Cross turkeys Big 6 was created by breeding, by the British firm Brutiss Unaited Tyurrkss in 2007. The paternity line BUT 8 and the parent BIG 5 were used for breeding.
Bird refers to the meat type of productivity. Big 6 is a young cross, which appeared on the Russian market relatively recently, but has already managed to recommend itself due to its large mass, precocity and viability.
Description of cross-country Big 6
Big 6 turkeys are large and massive poultry with different stocky bodies and a relatively small head. For white color and fluffy tail, this cross is easily distinguished from other species. White plumage is located all over the body, not counting the little black speck on the chest. Females are not as fluffy as males.
The plumage is quite dense and thick, with a characteristic brilliance. The appreciation of Big 6 turkeys is highly appreciated, due to its softness and lightness, it is in demand in industry. The back of the birds is flat and wide. Pectoral muscles are pronounced, bulging. Wings of large sizes.Breed appearance
The bird stands on large, strong and sinewy legs. On the long neck is a small head. A distinctive feature of turkeys - the presence of coral, skin folds of red, located in the head and neck. On the top of the beak there is a dermal, vertically hanging down appendage, which, during the period of arousal of the bird, can reach 12-15 cm.
Turkeys have a lively temperament, they are strong enough and can stand up for themselves. As for community with other birds, a conflict may arise, therefore it is recommended to keep broiler turkeys separately and by families. Below you can read about it in more detail.
Keeping and breeding turkeys at home
In industrial conditions, turkeys are kept in specially equipped large-sized windowless poultry houses on litter, with controlled lighting and a microclimate, and cellular contents are also often used.Herd of turkeys on the run
Cross Big 6 is bred not only in industrial enterprises, but also in home farms. The basic conditions for keeping turkeys do not practically differ from the requirements for poultry houses for other breeds. On summer home farms, turkeys are kept on a hike and are driven to the barn only for the night. The poultry house for turkeys should be capital.
The walls are made of brick or other durable materials, the floors are filled with concrete. If there are windows in the house, they should open, and in order for the bird not to fly away, they are covered with bars.
The turkeys do not tolerate dampness and cold, so the room should be insulated so that in winter it takes a minimum of heating costs for the house.
On the south side of the house, there is a manhole, the height from the floor should be no more than 15 cm. The floor in the house is covered with bedding of sawdust, hay or straw. It is important that the litter is dry. Since the turkeys are not very friendly, then when keeping a large herd the room is better divided into branches.
Tips for beginners: how to grow broilers
In one compartment it is not recommended to grow more than 30-40 individuals. There are 6 females per 1 male. Poultry houses for broiler breeding build with the calculation of 1-2 adult birds per 1 square. mTurkey roosts
Turkeys, like chickens need roost. The height of the perch from the floor should be 90-100 cm. The perches are made of thick, round wooden bars, at least 40 cm per 1 turkey. Poultry houses are equipped with sockets at the rate of 4-5 females per 1 nest.
Nest parameters: 60x60x60 cm, with a height of 15 cm. The normal temperature in the room is 16-18 ° C, in winter it should not fall below 13-15 ° C. Poultry houses are equipped with artificial lighting systems to make a short winter daylight day.
For turkeys, it is necessary to put baths with ashes and sand, so that they can clean the feathers from parasites. Wooden boxes are used as baths: 125 × 80 × 25 cm. Proportional ratio of sand and ash 1k1.
An integral part of any livestock complex are feeders and drinkers. The enclosures for turkeys are built high and are covered from above with a net so that the bird cannot fly away.
Characteristics of cross-country Big 6
The live weight of males is 20-25 kg, and females 10-12 kg. Characteristics of turkey egg production is up to 100 eggs per year. Females start laying eggs at 7-9 months. Weight of 1 egg - 80 g
Hatching eggs last for 26-28 days. Reducibility - 85%. Slaughter yield - 70-75%. Muscle mass is 80%, of which 30% is on the chest. Per 1 kg increase in live weight is 2 kg of feed.
A day for 1 turkey eats 250-350 g of feed. At 90 days, turkeys weigh 4.5–5 kg, and at 150 days, 11–12 kg. Turkeys are slaughtered in 3-4 months, because after this period the growth of the bird stops.
