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Cultivated plants of our planet

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Under the concept "Cultivated plants" all wild and agricultural plants that a person grows to obtain food, industrial raw materials, livestock feed and ornamental purposes fall. Based on the final destination, all cultivated plants are classified into 14 groups.

  • cereals and cereals (wheat, rice, corn)
  • cereals and groats (barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum)
  • cereals and legumes (beans, soybeans, peas, lentils, beans, lupins, chickpeas)
  • starch plants (potatoes, sweet potatoes, manioc)
  • sugar plants (sugar cane, sugar beet)
  • oil plants (olive, sunflower, cotton, flax, mustard, rape)
  • fibrous plants (cotton, flax, hemp)
  • vegetable plants (cabbage, onions, garlic, carrots, beets, peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes)
  • gourds (watermelon, melon, pumpkin)
  • fruit plants (apple, grapes, pear, cherry, plum, currant, raspberry)
  • fruit plants of subtropics (orange, mandarin, lemon, persimmon, fig)
  • fruit plants of the tropics (banana, pineapple, mango, coconut palm, kiwi)
  • stimulating plants (tea bushes, coffee, cocoa, cola, tobacco)
  • narcotic plants (poppy, hemp, coca)

In addition, individual groups of cultivated plants are ornamental, home and spicy plants. As such, the benefits of the first two are not, but they perform an aesthetic function. Spicy plants usually improve appetite.

The study of the origin of cultivated plants has been practicing for about two centuries. At the end of the 19th century, the Swiss botanist Alphonse Decandol, the son of one of the greatest botanists Augustin Decandol, formulated the idea of ​​centers of origin of cultivated plants. He suggested that the cultivated plants began to be displayed by a man who lived in the foothills, and only then, as the flood plain lands were developed, they spread throughout the Earth. This assumption is supported by the fact that the conditions for creating small plots for planting and watering from rivulets and streams are lighter than the conditions on flood plain lands. Thus, it turns out that the most ancient centers of agricultural culture known to us in the interfluve of the Tigris and Euphrates and the Nile Delta inherited and developed earlier achievements of man and in this sense cannot be considered pioneering.

Half a century later, Nikolai Vavilov carried out more than 50 expeditions around the globe and proved the existence of primary and secondary centers of origin of cultivated plants. Their unique collection was collected, saved by the heroic efforts of the employees of the Institute of Plant Industry during the Siege of Leningrad.

There are 12 regional centers of origin of cultivated plants throughout the Earth, but new data are constantly appearing, and the picture cannot be considered final. Approximately equal validity have three concepts of the origin of cultivated plants. According to one, all cultivated plants originated from one center. According to another, there were several independent foci of origin of agricultural crops. On the third, diffuse, there were no centers at all. Some experts believe that the history of peoples and landscapes is so diverse that all three concepts may be partly true.

The age of farming is quite solid. The first people's interest in wheat and barley appeared at least 20,000 years ago - the remains of wild wheat and barley, found by archaeologists at human sites in modern Israel, date back to this period. The oldest finds of cultivated wheat and barley from Jordan are 11,000 years old. According to scientists, the process of domestication of these crops lasted for at least a thousand years. He was quite conscious. Despite the difference in natural conditions and agricultural traditions, different nations created sowing plants with very specific, important for economic management features: non-friable spike, bare-grain, high productivity and a short period of flowering and ripening. Genetic studies show that this rate of breeding useful varieties was possible, because a single mutation is often sufficient for a significant change in plant properties.

Breeds and varieties of cultivated plants are often considered as national and even world heritage. In 2006, under the auspices of the UN, the World Bank-seed storage was created to preserve the planting material of all agricultural plants existing in the world. At the expense of Norway on the island of Svalbard under the ground, in the permafrost zone, a reliable storage facility was built, in which each country received its own compartment.

Classification

    1. Cereals. They are also called cereals. They are very important for a person, as they make up his main diet. In addition, cereals are used as animal feed, as well as used in production. In general, cereals are very important. This group includes such plants as wheat, rice, barley, oats, corn, buckwheat, rye and many others.

2. Vegetable crops also very important for people, as they enter our diet in rather large quantities, and also are suppliers of vitamins, trace elements, macronutrients and other useful substances. The most common vegetable plants are potatoes, zucchini, carrots, cabbage, beets, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, garlic, onions.

