based on the book Kovalenko E.I., N.N., A.E.
For a more complete use of stocks of edible mushrooms, it is necessary to know the dates of formation of the fruit bodies of each species. The table shows the results of years of copyright research. across Krasnodar Krai. The table shows that different types of fungi form fruit bodies at different times, which is explained by their biological features. However, the periods of formation of fruit bodies depend, as already mentioned, mainly on the two most important environmental factors - temperature and humidity of the soil or another substrate. From April until December, the temperature of the soil in different areas of our region is favorable for most edible and poisonous mushrooms. In July and August, often in June, the soil moisture is low, and the fruiting of mushrooms ceases. Thus, in the summer period, soil moisture is the determining factor for the fruiting of mushrooms. When precipitation falls in July and August, the mushrooms also bear fruit. Consequently, the time of formation of fruit bodies depends on weather conditions and does not coincide in different years.
It is known that the seasonal development of higher plants depends on the same environmental factors - heat and moisture. Such seasonal phenomena in flowering plants as swelling of vegetative buds, their deployment, leaf formation, budding (swelling of flower buds), the beginning of flowering, mass flowering, the end of flowering, fruit ripening, autumn yellowing of leaves, the beginning and end of leaf fall and many others are called phenological phenomena. They are studied by the section of science - phenology. Different phenological phenomena coincide with the beginning of the formation of fruit bodies of different species of fungi, for example, with the beginning of pollen eruption from male pine cones, fruiting of a grainy oiler begins, with the end of the leaf fall of the poplar - fruiting of the poplar (poplar fungus), etc.
Phenological phenomena indicating the beginning of the formation of the fruiting bodies of a fungus are called phenosignalizers. It is very convenient to know these pheno-detectors. Cherry blossoms - get ready in 10 days to collect a grainy butter dish, and if lily of the valley blooms, then immediately rush for the butter dish, fragrant white acacia smells in full bloom - after 10 days you will be lucky to collect the first fruit bodies of the white fungus, if the Isabella grape has already flowered, then you waiting for the first beauties - white mushrooms.
Watch out for phenosignals, write down, they will give you a command in subsequent years - it's time for mushrooms. Happy you fascinating holiday!
Starting to consider edible mushrooms in the Krasnodar Territory, of course, you should start with this. Its hat is 8–25 cm in diameter, 2–6 cm thick, convex, hemispherical, sometimes flat and pillow-shaped, brown, dark brown, yellowish-brownish, light brown. The edge is solid, straight, thick, smooth. The surface is thin-crown, smooth, sometimes dry, wrinkled, matte. At the same time, the peel is not separated from the pulp.
The flesh is 1.3-4 cm thick, dense, fleshy, white when aged, more friable. The smell is pleasant, the taste is bland. Tubes 0.7-2 cm long, white. White fungus in the Krasnodar Territory pores has round, small, white, yellowing over time. The lower part of the cap also turns yellow and becomes yellowish-greenish at the old age.
The stem is about 10 cm long, tuberiform thickened to the base, periodically almost cylindrical, slightly curved or straight, dry, solid, matte, light brown or whitish with a mesh white pattern in the upper region of the stem.
White fungus in the Krasnodar Territory is common everywhere (around the villages of Saratov, Smolensk, Kaluga, Stavropol, Goryachiy Klyuch), in hornbeam-oak, oak, fir-beech, pine forests, shrubs, cuttings, on sandy, clay soil.
We continue to consider the mushrooms of the Krasnodar Territory. Autumn is a great time to collect grabber.
It has a cap in diameter of 10 cm, pillow and prostrate-convex, hemispherical, yellowish-brownish, golden-yellow, brownish-greenish, dark brown and brown with aging. The edge is smooth, solid, thick. Completely dry surface, slightly wrinkled, matte.
Due to the cracking of the skin, particles resembling scales appear. Between them is visible fibrous, greyish-white flesh. It is fleshy, thick, whitish-greyish, fibrous-vatoobrazny. It becomes on a break purple-pinkish, then darkens. Sweet taste, pleasant mushroom smell. Tubes 0.8-2.2 cm long. The pores are round-oval, small. The lower surface of the cap and the edges of the pores are golden yellow, dark yellow with age.