Feeding and keeping turkeys and turkeys
Feeding small turkey poults does not pose any difficulties. In the first 3 days of life, the chicks are given boiled eggs and boiled cereal porridge. Poults should have unlimited access to water. Feed babies every 3 hours, while the feed must always be fresh.
Finely chopped greens and grated carrots are mixed into the feed. Portions should be small, but enough for turkey hens to eat. On day 4, the ration is made up of wet mash on milk and with the addition of herbs.Feeding the chicks
The first 2 months of life for birds is extremely important, so during this period turkeys should be provided with a full-fledged diet, rich in dairy products. It is recommended to feed the cottage cheese, buttermilk, yogurt and the return.
Green fodder is considered a mandatory component of the turkey poult diet. Chopped greens of alfalfa, dandelion, nettle, plantain and clover are mixed into the feed. Allowed in the diet add a little green onions, as a preventive measure against intestinal diseases.
As the birds grow, the number of feedings decreases. In 2 months turkeys enough 4 feedings. For feeding the chicks, special feeders are bought or made independently of plywood. In no case can not use metal, because striking with its beak, the turkey can hurt itself.
On day 7, chicks are injected with vitamin D in the diet, a second procedure is carried out after 50 days. On the 15th day nystatin is added to the feed, aimed at preventing aspergillosis. As prophylaxis, chicks from 6 to 11 days are soldered with antibiotics.
Conditions for growing turkey poults
The main requirement for growing poults is microclimate control. The first month of chicks kept in specially designed compartments on litter.
Light day is 12 hours. Indoors are forbidden drafts and high humidity.
If you compare feeding turkeys with other poultry, you will notice some features. Rations for Big 6 are formed with a large amount of protein feeds and vitamins.
What kind of food to give
They feed turkeys 3 times a day, it is undesirable to overfeed these birds, since large individuals are prone to obesity. In the morning and in the afternoon they feed them with wet mash with the addition of cereals, and in the evening the turkeys receive dry grain.
Cereals and legumes in turkey rations make up to 65%, most of all turkeys are fed oats and buckwheat. Grain feeds provide turkey with 70% protein and are a source of fat. Oil cakes and oil cakes make up a small percentage of the diet (1-2%), but despite this, birds are fully provided with amino acids.
To provide the body with calcium and phosphorus, birds are given meat, bone and bone, fish and blood meal in the diet. To improve digestion, the body requires fiber, which is contained in hay and straw. In the summer, turkeys are fed grass.Food for turkeys Big 6
Green fodder, germinated grain and fodder of animal origin are rich in vitamins A, B, E, N. The diet of turkeys is balanced across all elements and vitamins, in case of their deficiency in young animals, growth slows down, and in adults, egg production decreases.
A detailed description of turkey disease
Newcastle disease. This disease most often affects young animals and causes a large mortality. Symptoms: paralysis of the extremities, green-gray-yellow diarrhea, mucous masses accumulate in the goiter. The disease is incurable, and to prevent it, timely vaccination is carried out.
Respiratory mycoplasmosis. When this disease is afflicted in birds, the eyes become swollen, coughing and wheezing appear, growth slows down. The mortality rate is minimal. For treatment using various drugs prescribed by a veterinarian.
Aspergillotoksikoz. The disease occurs when eating poor-quality food, can also be a source of litter. The bird becomes inactive, sits on its place, sleeps a lot, breathes often, berates, eats poorly, is stunted and dies suddenly in convulsions.
Gastomoniasis. The disease affects the liver and causes diseases of the cecum in young animals. The disease can occur due to poor disinfection of the house. Turkeys have a frothy diarrhea of green-yellow color.
Turkey poults stop eating food, grow weak, lose weight, feathers become disheveled and dirty. The disease is treated with these drugs: furazolidone and osarsol. Also De-worming turkeys is carried out with drugs such as phenothiazine and piperazine.
General breed description
White wide-breasted turkey stands out among other birds for its meat. It is called diet. Contained proteins, fats and carbohydrates are easily absorbed by the body. Elements such as zinc, potassium, magnesium strengthen the immune system. All these properties also apply to Big 6 cross turkeys.