  • 3. Fruit crops are real treasures of useful substances. Many fruit plants are the leaders in the list of the most useful plants in the world. It’s hard to imagine where people would get the nutrients they needed if there were no fruit plants. The most famous among them are: apple, pear, orange, kiwi, peach, banana, melon, persimmon, grapes, raspberries and many other plants.
  • All remaining cultures can be divided into:

      - Legumes (beans, peas, soy).

    Separately from all stand decorative crops. Decorative plants are those that are grown for decoration of residential premises, parks, gardens, squares, etc. As a rule, they are grown only for the sake of beauty, but despite this, they can bring considerable benefits. With success and doing. Plants give off oxygen and purify the air. But, besides this, they also possess other useful qualities.
    Examples of ornamental plants are: rose, cactus, asparagus, violet, begonia, aloe and others.

    About cultivated plants

    Due to the fact that agricultural crops are grown by man, they do not have natural habitats. Although sometimes such plants can occur in nature, they are wild, as a rule, which does not prevent them from being used for the same purposes as cultural ones.

    Many species of cultivated plants intersect with others. People are constantly experimenting, trying to achieve a better crop, plant resistance to disease or poor climatic conditions. And quite often, people manage to achieve what they want, thanks to which we see such tasty products of plant origin on our tables.

    Verified Answer

    • salukvadze
    • is good

    Cultivated plants are plants grown by humans for various purposes (for example, for food, drugs, industrial raw materials). Cultivated plants - grapes, rose, tea, watermelon .. legumes, grains, fruit, etc.

    The role of plants in nature:
    1) Plants, as a result of complex biochemical processes create from simple inorganic substances absorbed from the environment, various complex organic. For example, photosynthesis.
    2) Vegetation cover plays a large role in climate formation.
    3) Participates in soil-forming processes, and in improving soil fertility.
    4) Causes the accumulation of water on the surface of the Earth (contributes to the formation of wetlands, maintains the full flow of rivers).
    5) Protects the Earth from ultraviolet rays. 6) Supports the necessary for the existence of living organisms, the level of oxygen in the atmosphere. 7) It is of great importance (as a primary link) in food chains. 8) It releases into the atmosphere substances that kill disease-causing bacteria.
    Plants in human life:
    1) serve as the staple food
    2) used for medical purposes
    3) protect from industrial noise and dust
    4) have aesthetic value (ornamental plants, for example, bring joy, a feeling of comfort and coziness)
    5) used in industry as raw materials
    6) are sources of vitamins
    Therefore, the conclusions: 1. The value of plants depends on their role in the life of other organisms. 2. Without the existence of plants, the Earth will turn into a lifeless desert.

    Flowering plants - plants that have a flower. Exceed in the number of species, all other groups of the plant world. A distinctive feature of flowering plants is double fertilization.

    General information

    Grass - an annual or perennial plant with thin stems, does not apply to trees or shrubs. Cultural is the grass that is planted by man for their own purposes. There are several reasons for its cultivation:

    • medicinal properties
    • the nutritional value,
    • cattle feed
    • decorative effect.

    Refreshing Mint

    Widespread cultivated grass, preferring black soil loamy and sandy-silty soil. For planting choose a place open to the sun with access to water. In the shade this plant has a small amount of essential oil.

    The most common variety is white mint, sensitive to frost and drought. It has an exquisite delicate aroma, but the essential oil can be collected less than that of dark mint.

    About cultivated plants

    The first samples of the cultivation of plants took place in the Stone Age. Primitive man, collecting edible fruits, roots, berries, seeds, etc., drew attention to the possibility of growing the plants he needed near the dwelling.

    Throwing seeds in the friable wet earth and having received the first fruits of agriculture, he gradually learned to manage the process of growing cultivated plants.

    Timely watering, the destruction of weeds, protection from the sudden destruction of the crop by animals and insects, the selection of the best in quality, taste and size of the plants led to an unconscious artificial selection. After a while, the selection marked the appearance of the first cultivated plants.