Leg 8–14 cm long, 0.9–1.1 cm thick, curved or straight, thickened downwards, the base is pointed, the middle is almost cylindrical and thickened, solid, whitish-grayish in the upper part, below is slightly darker, yellowish with aging, scaly fibrous. The flesh is firm, yellowish or whitish-greyish, turns pink at the break, then turns red (slightly turns blue at a young age).
Mushrooms are harvested in the foothill zone (near the village of Ku-Tais, near the villages of Saratov, Smolensk), in a deciduous forest.
Telling which mushrooms grow in the Krasnodar Territory, I would like to pay special attention to chanterelles. And this is due primarily to their appearance. The cap is 3–9 cm in diameter, up to 1.3 cm thick, convex, indented in the middle, periodically funnel-shaped. Fold down the edge, wavy, solid, thin. Mushroom yellow and egg color. The surface is dry, smooth, dull, naked, the flesh is not separated from the skin.
Fresh taste, pleasant mushroom smell. Larvae almost never affected. Hymenophore in the form of branched veins, nesbegayuschih mushroom stalk. Veins that replace the plates are narrow, sometimes thick, in the form of folds, very rare, not separated from the pulp.
Leg curved or straight, thinner at the bottom, goes up to the cap, monochromatic, solid, eccentric or central, dry, smooth, matte, naked.
So where are mushrooms in Krasnodar Territory of this species? Everywhere! Mountain and foothill zones (Smolenskaya, Kaluga, Kamyshanova Polyana, Goryachiy Klyuch village, between Kardyvach lake and Krasnaya Polyana, in the area of Arkhyz, Psebaya, not far from Zelenchukskaya station), in the hornbeam-oak, mixed and coniferous forest ( Caucasian fir, aspen, beech, hazel, maple, hawthorn), on all sorts of soil, mainly with a cover of moss.
You have already learned what mushrooms grow in the Krasnodar region. Now it is worth considering honeydew. His hat is 5-10 cm, hemispherical, prostrate, flat-convex, dirty brown, gray-yellowish, darker towards the middle. Fold down the edge, then smooth, straight, thin, solid. The surface is completely dry, wet only in wet weather, covered with thin dark brown, brown scales.
Thin, not breaking, fleshy, white flesh. Sour-astringent taste, pleasant smell. The plates are shortly descending, frequent, white, then brownish-yellow, often with a spore of white color, with solid patches.
Leg almost always curved. Cylindrical, central, slightly thickened down (grow occasionally singly, beam), solid, of a general color with a cap, slightly paler at the top. Grooved above the ring, below - elastic, fibrous. Bedspread in the form of a whitish filmy ring.
Now we find out where they pick mushrooms in the Krasnodar region. This is a mountain and foothill zone (near the villages of Smolensk, Kaluga, Krepostnoye, p. Ilsky, Psebay district, Kamyshanova Polyana, Arkhyz, Laba river), in glades, in forests, at the base of trunks, on stumps, on roots and living trunks of various rocks.
Hoist without a ring
What other mushrooms grow in the Krasnodar region? Of course, honeycomb without a ring. It bears a great resemblance to the view discussed above. It grows in bunches, close groups, forming, thus, "bushes" or "little families". For each leg, the upper part is thickened and does not have a ring, unlike the previous grains. The plates are long descending.
It grows in the foothill zone (area of Smolensk, Kaluga stanitsas), in glades, in oak forests, clearings, and also on dead oak roots.
The mushroom is edible, it resembles autumn mint on its taste.
We continue to consider the mushrooms in the Krasnodar Territory. A common cap of a boletus is 5–15 cm in diameter, 3–4 cm thick, cushion-shaped, semi-spherical, almost black-brown or brownish-white. The edge is solid, straight, thick. The surface is slightly wrinkled or smooth, dull, dry.
