In terms of growing Scorzonera unpretentious: it is cultivated in much the same way as carrots, but here there are subtleties and problems that need to be addressed in detail.
Scorzonera sow spring as well as carrots in well-lit sun ridges in rows that can be placed at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. When the first true leaf appears, the seedlings are thinned, leaving the plants in a row at a distance of 15 cm from each other. With a more dense placement of the roots will grow small.
Water and weed as needed. It should be borne in mind that although Scorzonera is considered to be quite drought-resistant (although this quality appears only after the formation of the root crop), it is better to water it in time and not allow the root layer to dry out, as this will lead to a sharp decrease in yield.
Mulching and loosening desirable because they provide plants with more favorable conditions for development, which has a beneficial effect on yield.
Concerning fertilizerthe same fertilizers are used as for carrots. The most sensible thing is simply to well initially fill the soil with complex mineral fertilizers, preferably Kemira. But if your soil is not fertile enough, and you have to feed carrots, you will have to feed scoroner, and on the same principle: it is best to use complex mineral fertilizers with trace elements twice a month until mid-August.
Root crops harvested late in the fall, around the end of September, along with the carrots, although selectively the largest specimens can begin to be removed before - around the end of August. Poorly grown, and therefore too thin roots can not dig and leave for next season. In this way, next year you will get big and thick roots long before the onset of autumn. Only it should be borne in mind that scorzonera can freeze when severe frosts (below -20 ° C) occur in the absence of snow cover.
The main difficulty of cleaning scoronery It consists in the fact that its roots are long and easily broken, and the broken ones are not stored for a long time. Therefore, you need to dig very carefully. But digging in the literal sense of the word is not the best option, since a lot of the roots break. It is better not to dig, but to tear off the roots, slowly removing the soil from them to the full depth of the roots with your hands, and only then, again with your hands, gently freeing the roots. If you don’t really like the option of using hands, you can first dig a trench along a row with a shovel, and then shove the roots with the soil gently with the same shovel. Then you will still have to act with your hands, otherwise you will spoil all root vegetables. With this option, cleaning the aisle should be wider, at least 50 cm, otherwise it will not be possible to dig a trench. Some plants can, like carrots, be left to overwinter in the soil for harvesting in early spring or for obtaining seeds.
For long-term storage of roots better to freeze. However, within two to three months they can be stored in the basement at a temperature of about 0 ° C, after placing it in wet sand, which is kept moist for the entire storage period. If the sand is dry, the roots will quickly become flabby.
Western experts point out the following problems in agrotechnica scoronery:
- short term seed preservation - In well-matured seeds, the germination rate in the first year is approximately 80-90%, and in the second, only 30-40%. Therefore, it is better to sow fresh seeds, under the best storage conditions, the seeds of Scorzoner can germinate for up to two to three years,
- slow germination (usually, it takes about two to three weeks from sowing seeds before germination) and in the initial period it is necessary to constantly control the soil moisture level. To speed up germination, you can sow wetted or germinated seeds,
- Scorzoner sowed in cold soil is tintedand although the taste of root crops in flowering plants does not deteriorate, and they do not become hollow (the exception is old Russian varieties), but their size decreases, and flowers have to be constantly broken, which you will agree, is tiring,
- not on any soil and not at all the care scoroner forms long and even roots, ugly same roots difficult to clean
- root vegetables anyway difficult to clean, because by nature they are very fragile,
- in root vegetables it is possible to have a high amount of nitrates with an excessive dose of nitrogen fertilizertherefore, it is better to use complex mineral fertilizers, where the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is fully balanced.
Solving part of these problems today is actively involved in Western breeders. In particular, they created varieties that are resistant to tsvetushnosti - one of the most resistant varieties in this sense - the variety Schwarze pfahl. Work is also being carried out in other directions - in Belgium, for example, Scorzoners are developing varieties that can be sown and harvested using combines (the most suitable varieties from this point of view Lange jan, Hoffman 83 and Flandria). Poland is concerned with the problem of creating varieties best suited for canning and freezing.