    And the experience of growing and caring for plants was accumulated and passed on to the next generations. The development of agriculture formed the geographical centers of cultivation of certain crops. The proliferation of cultivated plants contributed to the war, trade, movement and travel. The majority of cultivated plants have been grown for a long time, but some specimens have been cultivated relatively recently. An example is sugar beet, which began to be cultivated at the beginning of the 19th century, while wheat was grown in the 7th millennium BC.

    What is the difference between cultivated plants and wild plants?

    The composition of the soil, the presence of precipitation, the level of temperature indicators, the speed of movement of air masses do not depend on the person, but are created by nature and are not subject to regulation (at least at this stage of human development).

    Such conditions are called the natural habitat. Wild plants have adapted to the habitat and are subject to natural selection and reproduction.

    Video: wild and cultivated plants

    Cultural is in the power of man. Their growth, reproduction, development, harvest, place of growth, planting time depend on people. Without proper attention and care on their part, a good harvest will not be obtained.

    What plants are called cultural

    Plants grown by man for the performance of their goals, called cultural. Goals can be very different. Among them are the acquisition of food, filling the feed base of livestock, the manufacture of drugs from plant materials and others. Selection, hybridization, genetic engineering are the main ways of transforming wild plants into cultivated ones. The latter are divided into 11 groups.

    Decorative

    Plants used for landscaping populated areas, decorating gardens, parks, avenues, streets, decorating living rooms and individual buildings are called ornamental. There are more than 10 thousand types of ornamental crops.

    There are:

    • park trees
    • floral,
    • decorative leafy,
    • lawn,
    • soil protection,
    • reclamation plants.

    When choosing a decorative culture, take into account the color range of leaves or needles, the size and fragrance of flowers, the duration and timing of flowering, as well as the appearance after flowering. Of particular value are plants that retain the decorative (attractiveness) all year. Flower ornamental plantings are the most common and varied in application, composition and care.

    There are a great many kinds of flowers, some of them are bred solely for growing at home (decorative begonias, dieffenbachia, some kinds of violets), others grow beautifully under the open sky. There are species that can delight you both on the windowsill and on the backyard, for example, various roses.

    Deciduous and coniferous trees, evergreen trees and shrubs with falling leaves are classified as decorative parks. By height, high, medium and low plants are distinguished.

    Among the stunted, creeping and dwarf species (mountain pine, juniper, cotoneaster horizontal), which are most beautiful in stone gardens, alpine hills, and slopes, are valued. No less important is the shape of the crown.

    Among them are:

    • pyramidal (poplar, cypress),
    • globular (linden, acacia),
    • conical (spruce, fir),
    • sprawling (ash, oak, sycamore),
    • umbellate (silky acacia),
    • weeping (willow, weeping birch),
    • curly (ivy, grapes).

    Reservoirs are decorated with plants with a weeping crown shape, and streets, squares, parks - with a conical, spherical, pyramidal. In plantings of a single type, cultures of a sprawling and umbrella-shaped configuration prevail. Climbing plants create vertical ornamental structures.

    Hedges of soil-protective plants serve as protection from the wind, marking the boundaries of land, decoration of the landscape. Land-reclamation stands are able to dry the soil (eucalyptus), delay landslides (pine, seed oak), and fix sandy soil (willow-sheluga). To the best lawn plants, there is a giant fringe, the meadow grass and the red fescue are not inferior.

    Cereals and cereals

    Plants grown for grain use are cereals. Grain cereals are used in brewing, animal husbandry, cereals, grain industry and other industries.

    The first place in the collection of gross product and the number of sown areas belongs to the cultivation of grain crops:

    • wheat,
    • rice,
    • oats,
    • barley
    • buckwheat
    • corn.
    Not all grains belong to cereals, for example, there are so-called leguminous crops that are representatives of the legume family, these include soybeans, beans and peas. And the above-mentioned buckwheat comes from the buckwheat family.

    Plants grown for agricultural purposes and eating beans (soybeans, beans, peas, lentils) and green pods (peas, beans) are called legumes.

    They are conventionally divided into:

    • vegetables, cultivated to produce tasty beans and pods (in addition to the above, you can also call chickpeas, mung, Urd, rank),
    • fodder, are present in the feed of agricultural cattle (clover, lupine, alfalfa, sweet clover).

    Also this group includes peanuts, which are usually referred to as nuts.