The flesh is not separated from the skin. It is fleshy, up to 2.5 cm thick, white, dense. The upper layers of the fracture turn blue, the bulk darkens or slightly turns pink. Without much smell and taste. Tubes go to the edge of the cap. Their pores are round, small, creamy-white or white, sometimes turning brown with aging.
Leg spindle-shaped at a young age, thickened at the bottom, then almost cylindrical, white, solid, covered with dark brown, grayish scales. The pulp is fibrous, dense, strong. Leg turns blue with a fracture at the periphery.
Mushroom picking takes place in the mountain and foothill zones (area of Smolensk, Kaluga, Engelman glade, Kamyshanova Polyana and Goryachiy Klyuch villages), in deciduous and mixed forests of aspen, beech, fir, birch, pear, apple, hornbeam, hazel (hazel nut), on different soil.
But you can find not only the above mushrooms in the Krasnodar region. There is also a yellow urchin. Its cap is 5–12 cm in diameter, convex, thick, mostly uneven, pink-yellowish or yellowish. The edge is often wavy, irregular, thick. The peel is not separated at all. The flesh is fleshy, thick (corky for old age), white. The smell and taste of mushrooms, pleasant. Spine consists of hymenophore. Spines very fragile, thin, pinkish.
The stem is usually curved, tapered towards the base, cylindrical, less commonly central, more often eccentric, solid, creamy or whitish. The flesh is the same in color with the flesh of the caps.
It grows in the mountain and foothill zones (the area of the villages of Krepostnoye, Kaluga, Kamyshanova Polyana, Goryachiy Klyuch, between the lake Kardyvach and the Krasnaya Polyana village of Zelenchukskaya, between and Psebay). Mushrooms can be found in coniferous (pine, fir), deciduous and mixed forests.
We continue to consider mushrooms in the Krasnodar region. In this species, the cap is 4–8 cm high, 3–5 cm wide, brownish, ovate. The edge mainly grows together with the leg. Cellular surface, rounded cells. The flesh is fragile, waxy, white. The smell and taste of mushrooms, pleasant.
Leg 4–9 cm high, up to 3 cm thick, slightly curved or straight, flat, cylindrical, whitish-yellowish, hollow.
The food is eaten fresh (stewed, fried). Certainly requires preprocessing, since it is easy to confuse with a line, conditionally edible.
It is a fruit body of a round, irregular shape, mainly with tubercles or folds, resembling a walnut or potato tuber. Size 4-10 cm (greatly reduced when drying), weight - up to 500 g. Grayish-white surface, then light brownish, smooth, cracked in old age.
Meaty flesh, white at a young age, then grayish-yellow. It has a marble pattern in the section with winding dark lines where bags are located. The fruit body at a young age without aroma, at the same time, when ripe, has a pleasant, rather strong mushroom taste and aroma.
The cap of this fungus is about 5-10 cm, convex, hemispherical, flat-convex, gray-brownish or white, does not change when pressed. Edge curved, then straight, solid, smooth, thin. Smooth surface, the peel from the pulp is easily separated. The flesh is thick, fleshy, white, slightly pinking at the break. The smell and taste of mushrooms, pleasant. The plates are frequent, free, first pink shades, then brownish, brownish, and finally, dark brown, almost black. They are not recommended to use at this age. The plate has a solid edge.
The leg is curved or straight, cylindrical, central, tapered to the base or even, solid, thickened, smooth, whitish, dull, dry. Color under pressure does not change.
Bedspread in the form of a white, single-layer, fixed ring located on the leg. At the same time the general cover is absent.
Oak (red, milky, podoreshnik, podzherzhik) is conditionally edible, because of the content of bitter juice requires special treatment before cooking. Appearance:
- The cap is concave in the middle, asymmetrically rounded, orange-reddish, covered with yellowish vertical plates from the bottom, the maximum radius is 6 cm.
- Leg up to 7 cm in height, 3 cm in diameter, lighter than the top.
- The flesh is light, with a pleasant smell.