Now breeders recognize the great prospects of this culture. They cite two reasons for their promise - on the one hand, Scorzonera - a vegetable with a very delicate aroma and tastewhich is especially appreciated by gourmets, but on the other hand, unlike most other root vegetables rich in carbohydrates, it very useful due to the presence of inulin. Therefore, it is quite possible that in the coming years we can expect the appearance of new promising and less labor-intensive varieties in agrotechnology of scoroners.
In addition to problems and difficulties, there are pleasant moments - scoroner is not susceptible to any diseasesand therefore there are no difficulties in this sense.
To Scorzonera did not bloom
On the one hand, given the susceptibility of Scorzonera to tsvetushnosti in the first year in the case of sowing in cold soil, its seeds should be sown when the soil temperature rises to 12 ... 15 ° C.
On the other hand, if you sow seeds late (and we have a short summer), then in the first year you will not be able to get full-fledged root crops. The roots will be too thin, and it will be pointless to remove them in the fall. Of course, root crops will winter well under a layer of snow and will produce a crop next year, but this will not suit everyone. You can try to find a compromise option and sow wetted or even germinated seeds, as many sow carrots, but in the already warm soil. The result is much better.
To root vegetables were smooth and long
The quality of the roots scoronery directly depends on the growing conditions. Root crops can be even and very long, and then they will be easy to clean, and they can be short and ugly - no housewife will want to cook them, no matter how tasty and healthy they are. Therefore, the task - to get exactly such roots.
- Stony or stony soils are completely unsuitable for cultivation: they grow ugly and branched roots. And although, at first glance, the scoroner is quite unpretentious and seems to be growing on such soils, it is not necessary to expect a good harvest from it in this case. Therefore, the soil should be only sandy and breathable.
- The thickness of the root zone is very important.. If the layer available for root growth is insignificant, then the roots will not be large and even, because they will have to bend and branch to fit in the existing thin layer of root-occupied soil. Therefore, the thickness of the soil layer must be at least 60 cm - the Scorzoner roots can reach this length.
- Scorzonera loves fertile soil - it is on this soil that the roots are the most tender, however, the roots are also formed ugly on the soil fertilized with manure, they branch out, and not get a full-fledged harvest. Therefore, manure can be applied only under the previous crop (the best predecessors are cucumber, potatoes, tomato, cabbage), and for scoroneri it is worthwhile to do with complex mineral fertilizers.
- Significant value regular wateringwith good watering so that the entire root zone is wetted. Superficial watering only worsens the matter and leads to the appearance of freaks: Scorzoners form ugly root crops, in which not one long root, but several short roots, departs from a very wide head.
- Do not forget about timely thinning and naturally weeding Scorzoner. With a strong thickening (or weed infestation of the beds), small and ugly root crops are formed. Therefore, in no case should it be delayed with thinning.
- In addition, there is a serious mistake that gardeners make. The fact is that Scorzonera should not be transplanted, for example, re-planting plucked plants in the process of thinning. Scorzonera, it should be admitted, is getting accustomed, but there is not much sense from this. And the harvest obtained from such ridges can be used except for cattle feed. Root vegetables are small and so branched and ugly that it is completely impossible to clean them.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg city
Scorzoner plant description
Black carrot or goat has fragrant yellow flowers. The flesh at the root is white, dense, all saturated with milky juice. With cultural cultivation, the thickness of the root can reach 35 cm in length and 3-4 cm in diameter.
In nature, there is a mass of wild plant varieties that grow not only in the southern regions, but are also found in the Baltic countries and even in Siberia. There are few cultivated varieties of black carrot: Russian Giant, Volcano, Giant and Ordinary. All of them are successful breeding patterns.
Healing properties of black root
The root contains a large amount of insulin, which consists of fructose. So the root vegetable is just perfect for diabetics. In addition, it contains minerals such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron. Still in the plant a lot of protein, vitamins, biologically active substances.