    For technical purposes, vegetable and fodder legumes are grown to obtain medicinal raw materials, green manurement (enrichment of the soil layer with organic matter and nitrogen by plowing green mass), joint plantings (for example, garden bean and potatoes) to increase the germination rate of both crops, control some pests (for example wireworm). Separate legumes are decorated with decorative compositions (lupine, sweet pea).

    Starchy

    Plants whose tissues contain a significant proportion of starch are called starchy. Potatoes are the main starch culture of the agricultural zones of the planet. This may include some varieties of corn with a high starch content.

    Among other representatives of this species are:

    • yam (found mainly in African lands)
    • cassava (grown in regions with a warm climate),
    • sweet potato or sweet potato (it is also cultivated in the tropics and subtropics).
    Starches are food for people, animal feed, raw material for flour, starch, alcohol, molasses for food and technical purposes.

    Among these cultures, there are endemic species that are not so widespread in world agriculture, but since ancient times they have been cultivated by some countries. These are the tuberiferous cultures of South America: canna, arrowroot, eye, uluko and annu.

    Sugar-bearing

    Plants capable of accumulating sucrose in tissues in significant quantities, and used to produce sugar, are called sugar-bearing. The main crops of this type are sugar cane and sugar beets. Многолетняя культура семейства мятликовых – сахарный тростник – произрастает в тропических и субтропических зонах (Индии, Китае, на Африканском континенте, Кубе, Филиппинских островах, Центральной и Южной Америке).

    Стебли растения содержат 18-20% сахара. The main source of sugar in temperate latitudes is sugar beet. Sugar sargo, sugar and wine palm, sugar maple, watermelon (produce watermelon honey), melons, carob (fruit pulp contains 50% sugar) are also distinguished.

    Plants grown to produce fatty oils are defined as oilseeds.

    Among them are:

    • rapeseed (cabbage family). The economic role of rape in the XX century has grown significantly due to the possibility of obtaining rapeseed biodiesel,
    • oil palm (palm family)It serves for the production of high-quality edible and technical oils. West Africa is considered the birthplace of the world's leading oilseed
    • peanuts (legume family). Peanut butter spread throughout the world from the United States, as well as delicious peanut butter, which, of course, includes butter,

  • Sunflower (Aster family) known for a long time, its cultivation began in North America, occupies 87% of the area of ​​oilseeds,
  • European olive (family olive). In its wild form, the tree has not been found for a long time, it has been cultivated to obtain oil from antiquity,
  • flax ordinary (flax family) serves to obtain valuable nutritional and medicinal oils,
  • soybean (legume family), received the name "miracle plant" for good yield and nutritional composition of the product, known since the III millennium BC. (homeland - East Asia).
  • It is also useful to mention plants whose oils are used primarily in cosmetics: these are apricot, peach, almond, coconut, grape, avocado.

    Fibrous

    Plants, the structure of which allows to obtain a fibrous material for the manufacture of fabrics, paper, some household items.

    Subdivided by the nature of use on:

    • spinning fibers which allow you to create a variety of fabrics (flax, hemp, cotton),
    • rope-rope, consisting of coarse fibers (agave, jute, kenaf, cable, hemp, yucca, nettle),
    • paper, the fiber of which is suitable for cardboard and paper products (mulberry, cane, nettle, drock, spruce, pine, birch),
    • brushes, allowing to make household brushes of different use (palm, agave, sorghum),
    • basket-basket, the fibrous material of which is suitable for wicker products (rogoz, willow, reed),
    • stuffing, which light fiber is used in pillows, upholstered furniture, etc. (Ivan-Chai, cotton grass, vatochniki, rogoz, kendyr),
    • bast-cleaning, providing fibrous material for washcloths and tow (linden, luffa, chayote, pumpkin).

    The most common fiber crop is cotton. It is used in tissues, oil is extracted from seeds, and waste is used as animal feed. China, Uzbekistan, India, USA, Pakistan, Australia, Brazil are the largest suppliers and producers of cotton in the world.

    Creeping (clinging) plants belonging to the family of pumpkin and grown on the “melon”, called melon. The majority of melons have strong roots, elongated clinging stems, bulky leaves and large inflorescences, but there are bushy plants.

    Tropical and subtropical states are considered the homeland of melon crops. Use fresh fruits for food and as raw materials in the medical industry, add to the feed ration of farm animals. Gourd crops include:

    • watermelon,
    • melon,
    • pumpkin,
    • zucchini.