It should be searched in deciduous forests at the roots of oak, beech, and hazel. There they grow alone or in groups. Harvest season - the end of summer, mid-October.Milk eats only as pickles, soaking thoroughly beforehand. It is impossible to dry the milk mushrooms - in this form they are very bitter.
You can meet his other names: Gidnum or Dentinum notched. Appearance:
- The cap is smooth, yellow, radius 3-6 cm, smooth to the touch, as it grows in the middle a notch is formed.
- Leg yellow-white, up to 8 cm, expands below.
- The flesh is light, fragile, with a pleasant fruity smell. Older mushrooms taste bitter.
Purple lakovitsa (also amethyst or purple) is a very small and beautiful mushroom. Due to non-standard colors, it can easily be assumed that it is poisonous, but it is not.
The whole fungus has a purple-lilac color that fades as it grows. Looks like that:
- The hat is round, the correct form, the maximum size - 5 cm.
- The leg is tall, thin.
- The flesh is tender, almost without flavor.
Unobtrusive mushroom muted color. Differs in the following characteristics:
- The hat is round, slightly convex, shades of brown, sometimes with a reddish impurity, slimy and porous on top, lighter below. Diameter up to 20 cm (but more often about 10 cm).
- The leg is straight, thin, light, up to 8-10 cm in height, slightly darker below.
- The flesh is odorless, but pleasant to the taste, dirty yellow color.
It grows in low grass, in conifers (mostly pine forests), often forms groups. Collection from May to November.
Eat boletus most often in the form of pickles and marinades. They are also good in soup, stews, roasts. Some fans prefer to use these mushrooms in their raw form. Before cooking, be sure to remove the skin.
Unremarkable, but edible mushroom.
You can learn it by the following signs:
- The hat of dark olive shades, convex, spongy bottom, and smooth from above. The diameter is usually from 3 to 10 cm, old representatives - up to 15 cm.
- The leg is cylindrical, high, rather narrow, light gray shade.
- The flesh is light, friable, if cut, may acquire a bluish tint.
It grows in forests and shrubs, but prefers lighted areas (undergrowth, forest edges). Mostly lonely growing mushroom. Good as a preservation, and as a hot dish. You can not boil it beforehand, but be sure to remove the skin.
The honeycomb is real, it is autumn - a parasitic mushroom, but quite usable. Characteristics:
- The cap is small, with a radius of up to 5 cm, darker than the legs, flat with uneven edges.
- The stem is thin, up to 2 cm in diameter and long (up to 10 cm), often curved, light brown, darkens downwards.
- The flesh is quite dense, light, exudes a strong mushroom flavor.
It grows on the trunks of dying trees, stumps and shrubs. Forms large colonies. You can catch him at the very end of summer and autumn.
You can cook from honey agarst everything without pre-processing.
Also known as birch or small. The mushroom looks like this:
- Cap curved upwards, rounded, smooth, gray-brown.
- The leg is cylindrical, slightly expanding downwards, of a dirty white color, up to 15 cm in height and up to 3 cm in diameter.
- The flesh is light, pleasantly smelling, the consistency of the old mushroom is lost.
Common garlic is often used as a seasoning, because it has a peculiar smell with notes of garlic. Appearance:
- Шляпка маленькая (1-3 см) выпуклая, по мере роста распрямляется, светло-коричневого или желтоватого цвета, сухая на ощупь, снизу покрыта волнообразными светлыми пластинками.
- Ножка тёмная, тонкая, полая внутри, высокая (до 5 см).
- Мякоть тонкая, бледная, пахнет чесноком.
Garlic can be fried, boiled, pickled. During heat treatment or soaking, it loses its characteristic taste, while drying - the taste is enhanced.
The garden entrophe (forest, thorns, shield) is a rose-leaf thyroid or subabriac. Appearance:
- The hat looks like a flat cone, glossy white, up to 12 cm in diameter, has wide pinkish plates.
- The leg is light, long, cylindrical in shape, the maximum height is 12 cm.
