To know what is at stake, you need to understand what the ash tree looks like. It is extraordinarily beautiful, primarily due to its leaves, which are so thin and delicate, that through them you can see the sun's rays. Light penetrates through the leaf, so the tree has such a pretty name. According to the Dahl dictionary, the word "ash" comes from "bright, clear."
Ash is a deciduous tree, so it changes its leaves every year. In general, there are about 60 species of this plant in the world, the largest of which is white ash. This is a very powerful tree. Its leaves resemble feathers of birds with a symmetrical structure.
The ash tree dissolves its flowers even earlier than the leaves. Dark brown or purple flowers are collected in bunches of several pieces. Most often they do not have a corolla and calyx, but there are several stamens, which are a distinctive feature of the tree.
It’s better to see than to hear many times, so it’s worthwhile to take a closer look at the photos, which show better than any words what ash really is.
Ash likes wet, spacious places with a warm climate. It can often be found in various reservoirs, rivers and other places with high humidity. As for the area, of course, you will not meet it in places with a sharply continental climate, because it is very thermophilic.
Many ash trees can be seen in Ukraine, Moldova and the Caucasus. It can be found in the Crimea, Asia Minor and the European part of Russia. Most often, ash grows in mixed forests, it likes to coexist with alder. It is also found on large glades and on glades, where there is a lot of sunlight. No wonder people loved the tree ash. Where it grows - there is always the sunniest place, and near water.
This tree has been loved by man since ancient times. Many ancient people even believed that their ancestor was an ash tree. The description of this interesting judgment can be found in the poem "Works and Days" of the poet of Ancient Greece Hesiod. It was on the pages of his work that the ancient Greek gods found two trees: ash and alder - and made of them, respectively, a man and a woman, endowing them with body, soul, feelings and mind. Even in the paradise of ancient Greece, ash continues to live and delight those who come to this place with its beauty.
In Lithuania, this tree symbolizes a righteous and clean life. Ash is featured in Lithuanian fairy tales, legends and stories. In addition, many nations treated the ash tree very favorably, loving and honoring this tree. Perhaps only the oak surpassed it in power, but not in beauty.
Why do we love ash so much?
No wonder the tree ash was distinguished from others from time immemorial. There are many reasons for this. The first, very important is its beauty and nobility. Ash trees were planted where it was necessary to give a noticeable and uncommon appearance to the city, village or village. Ashenis planted alleys, parks, so that later, walking through them, enjoy their beauty. This plant has always deservedly considered and is considered a valuable tree species.
In addition to external beauty, ash is popular because of its resistance to frost, the negative external effects of poor environmental conditions, exhaust gases, soil compaction. It is planted along the roads.
In addition to the above advantages, ash is widely used in traditional medicine. His broth soothe the nervous system, treat dysentery, gout. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory properties, is indispensable for rheumatism, kidney disease, arthritis and is an excellent diuretic.
In spring, ash, like birch, gives a delicious sweet juice that can replace sugar for diabetics.
Ash was fallen in love for its wood, which is very durable and resilient. Since ancient times, warriors have made weapons, bows, spears, and batons that withstood military campaigns, participating even in the most difficult battles. In Russia, they made dishes, rockers, hoops, and even wheels. Modern athletes also use sports equipment made of ash: excellent quality skis, racing oars and gymnastics bars.
Furniture made of wood is simply gorgeous. This wood is easy to process, perfectly polished and almost not deformed during operation. The drawing of the fibers is very beautiful; it is not for nothing that this tree was chosen for the furniture of the Kremlin Palace.
Ash begins to bear fruit at a mature age - 20-30 years. Its fruits are called lionfish and are especially striking in winter, when they are not blocked by leaves. Each year, ash trees are literally covered with seeds that bullfinchs and other birds, as well as mice, eat. Even horses feed on lionfish, primarily because they are very nutritious and contain a lot of protein.
Many people also use the fruits of ash in food. For example, in England they are harvested and pickled, thereby getting a snack to the main dishes. In the Caucasus, too, stockpins are harvested in a similar way. The result is a savory tasty seasoning, which has valuable properties and contains vitamins. In general, ash is a relative of olives (the genus Ash is a member of the Olive family), so you should not wonder why its fruits are so tasty.
Ash is a type of tree that is very sunny, so you should choose places with good access to the sun for its planting. The soil should not contain much salt and be too wet. Also, ash trees do not like too tight planting, so you should worry about this in advance, planting trees at a distance of at least 5 meters from each other. Before planting, the tree should be held in water, and then watered regularly during the first 3 days. If summer is given dry, then it is advisable to water regularly, otherwise it is enough to water twice a day for the whole summer.
In order for the tree to grow beautiful and healthy, it is desirable to feed it with various fertilizers and process it in time from harmful insects. If you follow all these rules, it will grow strong and tall.
Look at the ash tree, the photo of which is presented below.
Isn't it great? In the shade it is possible to relax, enjoying the coolness, you can make a lot of useful and necessary things out of its wood, it will help to improve your health and allow you to taste a tasty and unusual snack from the fruit. And you can talk with ash as with your best friend. That, however, was made by a hero from a Soviet film loved by millions of people.