    Agricultural plants, the productive organs of which are grown for human consumption and combined by the general concept of "vegetable", are called vegetable. About 120 crops of this type grow on the planet, about 55 of them are grown in all regions of the world.

    The main direction of application of vegetable crops is in the quality of food both in its original form and processed (drying, squeezing juice, salting, heat treatment). There are also fodder crops intended for livestock. Productive body, called a vegetable, defines the following sections of vegetable crops:

    • fruit and vegetable crops (tomato, vegetable pepper),
    • leafy vegetables (cabbage),
    • bulbous cultures (onions, garlic),
    • root crops (beets, carrots, radish).

    Each vegetable culture has a large number of varieties, spread over different continents, cultivated on open ground and in greenhouses.

    Fruit plants

    Plants cultivated in the production of berries, nuts and fruits are called fruit. All fruit plants are perennial plants; deciduous plants prevail among them, but there are also evergreens. Each culture is defined by the framework of fruitfulness, vitality, requirements for the quality of the soil and environment. Conventionally, the fruit is divided into climatic areas:

    • temperate zone (apple, grapes, pear, cherry, plum, quince, currant, gooseberry, raspberry, strawberry, etc.),
    • subtropical (citrus, persimmon, fig, pomegranate, peach, etc.),
    • tropical (banana, pineapple, mango, coconut palm).

    Stimulating

    Plants that give stimulating and narcotic substances, called stimulating. The composition of plants includes alkaloids, capable of in small quantities to excite blood cells and nerves.

    Among these plants, there are:

    • a coffee tree. Drink from its grains affects the nervous system, briefly relieving fatigue, increasing the concentration and performance of a person,
    • tea bush, or camellia chinese. Tea has truly unique properties - it can simultaneously calm a person, and relieve drowsiness, and increase efficiency,
    • tobacco. May partially suppress the feeling of hunger, thin the blood. It is addictive, which is fraught with various complications,
    • poppy, a number of alkaloids are mined: morphine, narcotine, papaverine, codeine, thebaine, narcein, etc. It is collected and used in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as in the manufacture of illegal narcotic drugs,
    • hemp. Smoking marijuana has a certain intoxicating effect on a person and is prohibited in many states, although in some countries it is allowed for medical reasons, for example, to alleviate the condition of people with oncology.

    Why the yield of cultivated plants decreases

    We define the main reasons for this phenomenon:

    • chemical. Planting crops in the same area leads to depletion of the soil layer, which reduces crop yields. It can be increased by fertilization, liming and soil treatment,
    • physical. The soil structure is destroyed by cultivation and root system of the grown seedling, which violates the thermal, air, water regime of the soil, reduces the yield. To restore the structure of the soil will help complete rest of the land,
    • biological. The permanent cultivation of crops in one area leads to the development of weeds and the emergence of diseases. Weeds adapt to crops, which reduces their yield. Thus, the long-term cultivation of cereals increases the risk of soil damage by wireworm. The method of struggle will be a special tillage and a change of the cultivated crop.

    Climate change may also affect yields if appropriate measures were not taken in time (shelter, soil mulching, etc.).

    So, competent alternation of crops, proper use of fertilizers, protection from weeds, pests, diseases, timely “rest” of land, advanced soil tillage technologies will prevent soil depletion and increase yields.

    What cultivated plants are grown in the mountains

    Despite a certain whimsicality of the mountainous areas, it does not become an obstacle for gardeners and farmers, therefore, depending on the climatic zone in this area, you can meet:

    • orchards (apricots, peaches, pears citrus trees),
    • vineyards
    • bahchi,
    • cereals (barley, millet, corn),
    • vegetables (potatoes, wheat, beets),
    • tea,
    • coffee,
    • tobacco.

    Cultivated plants bring an excellent harvest and delight us with their appearance only if they are provided with proper care. And for this a person must apply his work and knowledge.

    Fruit varieties

    Starchy. First of all, these are potatoes, corn, oats, wheat, buckwheat, rice, millet, rye, sorghum, yams, sweet potatoes.