- The flesh is white, fibrous, may smell like flour or does not smell.
Suitable for marinades, salting, frying. Needs preliminary boiling.
Representatives of this group of fungi are characterized by the presence of toxins dangerous to humans. Depending on the type and dose can cause:
- food poisoning
- disorders of the nervous system,
It belongs to the genus of toadstools. It looks like this:
- The cap is light (greenish or grayish), flat or slightly convex, the edges are uneven, up to 15 cm in diameter.
- The stem is white, cylindrical, up to 16 cm in height.
- The flesh is white, almost does not smell.
- the presence of a volva (bedspread) - a light thickening under the head,
- the presence of a thickening (bag) at the base of the leg,
- white, soft plates under the cap.
Boletus legal or boletus le Gal. Distinguish from edible borovik can be on the following grounds:
- squat - the mushroom grows mainly in breadth,
- smooth hat large, convex, colored with shades of pink and orange,
- leg wide, swollen, on top of a characteristic reddish mesh.
This mushroom is not to be confused with anything. Classic amanita, as in children's pictures:
- The cap is large (up to 20 cm), flat or slightly rounded, sometimes concave. Hat color is red. On the skin characteristic warty white flakes. Sometimes a white “skirt” leaves the cap.
- The leg is high, cylindrical, white.
- The flesh is slightly yellowish.
The panther (gray) fly agaric is not as bright as a red, but no less poisonous representative. Looks like that:
- Hat muted tones: light brown, brown, gray. In diameter to 12 cm, rounded, slightly convex. The glossy skin is covered with whitish flakes, sometimes white coat remains are hanging from below.
- The leg is straight, cylindrical, white, up to 12 cm in height, sometimes a ring is present.
- The flesh is light, watery consistency, smells unpleasant.
False insects - the cumulative name of several species of fungi that are dangerous to humans in appearance is very similar to edible mushrooms.
The main distinguishing feature of false experiments is the absence of a “skirt”, a foil ring on a leg. In addition, there are other signs of dangerous experience:
- foul odor (similar to earthy),
- bright coloring of the caps (variations of yellow and red) and their smoothness,
- dark plates under the caps (they are bright for real ones).
Edible mushrooms of Krasnodar region
What mushrooms grow in the Krasnodar Territory? One of the first in the spring appear oyster mushroom mushrooms, which are also called birch bark. They can be found in deciduous forests, they settle in large groups. As a substrate for oyster mushrooms serve tree trunks. The collection of oyster mushrooms begins in April-May and continues until autumn.
Krasnodar Territory Mushrooms - Oyster mushrooms
The cap of the oyster mushroom has a round shape, its diameter reaches 15 centimeters. The shape of the cap as the mushroom grows varies from conical to flat. The color of the fungus is gray, brown or pinkish. Oyster mushroom pulp has a pleasant aroma. You can find these mushrooms in the stanitsa of Serf and Smolensk.
Oyster mushrooms are good in any culinary form, they are perfectly combined with meat and any vegetables. These mushrooms are often grown at home, because they are tasty and not whimsical.
At the beginning of May green mushroom mushrooms appeared in the forests of the Krasnodar Territory. They have a cap diameter of up to 12 centimeters and a golden olive color. The surface of the flywheel cap is matte, velvety. It is easy to recognize green flywheel by the light yellow flesh turning blue on the cut.
Krasnodar Territory Mushrooms - Green Mokhovik
The most common green cobwebs in areas Arkhyz, near the village of Smolensk. They settle in oak-hornbeam forests and in conifers. Looking for a flywheel next to the paths. They grow singly or in small groups. Fruiting green Mokhovikov occurs from May to October.
Mokhoviki greens are very tasty when fried and boiled, they can also be pickled, but they are not suitable for drying because they turn black during long-term storage.
In the photo of mushrooms of the Krasnodar Territory, you can see small yellow-red mushrooms - granular maslata. The cap of a globular oiler, with a diameter of up to 10 centimeters. The color of the fungus is yellow-brown or red-yellow. After the rain, an oily patina appears on the cap, from which the name of the mushroom originated.