Scorzonera restores metabolism, copes with diabetes, improves immunity. Medicinal preparations are made on the basis of the plant, but the root has gained particular popularity in Chinese and Tibetan traditional medicines.
Use of Kozelz in food
In cooking, successfully use the roots of the plant. They have a very pleasant aroma of vanilla. Bleached leaves are also prepared - they make a vitamin salad.
Before cooking the roots are cleaned, pre-scalded with boiling water (this way the skin is removed easier). It is necessary to remove the milky juice from them; for this, the peeled roots are soaked in water for a couple of hours. And so that the color does not darken, the water is slightly acidified.
Scorzonera goes well with meat, fish, vegetables. Roots can be stewed, boiled, added to soups. omelets, sauces, dough and use as a side dish.
Dried root vegetables are used in the confectionery industry. Also from them prepare a substitute of coffee. And if you add a small piece of trestle in the preservation, the vegetables will be strong and crispy.
Scorzonera or black carrots - growing
Growing black carrots is not difficult. The plant is quite unpretentious and undemanding, very cold-resistant and can even winter in the soil. But it badly transfers shady places and the dense landing.
Like ordinary carrots, black root is cultivated in a two-year culture - in the first year it gives a rosette of leaves and a root crop, in the second year the seeds ripen. Seeds of the first year are unsuitable for planting, since coarse roots grow from them.
Growing scoronery from seeds involves the use of seed of the second year. The seeds themselves have a dense shell, so before sowing they need to soak. The vegetation period, that is, the period from planting to maturity, is 120-140 days.
It is necessary to plant seeds either in early spring, or at the end of summer, or in late autumn under winter If planted in the spring, the crop will receive in the first year. If you plant in the summer, the plant will take root well and produce crops and seeds for the next year. Autumn planting gives a crop of root vegetables earlier than during spring planting.
Digging up the roots before the most frost. At the same time, it is necessary to be extremely careful, since the roots damaged in the process of collecting are not stored for a long time. After pruning the leaves should be well dried roots. They must be stored upright in wet sand at a temperature of 0-1 ° C. And you can leave the roots in the ground for the winter and dig immediately after the snow melted. In the spring, when the diet is not rich in vitamins, black carrots will be very helpful.
Black carrot juice and its beneficial properties
The quintessence of the beneficial qualities of any vegetable or fruit is considered to be squeezed juice from its pulp, and the first freshness. This fully applies to black carrots. The roots of the plant contain the juice, which is called the milky, and the flesh they have a dense structure, white color and smell, very reminiscent of the aroma of vanilla. The valuable properties of black carrot and what is obtained after its communication with the juicer are comparable to the benefits of carrot juice - at least, if we take into account the vitamin component. In particular, the palette of vitamins of group B is widely represented both in the one and the other carrot. But, if the juice of an ordinary carrot is distinguished by a high content of vitamin. then in the identical black root product it is practically absent, but there is a lot of vitamin C or ascorbic acid.
Of the minerals in the juice and pulp of kozeltsa are magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and iron. But perhaps the black root should be most respected for the presence of inulin in it - a natural polysaccharide that improves metabolism. Spanish scoroner here can give odds to the famous topinamburu. However, inulin is not only in Jerusalem artichokes, but also in the roots of chicory, echinacea, dandelion. The use of garlic is partly explained by the content of this polysaccharide. who earned the status of "popular medicine". Inulin is necessary for diabetics, and therefore it is desirable that people prone to such a serious disease should find an opportunity to get acquainted with black carrots.
What useful can be cooked from black carrots?
Despite all the advantages of black root juice, this is not the only way to use it. Kozelets can be cooked - mainly by cooking, and thus contribute to the diversity of the everyday menu. Root vegetables like black carrots are vegetable delicacies - not for nothing that it is called "winter asparagus." However, it should be cooked about as much as asparagus.
The scheme of actions will look like this: either the washed and peeled roots are put into a double boiler, or they are dipped in boiling salted water for no more than ten minutes. If the roots are small in diameter, the cooking time can be reduced to five minutes altogether. Then it is recommended to pour them with cold water, after which you can serve and eat, seasoned with any vegetable oil.