    Each plant division is divided into classes. Pine-shaped have only one of the same name. The horsetail class belongs to the horsetail. Mossy are divided into sphagnum, leafy, Andreev, polytric, tetraphis, takakievye mosses. In the department of fern includes the class of the same name, as well as salvinia and psilotovidnye. Gymnosperms unite ginkgoid, cyclospaceous, jack-shaped, and coniferous or pine.

    What are the plants? What groups of cultivated plants are there?

    Without them, it is impossible to imagine life on the planet. Plants perform an important function - photosynthesis, in which oxygen is released. It is thanks to these organisms that the Earth’s atmosphere has become what we know it now, with a high oxygen content and an ozone ball that protects against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation.

    The role of plants

    Fruit (apples, pears, pineapples).

    Groups of cultivated plants, a list of which will be given below, are grown by humans for the production of feed for farm animals, food products, industrial, medicinal and other raw materials and for other purposes. In accordance with the eighth edition of the International Nomenclature Code, today three categories are recognized, according to which the considered representatives of the flora are divided. These include, in particular, the species, group, and Grex (for orchids). They are all from wild varieties. At the same time, selection, hybridization or methods of genetic engineering were used. When searching for wild varieties for cultivation of cultivated plants and their subsequent use, the theory of the centers of origin of agricultural crops was formed. So, Vavilov, summarizing the available knowledge, identified 7 major centers. At the same time, it is necessary to say that groups of cultivated plants, unlike wild varieties, do not have natural areas of distribution (habitats).

    The history of the study of plants

    Legumes (beans, soy)

    Fruit plants (pineapples, coconuts)

    Classification of cultivated plants:

    Fibrous. Plants that are used for the production of threads. This cotton, hemp, flax, jute.

    Classes of flowering plants: dicotyledons and monocots. This includes most of the habitual representatives of flora. The first class includes legumes, rose flowers, birch, nut, pumpkin, willow, umbrella, as well as many other families.

    Read more about different classes of plants.

    They also serve as the most important source of organic matter. Plants, one might say, “feed” the entire planet, because in any food chain they are the first link.

    Vegetable (dill, cucumbers, tomatoes). As a result of breeding, wild crops began to produce high yields in the new climate or on new soils - under conditions unusual for them. As a result, some varieties have changed so much that it is now difficult to identify their ancestors. To increase the yield of agricultural crops, people began to apply fertilizers. At the same time, pest control was carried out with insecticides and fungicides.

    Other ways to classify plants

    Classification of cultivated plants:

    Starchy (sweet potatoes, potatoes)

    • Fibrous
    • Stimulating and narcotic (tea, coffee, poppy)
    • Decorative (rose)
    • Sugar-bearing. This group includes only reeds and beets.
    • To the second - lily, orchid, cereal, banana, onion, iris, palm and others.
    • Everyone is interested to know what kind of plants there are, so let's start with the fact that we consider their scientific classification.
    • Melons (melons, watermelons).
    • There are the following groups of cultivated plants:
    • Stimulating and narcotic (tea, coffee, poppy)
    • Decorative (rose)
    • Sugar-bearing (sugar beet)
    • Gourds (watermelons)
    • Potatoes =)

    Cereals and cereals (rice, corn, wheat)

    what plants are called cultivated? give examples

    Vegetable These are tomato, cucumber, pumpkin, eggplant, pepper, cabbage, carrots, radishes, celery, parsley, garlic, onions, eggplants and much more.
    Previously, three groups were distinguished according to this principle: grasses, bushes and trees. Now it is customary to divide the plants into seven life forms. These are herbs, succulents (with very fleshy stems, which contain a large amount of water, such as cacti, aloe, kalanchoe, agave, etc.), creepers, shrubs, semi-shrubs, trees.
    All of them are divided into two large groups: the higher and the lower. The latter include algae (four divisions: red, brown, blue, and blue-green). Higher plants include six divisions: pluniform, horse-shaped, mossy, fern, gymnosperms and angiosperms (flowering). The classification of plants is as follows: department - class - order - family - genus - species.
    Stimulating (poppy, coffee, tea).
    Decorative (rose).
    There are many options for the classification of cultivated plants based on different principles. The classification of useful (including cultivated) plants according to their economic purpose is widely practiced. There are groups of food, fodder, spinning, melliferous, medicinal, dyeing, industrial and similar plants. A variety of this classification (less convenient, therefore less commonly used) is the division of plants into groups according to the substances they contain. This classification distinguishes protein-containing, starch-bearing, sugar-bearing, fat-oil, essential oil, alkaloid-containing, fibrous plants. Often resorted to a mixed classification: along with food, feed, medicinal plants secrete fibrous, oilseeds, spicy aromatic. The classification of useful plants according to the branch principle looks more logical and developed.
    Cereals and cereals (rice, corn, wheat)
    Oilseeds (sunflower)
    Vegetable (tomatoes, dill)
    ULTRA PLANTS, giving food, clothing, fuel, building materials, ornamental plants.
    Legumes (beans, soy)
    Stimulating and narcotic. These are tea, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, poppy and another.
    They can also be divided into cultivated, wild and weeds. The first - those plants that are grown by humans for specific purposes, they can also be systematized. Famous researcher N.I. Vavilov wrote about what groups of cultivated plants are. This topic is interesting and much more. Cultivated plants can be divided into thirteen groups. About them will be discussed below.