In 2008, this breed of heavy birds was bred in England. Big 6 turkeys have earned respect among the farmers of our country who breed birds for meat or sales.
A distinctive feature of the appearance of turkeys cross Big 6 is the white plumage with a small black insert on the chest. A large number of feathers. This is especially noticeable in the tail section. Large wings, strong, sinewy legs, large sternum. The head is small, the constitution is stocky. Soft and light down.
The females of the heavy breed of turkeys gain an average weight of 11 kg, the males are twice as large - 25 kg. These are the most productive birds. A variety of this breed was bred with averages: female - 7 kg, male - 17 kg. If the male is healthy, then the jewelry on the head and neck will be bright red.
Turkey cross Big 6 is fleshy, the sternum of the bird reaches 30% of the total mass. This breed is the most productive among all poultry, 80% of body weight is meat. Young animals quickly gain weight, after 12 weeks, their average weight is 4.5 kg. Turkeys at the age of five months weigh 11 kg. There is a lightweight cross-Big 6, such turkey poults grow much more slowly, after eight weeks their weight averages 2.5 kg.
Turkeys are slaughtered at the age of 100 days. With optimal feeding and care, they gain maximum weight and full plumage.
Large mass of poults result from the crossing of heavy 6 big cross males with light but fertile turkeys. An alternative to the maternal line can serve as a close breed of Big 9. Broiler turkey to 18 weeks gaining weight equal to 15 kg. A characteristic feature of this bird is high preservation - 96%. The average slaughter yield is 75%. Every day, broilers gain about 0.11 kg. For each kilogram of turkey mass, farmers consume about 2.3 kg of feed.
Thanks to such meat recoil, this breed of birds can be kept at home.
For growing turkeys cross Big 6 prepare special poultry houses. An important condition for care is deep bedding, it is changed twice a week. During cold weather and in winter, the temperature in the room should not drop to +15 degrees. For growing fledgling poults it is recommended to maintain this indicator at the level of +35 degrees. It is important to avoid sudden changes in temperature.
There should be no drafts in the house. Dampness should be avoided, timely airing will help. For convenience, the birds set perches, they should be located at a height of 70 cm from the floor. The length of the perch should be enough for all birds, each will need about 40 cm of space.
An important condition for growing turkeys is a large amount of fresh and clean water. Drinkers are placed at the level of the back of the bird, this allows you to avoid falling litter and debris into the water. In the trough add gravel and shells, for a sufficient amount of minerals in the diet. In addition to drinking bowls and feeders, install tanks with sand and ash. They are essential for bird hygiene, turkeys regularly clean their feathers.
For feed turkeys cross Big 6 will suit the same composition as for other breeds. Due to the large mass and rapid weight gain, a large amount of feed is required. The daily ration for cultivation may consist of feed with the addition of potatoes, silage, corn, grain, carrots and various greens. The composition allowed the addition of dairy products and meal. Chopped onions will help to increase the appetite of turkeys.
In summertime, Big 6 turkeys are released for spacious paddocks. Fresh air and sunlight are important for birds. In case of insufficient area of the site, it is possible to install a special solarium. The floor in such pens is made of cement, a two-meter mesh fence is installed around the perimeter. Every day, litter is removed from the floor surface.
To increase the number of eggs at home, extend the daylight with special lamps. Security nests provide nests semi traps, a special entrance allows small females to penetrate, while large turkeys will not be able to get there.
Big 6 turkeys are a guarantee of the profitability of the entire bird farm, but their cultivation requires a large area for walking. If the plot area is small, farmers keep turkeys in special batteries with sloping floors. In this case, each egg will roll. A feature of these birds is laying eggs in a standing position. The integrity of the product provides a rubber coating.
At home, Big 6 turkeys can be hatched with hatching eggs or by buying chicks.
White wide-breasted turkey is well suited for growing at home. To increase the number of livestock turkeys Big 6, you can buy turkey poults or hatching eggs. The percentage of eggs that hatch varies between 73 and 85 percent, which largely pays off.
Cross egg Big 6 turkeys white or beige with brown dots. It can be placed in an incubator during the first week. Before laying, the hatching egg is disinfected and warmed up. On the seventh day, the eggs are checked for viability. The incubation period lasts 28 days.
