that should not be bent up, curl, etc. For this, the landing pits are deepened and expanded, focusing on the size and location of the roots.
- If the soil is not fertilized in advance, you can prepare a fertile and loose mixture for each seedling: mix garden soil from the pit with soil (1: 1), 2–3 tbsp. spoons of ash and a pair of handfuls of river sand.
- Cover the roots with soil, slightly tamping. Raspberries are planted to the same depth as it grew in the mother liquor, can be buried by 2-3 cm.
- Stems cut to ground level or shortened to 30 cm. They are needed only as markings landings.
- Form the wells under each bush and pour 2-3 liters of water.
- Fill the holes with dry earth, but so that around the stems there is a recess for watering.
- Landings are watered once a week if there is no rain.
With a shortage of planting material, large above-ground shoots of raspberries can be cut, divided into cuttings, each dipped in Kornevin or another biostimulator and planted in a moist substrate.
Terms and norms of irrigation: table
In fact, the amount of watering depends on weather conditions. If it rains, the soil is moistened to a depth of 35 cm, then it is not necessary to water. There are two ways to “water” raspberries: sprinkling and furrows. The first method is convenient only for the gardener, and for the plant - this is an extra contact of the crown with moisture, the creation of favorable conditions for the development of fungal diseases, irregular watering, the risk of overmoistening of the soil. It is much more efficient and useful to water in the furrow. To do this, along the rows of raspberries, they dig out grooves with a depth of 10–15 cm, fill them with water, let them soak in, and fill it with dry soil.
Loosening raspberries is possible only between the rows, since in the first year the space between the bushes in the rows will be filled with young growth. But you can free yourself from loosening and even from weeding, if you grind the soil with a thick layer of sawdust, hay, mowed grass, etc.
For two full yields Karamelku need to be well fertilized. Malinnik first year, if the soil was well seasoned before planting, do not feed. All subsequent years, plants need nutrients. Fans of organic farming can replace mineral supplements in the first half of summer with infusions of bird droppings (1:20) or mullein (1:10), and after collecting the summer harvest, water the bushes with infusion of grass with ashes. In the autumn raspberries mulch humus.
The recipe for herbal infusion: grass (mostly nettle) is filled with a barrel, filled with water, add 1 liter of ash to each bucket of water and leave for a week. For dressing dilute 1 liter of infusion in 5 liters of water.
Trimming: how to do it right
Throughout the summer, shoots are removed that grow between the rows (along the paths), as well as the extra shoots in the rows (thin, crooked, rubbing against each other). When pruning the shoots can not be pulled out of the ground or dig, you need to carefully cut at the root (without hemp above the ground). In the fall pruning is done in two ways.
Autumn pruning, if the second crop does not ripen, and it is planned to receive only one - summer:
- All shoots pruned under the root, leaving no hemp.
- Burn the pruned shoots and fallen leaves. So, raspberry jam free from pests and diseases accumulated over the season.
Autumn pruning, if you plan to get two crops:
- Cut at ground level after the fruit-bearing two-year shoots.
- Remove all weak, thin, crooked annual shoots.
- The remaining annual shoots cut off the tops, which already had berries.
- Collect fallen leaves, cut off shoots, tops and burn.
In the second method, spring and sanitary pruning will also be needed, during which all frozen and broken stems must be removed.
History and description of the variety
For more than 200 years, reparative raspberries have been cultivated, but in the old varieties, fruiting during the autumn period is insignificant. Caramel - the achievement of modern Russian breeding. For 10 years, our scientists conducted experimental development in many regions of the country, as a result, the aromatic variety Caramel was created by researcher I. V. Shiblyov from Nizhny Novgorod. In 2016, it is included in the State Register and recommended for cultivation throughout Russia from Kaliningrad to Kamchatka.
Remontant variety of medium early ripening. Since not only two-year-old but also one-year-old shoots are fructifying, they produce twice a crop during the season - in summer and autumn. It is frost resistant, so the crop can be cultivated even in regions with a cold climate.
Characteristic varieties Caramelka
Caramel forms a straight-growing shrub of medium size (up to 1.5 m), stable, not requiring a garter. Young shoots with a wax coating, pubescent, green, by the end of the season become purple. The spike of the branches is medium, the spikes are not very hard, are located along the entire length of the shoot.