    Elena Bandurina

    Groups of cultivated plants are determined according to different characteristics. Widely used classification in accordance with the economic purpose of a variety. So, there are groups of medicinal, melliferous, dyeing, spinning, fodder, food, industrial and other cultivated plants. As a type of this classification (less convenient and, therefore, rarely used), separation according to the substances present in them may be. In this case, there are, for example, alkaloids, proteinaceous, fatty oils and others. Also often used and mixed classification: along with food, medicinal, feed, emit also oil, fiber, spicy aromatic groups of cultivated plants. However, the most logical and fully developed system is considered to be a classification in accordance with the industry principle.
    Grain and cereals (for example, wheat, corn, rice).
    Field, vegetable and fruit crops are usually distinguished according to three branches of agriculture - field cultivation, vegetable growing and fruit growing. It is just as natural within this classification to segregate grapes (viticulture) and ornamental plants (floriculture) into an independent group.
    Legumes (beans, soy)
    Fibrous
    Fruit plants (pineapples, coconuts)
    Classification of cultivated plants:
    Starchy (sweet potatoes, potatoes)
    Feed. These include clover, turnip, turnip, rutabaga, alfalfa.
    So which groups of cultivated plants are there?
    The ancient Greek scientist Theophrastus, who lived in the years 370-285, rightfully deserves to be called the "father of botany". BC er He was one of the first to begin researching what plants are about. He divided them into different groups in appearance, flowering period, etc.
    Experts identify groups of cultivated plants by type of agricultural activity: fruit growing, vegetable growing and field husbandry. Accordingly, there are fruit, vegetable and field varieties. The latter, in turn, are divided into root vegetables (radishes, carrots, beets), leafy (lettuce, spinach, cabbage), fruit (cucumber, tomato), stem (asparagus, kohlrabi), bulbous (garlic, onion). Taste (spice-aromatic) cultivated plants (parsley, dill) are considered as a special subgroup in many cases. Tuber crops are varieties with edible tubers. Among the staple foods should be called potatoes (in Europe), cassava and yams (in Africa).
    Legumes (soybeans, beans, etc).