Eating black carrots in food has a positive effect on the metabolic rate and even, according to the observations of some medics, helps to remove the radionuclides from the body. This allows us to draw some analogies with the properties of corn oil. Enhancing immunity becomes a nice bonus for improving metabolic processes. But, it should be noted that Scorzonera also has a diuretic effect, so that one should not go to extremes.
Black carrot, or scoroner: what is this "miracle"
Black carrot is an edible and medicinal plant. Scorzonera looks like an ordinary carrot with only a black root. The homeland of the Scorzoner is considered to be Southern Europe and Southwest Asia.
The stems of the plant are dark green in color, they can reach a height of 30 to 70 cm. It blooms in May with bright yellow inflorescences. Seeds ripen in June. Edible root has a rich black color, the flesh is juicy, white. In length, the fruit reaches about 15 cm, in width - up to 5 cm.
The weight of one fruit in weight reaches 150-200 g. The root crop can also be left in the ground for the winter, having previously covered the soil with dry foliage. Black carrots have good taste and are much more useful than regular orange carrots. Due to this, scorzonera has found wide application in cooking and medicine. At the sight of Scorzoner you wonder how to use it. Carrots can be eaten fresh, and you can cook soups, vinaigrettes, salads, main dishes. The taste of fresh Scorzonera bitter, resembles black radish. The root crop which has given in to culinary processing, on tastes is similar to an asparagus.
Important!Before eating fresh carrots, it is recommended to soak them in salted water for about an hour. This will help make it not so bitter. Black carrots are perfect for cooking fresh salads in combination with orange carrots, cabbage, beet. Sour cream, mayonnaise, lemon juice will be suitable as a dressing. Скорцонеру также можно варить, жарить, тушить, использовать для консервирования и заморозок. Из нее получится отличный соус к мясному или овощному блюду.
The composition of the plant includes a lot of nutrients:
Thanks to this composition Black carrots are known for a wide range of medicinal properties:
- improves metabolism
- helps reduce pressure
- maintains visual acuity
- has anti-inflammatory, anti-cough effects,
- effective antioxidant.
Did you know?In the Middle Ages, Scorzonera was used to prepare antidotes for viper bites. Due to the high insulin content, black carrots are recommended to be included in the diet for people with diabetes. In addition, scorzonera contains more lutein and carotene than orange carrots, so it is much more useful for maintaining vision.
Preparatory work before landing
Scorzonera loves moist and well-treated soil. Before planting carrots, you must select a suitable site and prepare the ground. For growing plants suitable illuminated area, protected from strong winds. Kozelets does not tolerate shading.The area where the seeds will be sown should be cleared of weeds, last year’s leaves and well dig. The soil should be loose, soft. Do not allow large breasts, otherwise the seeds may not germinate.
If the soil is too acidic, it should be skimped. To accelerate the growth of seeds and retain moisture, the top layer of soil, which will sprinkle the seeds, it is recommended to pre-mix with peat or sawdust. Before planting in the soil it is recommended to apply phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Before sowing, seeds should be soaked for half a day. Floated grains are removed, they are empty and infertile. Then it is recommended to lay out the remaining material on a damp cloth and hold it for a couple of days, maintaining a stable level of humidity. After a couple of days, the seeds will turn and be ready for sowing. This procedure will contribute to the speedy germination of seeds planted in open ground.
The timing, pattern and depth of sowing seeds Scorzoner
Black carrot seeds can be sown in open ground in spring and summer. If you want to receive fruits in the first year, you need to sow at the end of April. If you plan to grow a scorcelonera as a biennial plant, seeds are sown from late April to early August.
Important!Seeds obtained from a plant in the first year of its growth are not suitable for sowing. They do not germinate well and form small thin root crops. Use only seeds obtained from a two-year plant.Since the plant is characterized by a long growing season, seeds are sown early, as soon as the ground dries after winter. If sowing is done late, the fruits will be thin and tasteless.