You can purchase hatched chicks from local and European farmers.
Turkey poults Big 6 require special care when grown at home. Chicks must be kept in a separate room from adult males. The first stage of cultivation will be the processing of turkeys with formaldehyde, with the help of hydrated lime or iodine checkers. As well as for adult turkeys, cleanliness in the room, feeders and drinking bowls is important for chicks. It is important to regularly clean the litter.
Tips for feeding poults:
- Avoid poor quality or expired feed,
- In the first week of life, add vitamin D3 to your diet,
- From day 6 to day 11 turkeys are given antibiotics to prevent diseases,
- In the second week, nystatin is added,
- On day 57, repeat the course of vitamin D3.
In the responses of novice poultry farmers, feed difficulties can be encountered. They are associated with improper care for turkey poults. It is not allowed to add fatty foods (seeds, kefir, sour) to the feed and its composition differs from the diet of domestic chickens.
Description and characteristics of the cross
Big 6 turkeys are pretty young cross bred by English breeders relatively recently - in 2008. These heavy birds successfully settled down in our country, having fallen in love with domestic breeders.
- thick white brilliant plumage
- a small black spot on the chest
- squat, massive body,
- small head,
- Long neck,
- wide, straight back,
- pronounced pectoral muscles,
- large wings
- big, powerful paws.
Coral-colored skin folds are the hallmark of the breed. They are located in the head and neck, falling vertically down. These bright red earrings and beard are a kind of indicator of excellent bird health. No other turkey breed has such folds. These bright decorations increase in size during arousal, reaching a length of 12-15 cm.
Big 6 turkeys are the heaviest poultry. The weight of adult males - 20-24 kg, females - 10-12 kg.
By six months, the growth of birds is almost completely stopped, and further weight gain occurs mainly due to the accumulation of fat.
Growth table of turkey poults (from 0 to 3 months):
Cultivation and care of adults
Big 6 grown at home combined and cellular method. Contain broiler turkeys in the house on a deep litter that needs to be changed several times a week.
Индюкам требуется много места, что следует учитывать при выращивании кросса биг 6 в домашних условиях. Обеспечьте им простор, в среднем одной взрослой особи необходимо около 40 см свободного пространства. Предоставьте им в летнее время выгул на открытом воздухе. Equip them with comfortable perches in the form of wooden slats, located 70 cm from the floor.
Each razvodchik may be faced with such a problem as the lack of a complete factory feed. In this case, you can prepare the feed mixture for broiler turkeys with your own hands. The easiest way, of course, is to simply mix in the various grains, but it must be remembered that the whole grain is poorly digested. Choosing it with the help of a grain crusher is the most preferable option.
To prepare homemade feed should take:
- wheat - 30% of the total planned grain mix,
- corn - 20% of the volume,
- soy - 20%,
- premix (vitamin-mineral) - 0.15%,
- fish meal - 10%,
- ground egg shells.
You can add chalk to the compound feed, but this should be done with caution.
For example, replacing wheat with barley can not only stimulate rapid weight gain, but also provoke obesity in birds.
Daily broiler chickens are kept in a brooder at a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius. As the turkeys grow, the temperature gradually decreases. It is believed that turkeys are very fond of heat and should be kept at high temperatures. But it is erroneous. For fledglings, 20-25 degrees are necessary.
Grown turkeys are transferred to captive content. They are kept, like adult birds, on the floor. Free chicks will be required for chicks, which will help prevent problems with skeleton formation. Broiler turkeys grow very quickly, as a result of which their bones and ligaments do not have time to get stronger. Therefore, in order to raise healthy and strong offspring, it is necessary to provide the chicks with the longest possible walking time. This measure will not protect your pets by 100%, but at least significantly reduce the number of cripples in the livestock.
Big 6 poults need vitamins and large amounts of protein foods.
Important components of the diet are dairy products.
On the first day, care should be taken that chickens receive food every 3 hours. Give them liquid cereals and boiled eggs. From the 4th day you can add wet, milk mash. On the seventh day, enter vitamin D in the feed.
In addition to the starting feed, chicks older than 10 days can be given:
- skim milk, • cottage cheese,
- grated carrots, beets,
- chopped green fodder (alfalfa, dandelion, nettle),
- fish fat,
- chives, which is a preventive measure against intestinal infections.