    Egor Ivanov

    ​Полевые культуры включают: зерновые (к ним относятся: хлебные злаки, например пшеница, рожь и т. д., крупяные культуры - гречиха, просо, зернобобовые - горох, соя, чечевица), клубнеплоды (картофель) и корнеплоды (свекла, турнепс), масличные (подсолнечник, арахис, горчица), прядильные (хлопчатник, лен, конопля), кормовые травы (тимофеевка, клевер, люцерна). Field crops sometimes include melons (watermelon, melon, pumpkin), but, apparently, it is more convenient to treat them as a separate group or as a part of vegetable crops. It is advisable to allocate in specific subgroups such specific plants as tobacco and tobacco, essential oil (coriander, lavender) and medicinal (digitalis, valerian).
    Starchy (sweet potatoes, potatoes)
    Gourds (watermelons)
    Stimulating and narcotic (tea, coffee, poppy)
    Decorative (rose)
    Sugar-bearing (sugar beet)
    Rubber milling This group includes Hevea, wormwood, dandelion, spurge.
    Inulin-bearing. Plants that contain a polysaccharide called "inulin". This substance is used in medicine and is also used as a sugar substitute for diabetics. This group includes dahlias, chicory, Jerusalem artichoke.
    Also a large-scale study associated with plants, conducted the ancient Roman scholar Dioscorides. He lived in the first century BC. er He belongs to the work, which describes the properties of about six hundred medicinal plants.
    This group of plants includes cereals (cereals - rye, wheat, legumes - lentils, soybeans, peas, cereal varieties - millet, buckwheat, roots (turnips, beets), tubers (potatoes), spinning (hemp, flax, cotton), oilseeds (mustard, peanuts, sunflower), forage grasses (alfalfa, clover). In some cases, the cultivars include gourds: pumpkin, watermelons, and melons. composition of vegetable cultural groups. According to experts, it is advisable akzhe separately allocate medicinal grade (valerian, foxglove, etc.), essential oil (lavender, coriander), as well as specific types (shag tobacco).
    Sugar (sugar beet).
    Vegetable crops are divided into leafy (cabbage, spinach, lettuce), root vegetables (beets, carrots, radishes), stem (kohlrabi, asparagus), fruit (tomatoes, cucumbers), bulbous (onions, garlic). Often, aromatic (gustatory) crops (dill, parsley) are considered as a special subgroup.
    Sugar-bearing (sugar beet)

    Alexey Torganov

    CULTURAL PLANTS, giving food, clothing, fuel, building materials, ornamental plants.
    Cereals and cereals (rice, corn, wheat)
    Oilseeds (sunflower)
    Wood technical and medicinal. These include eucalyptus, cinchona, bamboo.
    Fat oil. These are plants used to produce various oils. This includes sunflower, sesame, canola, safflower, etc.
    The scientist who created the first classification of all living organisms was Karl Linnaeus. His life lasted from 1708 to 1778. In his work “Systems of Nature” there are also materials about what kind of plants are. Flowering he systematized by the number of stamens in them.
    This group includes agricultural crops that produce juicy fruits. They, in turn, are divided into stone fruit (apricot, plum, cherry), pome fruit (quince, pear, apple), berry (currant, strawberry, raspberry, strawberry). In the same group in some cases include citrus fruits (orange, lemon), walnut (hazelnuts, almonds, walnuts). In the fruit and berry subgroup of subtropical varieties is sometimes distinguished. These include, in particular, medlar, pomegranate, fig. Such cultures as dogrose, sea buckthorn and other vitamin-bearing crops are considered to be close to fruit and berries.
    Starch-bearing (potatoes, sweet potatoes).
    To fruit (fruit and berry) include cultivated plants that produce juicy fruits. They are divided into pome (apple, pear, quince), stone fruit (cherry, plum, apricot) and berry (raspberry, strawberry, currant). In the same group often include walnut (walnut, almond, hazelnut) and citrus (lemon, orange) cultures. Among the fruit and berry sometimes distinguish subgroup of subtropical crops (figs, pomegranate, medlar). Close to the fruit and berry vitamin-bearing plants, the culture of which has been developed in recent years (sea buckthorn, wild rose)
    Oilseeds (sunflower)
    Fruit plants (pineapples, coconuts)
    Classification of cultivated plants:
    Legumes (beans, soy)

    Tatyana Rastegay

    Decorative. This group includes ficuses, roses, maples, some types of ferns and palm trees, as well as houseplants.

    Food: succulent, woody solid fruit and juicy-seed. This group combines pears, apples, plums, apricots, grapes, currants, hazel, cherry, palm, etc.

    Also an outstanding researcher who devoted his works to the study of plants was Augustin Piram Dekandol (1778-1841). He is the author of the work “Harbinger of the natural system of the vegetable kingdom,” in which about 60 thousand different species are described.

    In the entire group of field crops, cereals are considered the most important. Among the most popular species should be noted rice, wheat, rye, oats, corn, millet. These cultures, according to various sources, occupy about three-quarters of the entire arable land of the planet. Wheat is grown almost everywhere: it is the main bread for a person that he consumes every day. Part of the harvest, in addition, is used for fattening livestock. Not less important culture is rice. In Asian countries, it is considered a staple food. With automatic harvesting, threshing, for example, wheat in a combine, get clean grain. By improving the aggregates, a person adapts them for harvesting other crops, such as soybeans, corn, and others.

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