In areas with not very cold winters, seeds can also be sown before winter. Next year, the roots will grow earlier than during spring sowing.
The sowing depth of seeds should be about 3 cm. 15 g of planting material takes 10 square meters. There are four ways of sowing according to such schemes:
- narrow ranked - 20-30 x 15-20 cm,
- wide-row - 45 x 15 cm,
- double-row tape - (20 + 50) x 20 cm,
- four-row tape - (15 + 15 + 15 + 45) x 25 cm.
Did you know?The best time for sowing seeds is spring, with summer and podzimny planting there is a big risk that carrots will grow in the stems, and not in the root. However, in regions with late autumn frosts, it is better to plant crops in the summer or spring in the greenhouse.
Cultivation and care tips
Scorzonera is a winter-resistant plant, and growing it from seed does not present any particular difficulties. The most important rules for obtaining a successful result are:
- timely watering,
- regular soil loosening
- cleaning weeds,
- top dressing.
Important!When planting is thickened in the first year of growth, flowering stems are formed on the plants, which must be plucked.
Under favorable conditions, shoots will appear in 10 days. When 2-3 leaflets form on them, the shoots break through, leaving 15 cm between them. If you follow these rules, you can get a good harvest of large, juicy and very healthy fruits.
Soil careScorzonera loves moisture, so with prolonged heat the plant needs to be watered three times a week. Young sprouts should not be watered plentifully. As the seedlings grow, the amount of water needs to be added. In the middle of the growing season, carrots are watered once a week.
In addition, it is important to regularly loosen the soil, it contributes to a better penetration of moisture and oxygen to the root system of carrots. When sprouts reach 5 cm, it is recommended to mulch the soil with sawdust or peat, this will help retain moisture around the plant. Mulch land is watered less often, but more abundant. Before laying mulch soil necessarily cleaned from weeds, loosened and watered.
An important element in the care of a plant is the timely cleaning of weeds. They clog the soil, take up space for the growth of carrots, absorb nutrients from the soil and contribute to the appearance of pests.
For better growth is carried out twice feeding carrots. The first time fertilizers are applied one month after the seedlings emerge, the second time - even a month later.
Important!Fertilizers are best applied in liquid form.As a feed you can use such mixtures:
- a solution of a tablespoon of nitrophoska in 7 liters of water,
- solution of two glasses of wood ash in 7 liters of water,
- in 7 l of water mix 15 g of superphosphate and urea, 20 g of potassium nitrate.
Be careful with nitrogen fertilizers. In large quantities, they contribute to the development of fungal diseases. Top dressing is carried out in the morning or evening, so as not to burn the roots of the plant.
Possible problems with growing
In the process of growing carrots, you may encounter such problems:
- excessive moisture or lack of it,
- landing thickening
- fungal disease,
In the case of excessive moisture may cause such trouble:
- cracking fruit
- hairiness of root crops.
With a lack of moisture, the root crop is deformed - it becomes short and starts releasing the side shoots, the fruit of this kind will be very bitter. When planting is thick, root crops will grow thin, too long and tasteless.
The most common diseases that can ruin your crop include:
- rot (white, dry, gray, black),
Dry, white and gray decay are manifested by the formation of a white or gray bloom on the tops or the appearance of a white “cannon” on the soil around the plant. The control methods include: regular loosening of the soil, spraying with copper-containing preparations. With the defeat of the plant with black rot, the tops of the tops twist, with time on the leaves form yellow spots.
In the quality of the fight against the disease the plant is sprayed with “Rovral”.
The appearance of light yellow spots, which eventually turn brown or turn black, indicates brown spotting, against which spraying with a decoction of nettle or horsetail copes well. Cercosporosis is manifested by gray indented spots on the leaves; the treatment of plants with Bordeaux liquid will help fight it.
The plant in the process of growth can also be damaged by pests, the most common among which are:
Against the moth, spraying a decoction of the tops of the tomatoes helps well; from a leafblock, an infusion of laundry soap. From nematodes, carrots are treated with Decaris, and sprayed with a ten percent salt solution against the slugs of the garden. In the case of the appearance of a bear in the pits where she lives, you can pour a solution of vinegar (a tablespoon per 10 liters of water) or two tablespoons of Lotus powder dissolved in a liter of water.