Provide turkeys with constant access to water and feed, which should always be of high quality and fresh. Portions of food in the feeders should be small in size, but at the same time acceptable for the chicks to feed.
Adult animals of breed 6 should be fed 3 times a day. You can not overfeed them, as the birds have a tendency to obesity. In the morning and afternoon, give the turkeys a wet cereal mash, and in the evening - dry food.
Features big 6 turkeys
Big 6 broiler turkeys are a very good home breeding cross. They are especially attracted to breeders because of their precociousness, unpretentiousness in care and nutrition. Poultry eggs and turkey meat are also highly valued, exceeding in taste, beloved by many chicken. Easily assimilable fats, proteins and carbohydrates make it a dietary one. Phosphorus, zinc, potassium and magnesium in the composition contribute to increased immunity. But they appreciate broiler turkeys not only for tasty and nutritious meat, but also for high-quality, very light and soft down and feathers.
The bird belongs to the group of heavyweight lines, which is gaining weight very quickly. A feature of the breed is the cessation of growth of turkeys after 100 days of age, so there is no need to feed them for a long time.
Big 6 turkeys have a good meat yield, up to 80% of the total body weight. Of these, 30% falls on brisket, which is a very worthy indicator.
The ideal turkey family consists of 1 male and 6-8 females. Turkeys are more valued not for their weight, but for their excellent egg production. On average, one mature female can carry about 105-110 eggs per season.
It is possible to increase the egg production of females by artificially extending daylight hours. Do this with the help of fluorescent lights. If possible, turkeys should be equipped with special half-trap nests, from which the hen can be selected, while other turkeys cannot climb.
Breed of turkeys Big 6 may be subject to the occurrence of such diseases:
- Newcastle disease (incurable) - causes massive mortality. Symptoms: paralysis of the lower extremities, gray-green-yellow diarrhea.
- Gastomonosis (liver disease in turkeys). Called parasitic protozoa. The common name is “a disease of poor content”. Symptoms: excessive thirst, frothy, green-yellow feces, loss of appetite, weakness, trembling, drowsiness, feathers disheveled and have a dirty color.
- Mycoplasmosis. With timely treatment, the death rate of birds is minimal. Symptoms: plump eyelids, cough, wheezing, poor growth.
- Aspergillotoksikoz - develops from the use of poor-quality feed by birds or from their content on the dirty floor. The disease is manifested by inactivity of turkeys, drowsiness, rapid breathing and poor appetite.
Before laying eggs in the incubator, they are carefully selected. All eggs must be the same size. Their surface must be clean, without cracks and chips. Many poultry farmers buy hatching eggs. The percentage of hatchability of poults is 80-85%.
The eggs selected for incubation should not be harvested before the start of the process for more than a week. The yolk of the eggs should be in the center of the shell. In order for this to determine the eggs of the turkeys appear through the ovoscope. The surface of eggs heated to a temperature of 18-20 ° C is treated before laying with a special disinfecting solution.
The process of incubating eggs of BIG 6 crosses lasts:
- heavy types - 28 days,
- light species - 27 days.
Incubation of eggs occurs in several stages, each of which has its own regimes.
Characteristics of the cross
Cross Big 6 is considered to be a group of heavyweight lines, moreover, it is the heaviest species among all breeds of turkeys. The live weight of the drake is 20-24 kg, and the females about 11 kg. The egg production rate of laying turkeys is approximately 100 eggs per production cycle. Females start laying eggs at the age of 7-9 months. The weight of one egg is 80 g. The process of vyzidka eggs lasts for 26-28 days. The yield is 80-85%. Deadly hatchability —70-75%. Of the 80% muscle mass, 30% weigh valuable breast. For 1 kg of increase in live weight takes 2 kg of feed. Per day one turkey consumes 250-350 g of feed. At the age of 3 months, individuals weigh 4.5–5 kg, and at 5 months –11–12 kg. By the age of 100 days (3-4 months), growth stops completely and the bird can already be sent to slaughter. This fact indicates a significant precociousness of meat and high productivity of the breed. This cross is a kind of record holder in terms of output of total body weight.