Fraxinus excelsior - common ash - grows in Central and Western Europe, the temperate climate zone of Russia, in the Caucasus, in Iran. It is found in the composition of mixed and deciduous forests, planted in parks, alleys, squares. DTrees of this species rise to 25–30 m in height, individual giants grow to 40 m. Krona form sprawling and openwork. The leaf of ash ash reaches 40 cm, consists of narrow, bright green leaves 6–9 cm long, located opposite the cuttings. The bark of the tree is greenish-gray, with age it becomes covered with cracks. Flowers appear early in April, even before buds bloom.
It grows in the eastern part of the North American continent. This tree is characterized by the form of compound leaves - wider and shorter than that of an ordinary ash tree, with jagged edges. The inflorescences are long and fluffy, the fruits are about 3 cm in size. The crown of the American species is light green and wide. The growth of trunks - up to 40 m and more. The bark is silvery or whitish, smooth.
This view is also called Pennsylvanian. It is frost-resistant and moisture-loving rock, grows up to 20 m, is very picky about lighting, quickly dies in the shade of other trees. Young shoots are covered with velvety fuzz, leaves are dull, dark green, slightly lighter on the back side and also slightly pubescent. The bark is brown-brown, spring inflorescences have a yellow-green tint and almost round. Pennsylvania ash is a long-lived, growing in favorable conditions up to 300-350 years.
The homeland of this species is the Far East: its Russian part, as well as China, Japan and Korea. Manchurian, or Chinese, ash is large in size - its trunks rise to 35–40 m, in diameter - up to 2 m. The leaves are very large - individual leaves up to 12 cm long and 7 cm wide make up a brush on the handle up to 50 cm. Chinese bark Ash is very thick and ribbed, gray-green.
Planting and care
In the natural environment, plantings with a predominance of ash trees are important for strengthening the slopes and ravines. Their powerful branched root system keeps layers of soil from shedding and helps protect from drying out, concentrating moisture. In addition, the value are decorative qualities and ash wood.
Resistance to pest damage, polluted air, unpretentious care, beautiful appearance make various types of ash a real find for landscaping parks and gardens. Ordinary, American or fluffy views that do not form a dense shade are best suited for landscape design. There are also special decorative varieties, bred specifically for urban conditions.
It is possible to plant an ash tree on your own private plot. Sprouting seeds for this is not the best method, the result will have to wait a very long time. Faster to get beautiful trees can be when planting ready seedlings. The main requirements for growth conditions: well-lit sunny places, soil acidity.
For planting prepare pits, three times the volume of root clods of seedlings. Drainage from stone and sand is laid inside, filling the grooves by about ¼ with them, moisten the soil. If there are several seedlings, the distance between the pits should be at least 5 m. After planting near the trunk, they are compacted with an earthen ball about 15 cm high. To ensure direct growth, it is useful to strengthen the trees with pegs. Around the trunk it is necessary to pour mulch with warming roots: chips, sawdust, pine needles. Young ash trees in the first 3–4 years of life are especially in need of warming before winter, since severe frosts can destroy them. Subsequently, mulching is stopped.
If the soil is fertile, ash grow quickly - in the year stretched to 40 cm. The crown is also formed rapidly, sounding outward. To give it a well-groomed appearance, making pruning, you need in early spring, before the onset of active vegetation, before flowering.
In spring and autumn, the trees must be fed:
- in April it can be a mixture of manure, urea, ammonium or calcium nitrate, diluted in water,
- in October, the trees are watered with Kemira Universal fertilizer at a ratio of 20 g per 20 l of water.
In special irrigation, saplings need only dry weather. Ash roots can extract water from great depths. Waterlogging can adversely affect their condition, causing the shoots to rot. If such signs are noticed, cut off the diseased branches, process the sections with crushed activated carbon and reconsider the water regime.
Pests rarely appear on the bark and shoots of ash. When damaged by bark beetle or ash groan, trees are treated with special insecticides.
Characterization and use of wood
Ash wood is characterized by high strength and beautiful contrasting texture. Sapwood bends well. Year rings, wavy bridging, different density of the early and late layers and differences in color within one log provide the material with an original beautiful pattern. The surface on the slices is matt, ash has no pronounced brilliance.
The density of wood is about 680 kg / m³, ash exceeds oak in terms of strength.. It is not easy to chop wood or cut it with hand tools due to its hardness and uneven anatomical structure. However, this material perfectly holds different types of fasteners: nails, staples and screws.
Bio-resistance is far superior to other wood species. With age, resistance to fungal infection and other pathogens increases.
The disadvantages include severe drying during processing and possible swelling during operation. For this reason, lumber requires a thorough protective treatment. In addition, the high density of ash prevents uniform staining of fibers with tinting agents. But properly dried and prepared material is durable - serves for many years without distortion.
Ash wood of Russian origin can sometimes suffer from internal rot due to the formation of frost cracks in old trunks.
In the antiquity, labor tools, clubs, rattles, bows, arrows and stakes used in hunting and in battles were made from durable ash wood. The boards were used in shipbuilding, the production of sleds and carriages, they made dishes out of an array, bend rocker arms, wheel rims, made collars and axes.