Caramel grows in a medium stable bush that does not require additional support
The main value of the variety is berries with an average weight of 3.8 g, a maximum weight of 8 g, of a wide conical shape, light red, shiny. They contain: sugar - 4.2%, acid - 1.0%, vitamin C - 48.0 mg per 100 g of berries. The flesh is soft, sweet, with a raspberry flavor, taste rating is 4.6 points. The dense pulp of the fruit allows you to transfer transportation without loss of presentation.
Fresh fruits are stored for long, 2-3 days in the refrigerator. Most of the harvest goes on freezing, preparing jam, syrup, kvass, juice. Fresh raspberries are recommended to include in the menu for patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Hot tea with raspberry jam or dried berries helps with colds, decoctions of the leaves have an anti-inflammatory effect in diseases of the stomach.
Raspberry varieties Caramelka light red shiny berries, sweet as caramel
Caramel begins to fructify in the first year, the average yield is 112 kg / ha, up to 5 kg of berries can be obtained from the bush. The harvest from biennial shoots is harvested in July, from annuals - in September - October.
Resistance to diseases and pests at the level of standard varieties. The disadvantage is the average drought tolerance and heat tolerance. In strong heat at temperatures above +35 ° C, berries are baked, branches dry even with good watering.
Planted culture in spring and autumn. In the spring, it is necessary that positive temperature values be maintained throughout the week. Seedlings root quickly, grow a vegetative mass and begin to bear fruit in the fall. However, during spring planting, fruiting is not so abundant, because all the forces of the plant go for survival. The most suitable period for planting is autumn, 20 days before frosts: the seedlings will have time to take root before the cold, and in the spring they will devote all their forces to the growth of shoots and the formation of harvest.
Purchase of seedlings
Quality planting material - the key to a good harvest. Healthy seedlings are purchased in garden centers or nurseries, where there is a great variety of varieties. You can also get advice about the features of the plant and its care.
Raspberry seedlings should have a well-developed, fibrous root system.
When buying, you should carefully consider the seedling: it must have flexible, not dry shoots, without dark spots, as well as a fibrous root system without rot and damage. It is better to acquire plants in a container - they are planted together with an earthy clod, the integrity of the roots is not broken, therefore, the survival rate will be higher.
Watering and loosening
The repair raspberry Caramel suffers both due to excessive waterlogging of the soil, and from lack of moisture. In strong heat, with insufficient watering, the shoots weaken and dry up, the berries become smaller. With excessive wetting, the tops of the shoots turn yellow, the culture freezes over even with relatively small frosts.
The berry is watered once a week (10 liters per bush), young plantings - more often. The plant especially needs moisture during flowering and the formation of fruits. In small areas, watering is carried out by sprinkling or through grooves. Sprinkling with a hose or an automated irrigation system with sprinkling nozzles is recommended in the morning or after sunset. At the same time not only the soil is moistened, but also the foliage. However, at the time of fruiting, this type of watering is not used to avoid rotting the berries.
When sprinkling wetted not only the soil but also the foliage
More often used watering through the grooves. Around the bushes make circular watering grooves and make them water. When a belt planting watering grooves are laid on both sides of a row 40 cm from the bush.
In large areas, it is better to use drip irrigation. Drip irrigation system, consisting of a tape with droppers, allows you to evenly deliver moisture directly to the roots.
Drip irrigation is convenient to use on large plantations of raspberry.
At the end of the season, before the onset of frost, be sure to carry out prewinter watering (20 liters per bush).
After watering, loosening should be carried out to remove soil crust that prevents air from entering the root system. Due to the surface location of the raspberry roots, the soil between the rows is loosened to a depth of no more than 15 cm. Then a layer of mulch is placed under the bushes, which retains moisture in the soil and prevents the growth of weeds.
Remontant variety Caramel demanding of soil fertility, lack of trace elements immediately affects the appearance of the shrub. If the foliage turns yellow, the shoots grow poorly - it means that the plant needs to be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. With a lack of calcium, the leaves are deformed, the ovaries fall. Little potassium - leaves curl, a dark rim is visible on the edge of the leaf plate. Magnesium deficiency is manifested by yellowing of the leaves from the middle to the edges.