Did you know?Elderwood growing near, chives or woody ash sprinkled on the soil scare away most pests.
Harvesting and storage of the crop
Harvesting is carried out in late September. A day before harvesting, it is recommended that the soil be slightly moistened to make it easier to pull out the fruit. After the carrot has been removed from the ground, it is necessary to shake off the ground with it, cut off the tops to the head. Then a couple of days, the fruit is dried under a canopy.
Before storing, be sure to revise the fruit for damage. For the winter should postpone the most healthy and intact roots. It is best to store carrots in boxes in the basement. Fruits are laid in layers, sprinkling them with wet sand or moss. In order to prevent the fruit from rotting, it is recommended to pre-treat the place of storage with Bordeaux liquor or wood ash extract.
Important!Do not store fruit in areas where the temperature reaches more than 10 degrees, carrots will limp over time and begin to rot. Scorzonera, according to the description, is very similar to the carrot we are accustomed to and is mainly distinguished by the black color of the root crop. Do not be afraid of scorcera and in the question of how to grow it. The process of planting and care is almost identical to the cultivation of orange carrots.
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Scorzonera is also known by other names. It is called black carrot, black root, sweet root. It is not difficult to guess why it is so named in the people. The peel of the root has a very dark, almost black color. And it tastes a bit like vanilla.
Scorzonera can be sown in 3 terms - in early spring, in September and from July to August inclusive. When summer planting harvested in the coming year. This cold-resistant plant and frost when wintering in the open ground will not harm it. In addition, it is a relatively undemanding plant and is easy to grow.
Site preparation for sowing black root
In order for the sconcer to not only bloom beautifully, but also to delight the harvested crop, it is recommended to fertilize the soil for sowing. For this you will need:
• ammonium nitrate,
• potassium salt.
Each fertilizer takes 300 g per 10 square meters. You can also use wood ash - 5 glasses per area.
The soil is dug up to the depth of the spade bayonet, as the root crop will grow deep down. The quality of heavy clay soil can be improved by the introduction of peat, sand. And poor sandy land is easy to enrich with compost, vegetable humus. Organics will need about half a bucket per 1 square meter. Acidity of Scorzonera soil prefers neutral. The excess of this indicator can be corrected dolomite flour.
Sowing the sweet root
Before sowing, seeds of scorzonera recommend germinating. They pecked unevenly, so they sow in several terms in different batches. In our area, the Scorzoner seed can be called a shortage, so economical gardeners do not have the luxury of throwing out those that did not sprout right away, but leave them in a wet environment for another five days.
The rate of use of seeds - 1.5-2 g per 1 square meter. The sowing depth is about 1.5-2 cm. Between the holes for the seeds, a distance of about 10 cm is left, and between the rows they make a distance of 20-25 cm. It is undesirable to squeeze, because with thickened landings scorconer quickly goes to the arrow.
By the way, such “speed-guns”, which form an arrow in the first year, should not be left to receive seeds. Scorzonera is a biennial plant, and high-quality seed can be obtained in the second year of development. Another subtlety that needs to be remembered in seed production is that seed sowing quickly loses germination, so it’s better to take fresh seeds for sowing.
Black Root Care
Caring for crops is loosening, weeding and watering. If the crops were made in the grooves and turned out to be thickened, thinning is carried out in the phase of 2-3 true leaves. Watering should be regular, once a week, but in hot weather - more often. On 1 sq. M. the area of the beds water consumption should be 10 liters. Monitor the appearance of floral arrows to remove them in a timely manner.
Harvesting and using scoroner
Harvest is collected in late autumn. But you can leave it for the winter and in the open field, from this taste only increases. Digging out of the ground should be very careful not to damage the skin. If there was such a blunder - the root must be eaten as soon as possible, otherwise it will spoil.