Big 6 broiler meat, like most other types of turkeys, is dietary. Turkey improves the digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. This meat contains potassium, phosphorus, zinc and magnesium - the elements necessary for the human body.
Preparation of the monastery
At home, poultry farmers use a combined and cellular cultivation of turkeys. Small turkeys from three weeks of age are usually kept on the floor covered with deep and clean straw bedding. Disinfect the selected compound before planting the young and place the feeders and drinkers. Feeders and drinkers are an important component of any farmer complex. The number of feeders and drinkers should be sufficient so that your pets do not crowd and do not interfere with each other.
The construction of premises for turkeys fit with all the thoroughness. Build the walls of the house from bricks or other durable material, and pour floors with concrete. Next, cover the floor with hay or straw. Cover the enclosure from above with a net. If there are windows in the room, close them up with bars so that the bird cannot fly away. The maximum height from the floor should be no more than 100 cm.
As for contact with other poultry, conflicts can arise here. Therefore, it is better to grow turkeys separately and by families. Break the room into offices at the rate of 1-2 adults per square meter.
What to feed Big 6
Representatives of the breed Bit 6 are quite demanding on the diet. Balanced and regular feeding of turkey poults Big 6 is one of the most important aspects of taking care of these birds at home.
Form the diet of young stock in view of the large amount of protein feed and vitamins. The main point is to feed the turkey at exactly the right time. In the life of chicks, the first two months are extremely important. During this period, you must provide turkeys with good nutrition, rich in dairy components. In the early days, feed the chicks every 3 hours, giving them boiled eggs and liquid cereals.
On the 4th day make a diet of wet mash on milk. It is recommended to feed chicks with cottage cheese and skim milk. Mix grated carrots and chopped greens (dandelion, alfalfa, clover, nettle, plantain) in the diet. It is allowed to add some green onions to the feed - this is a good prevention of intestinal diseases.
Feed must always be fresh. Make portions small, but sufficient to fill up your pets. Also provide kids unlimited access to water. As the young grow, reduce the number of feedings. At 2 months of age, four feedings per day is enough for the chicks.
On the seventh day, add vitamin D to your feed. On day 15, add the antifungal drug nystatin to your diet. As a preventive measure, from 6th to 11th day, drink the chicks with antibiotics.
To feed adults Big 6, preferably not more than 3 times per day. Do not overfeed birds, as these large turkeys are prone to obesity.
In the morning and afternoon feeding, give the turkeys wet mash with the addition of cereals, and in the evening - dry grains.Cereals and legumes (oats and buckwheat) in the diet of turkeys should be up to 65%. Grain feeds supply the bird with proteins and are sources of fat. To supply the body of birds with calcium and phosphorus add to the diet of animal feed. Also, the body of turkeys requires fiber, which is found in large quantities in straw and hay. In the summer, feed your pets with grass. Germinated grains and greens are rich in vitamins important for the health of birds. In the case of a lack of vitamins or other beneficial elements in females, egg production is reduced.
We will discuss the most common diseases of the Big 6 turkey breed that you may encounter:
- Newcastle disease. This disease is usually found in young and causes massive death. Characteristic features: paralysis of the legs, diarrhea of green-gray-yellow color, mucous masses accumulate in the esophagus. This disease is incurable, and for its prevention it is necessary to carry out timely vaccination.
- Respiratory Mycoplasmosis. With the defeat of this disease in turkeys eyes swell, there is a cough and wheezing, individuals are lagging behind in development. The percentage of mortality in this case is minimal, the disease is healed by drugs.
- Aspergillotoksikoz - A disease that occurs when fed low-quality food. Sometimes the source can be a raw litter. Symptoms: the individual becomes immobile, sleeps a lot, is stunted, often breathes, eats poorly. If you have found similar signs in your pets, change the feed and litter, disinfect the room. Immediately add lactic acid components to the feed.
- Histomoniasis. The disease affects the liver of chicks. The disease can occur as a result of poor-quality disinfection aviary. In individuals, frothy green-yellow diarrhea is observed. Juveniles stop eating, weaken, lose weight, feathers look disheveled and dirty. Gastomonosis is treated with the help of drugs Furazolidone, Fenothiazine, Osarsol and Piperazine.