In the year of planting the berry is not fed. The following season, in the spring, ammonium nitrate (40 g / m 2) is introduced under digging - nitrogen stimulates rapid shoot formation, and potassium salt (60 g / m 2) is used to form the ovaries. In the middle of summer, shrubs are fertilized with Nitrofos (60 g / 10 l), at the end of the season - with superphosphate (50 g) and potassium salt (40 g / m 2).
The complex fertilizer Agricola contains all the trace elements necessary for the berry crop.
Mineral fertilizers are useful to alternate with organic matter - mullein, bird droppings. They are diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10 and 1:20 and make 5 liters of solution per bush. Instead of potassium salt, wood ash (500 g / m 2) can be used. In the autumn, the soil under the bushes is mulched with humus or compost - this mulch reliably warms the roots in the winter cold, and by spring, having overheated, turns into a useful fertilizer.
Experienced gardeners use grass extracts to feed raspberries. Dandelion, nettles put in a 50-liter barrel, add 100 g of ash, a handful of earth, 100 g of yeast, 1 kg of chicken droppings, pour water and put ferment for a week. Then the infusion is diluted with water (1:10) and 0.5 liters are poured under the bush.
From the banana peel can be prepared infusion, rich in potassium. Peel 3 bananas poured 3 liters of water, insist week. At the bush spend 1 liter of infusion.
Only on well-fertilized soil can you get high raspberry yields.
Garter to the trellis
Caramel's dense strong bushes do not bend even under the weight of berries. However, growing on a trellis largely simplifies care: it is easy to approach shrubs and harvest, they evenly warm themselves in the sun and are well ventilated. Support is easy to install yourself. On poles 2 m high, set 3 m apart from each other, they pull the wire in 3 rows and tie bushes to it.
When growing raspberries on a trellis, it is easier to take care of it, the bushes are evenly lit and well ventilated
To ensure high yields, it is necessary to properly form a bush. Pruning raspberry pruning has its own characteristics. If the berry is grown to produce a single crop, at the end of October all shoots are cut. This pruning simplifies the care of the berry, does not require shelter for the winter. During the season they also get rid of small shoots, which take 50% of the culture feed.
If you need to get 2 harvests per season, in the fall, only the stalk-bearing stalks are cut out, all shoots are removed to obtain a single harvest.
If they plan to get 2 harvests per season, only two-year-old stalks are removed, the tops are shortened by 15 cm from annuals. In the spring carefully inspect the bush, clean and freeze dry stalks. Перед цветением побеги длиной 1 м прищипывают для образования боковых ответвлений и увеличения урожайности. Однако плодоношение тогда сдвинется на 2 недели.
Можно засадить весь ягодник, имея на участке только один кустик малины. Малина легко размножается, но нужно помнить, что отводки и надземные зелёные черенки не годятся для получения саженцев.
Есть несколько эффективных способов размножения растения:
- Семенной. The method is laborious, while varietal characteristics are lost, so it is used during breeding work in agrotechnical laboratories. In personal farms does not apply.
- The division of the bush. An adult plant with a strong root system can be divided into 4–5 parts. In autumn or early spring, the stalks are shortened to 45 cm, they dig up a bush with roots and divide it. Each delenki should have developed roots and 2–3 strong shoots. Seedlings transplanted to a permanent place and watered.
During the transplant raspberry bush with a powerful root system can be divided into parts
The breeding method of root cuttings is very good in the case when the raspberry stalks are affected by the disease
To stimulate rooting, the cuttings must be kept for 12 hours in a root formation stimulator.
It is necessary to distinguish between the concept of "cutting" and "green cutting" (green shoots sprouting). The stalk is part of the stem with the buds. The green stalk is the tip of a green growing shoot.
Preparing for the winter
At the end of the growing season, it is recommended to remove all shoots. Growing Caramel as an annual crop and cutting the stems allows you to safely survive the winter cold, as well as to prevent the appearance of pests that winter on the shoots. It is only necessary to cover the mulch roots. However, it is more attractive for gardeners to get 2 crops. In this case, only two-year-old shoots are removed in the fall, annual stalks are warmed. The branches bent by an arc attach to the wire tense along a row, cover with agrofibre. To avoid vyprevaniya shoots, cover them no earlier than a week before frost.
Annual shoots of remontant raspberries necessarily cover for the winter