Krasnodar Territory Mushrooms - grainy oil
Where to look for these mushrooms in the Krasnodar Territory? Gathering oil should be in Kamyshanova Polyana, the village of Smolensk and Goryachiy Klyuch. Granular maslata grow in pine forests and mixed. Collect them from April to November.
Granular boletus is considered one of the best food mushrooms. In the marinade, they are especially good. But the minus is that they are pretty wormy.
Dangerous mushrooms Krasnodar Territory
As you can see, edible mushrooms of the Krasnodar Territory are incredibly numerous, almost every mushroom picker is waiting for autumn to harvest as much of the crop as possible. But beginners should be alert, because in the Kuban line there are also poisonous species that are twins of edible mushrooms. The most famous poisonous mushrooms of the Krasnodar Territory are pale toadstools and toadstools.
Amanitas are easily recognized by their characteristicly colored caps — reddish-colored with white specks. And their legs are thin, white.
Dangerous mushrooms of the Krasnodar region - toadstools
Pale grebe in accordance with the name, has a pale gray color. The shape of its cap is dome-shaped. A distinctive feature of the toadstool is a translucent ring on a thin stalk.
In the Krasnodar region also grows another poisonous fungus, it is called a satanic mushroom. His hat has a pillow shape of pale gray color. The bottom edge of the cap is reddish. The leg of the satanic mushroom is extremely fragile, yellow-orange hue. The pulp of this fungus is white, reddening or turning blue on the cut.
Svushka mushrooms are also common in Kuban. Until the 1980s, they were classified as conditionally edible; it was believed that they could be used as food after prolonged processing. But these mushrooms in the Krasnodar Territory are now recognized as poisonous. The pigs contain a dangerous poison that has a detrimental effect on the red blood cells. After ingestion of pigs, renal failure can develop and death occurs.
Dangerous mushrooms Krasnodar Territory - pigs
Svushki also called pigs and cowsheds. These are mushrooms with yellow-brown caps growing in areas with high humidity.
Spend more time in nature, do fun mushroom picking, but remember, if there are doubts about the edibility of the fungus, in no case, you can not put it in a basket!
Bolet Sataninsky - a close relative of edible boletus.
- The cap is rounded, pillow-like, large (up to 30 cm), whitish-gray, with dirty stains.
- The stem is bright (red), short and thick.
- The flesh in the cap is yellow, in the leg is red, on the cut it turns blue, it smells unpleasant.
The mushroom has a very specific appearance; it is rather difficult to confuse it with something else.
Svushka (cowshed, filly) is not poisonous by itself, but it is dangerous in that it accumulates all kinds of toxins in the pulp from the external environment.
You can learn it by the following characteristics:
- The cap is large (up to 15 cm), usually flat, but may have a bulge or funnel in the middle, fleshy, brown.
- The stem is thin (1.5 cm in diameter), but long (up to 9 cm in height).
- The flesh is friable, yellowish, becomes brown in places of damage.
Some mushroom pickers consider the pig conditionally edible. But amateur mushroom pickers use this type of mushroom is strictly prohibited.
Entomoma is poisonous
Larger than other types of entolom. Characteristics:
- A large cap (up to 25 cm) of various shades of gray, relatively flat, irregularly rounded.
- Leg cylindrical, gray, reaches 15 cm in height.
- The flesh is white, has a rancid smell.
- wide, rare plates on the head,
- lack of a ring on a leg.
With proper theoretical training, you can easily distinguish the poisonous fungus from the edible. It is important to be extremely attentive, and not to tear mushrooms, the origin of which you are not completely sure.
Early edible species
The most famous mushrooms that can be eaten are difficult to confuse with a fly agaric or pale toadstool, which are dangerous to humans. Even in the photo, the difference between some safe and poisonous names is so obvious that, having met these species in nature, even a novice can easily figure out which find can be put in the basket, and which is better to stay away from.
Krasnodar region is amazing because May, which is not considered to be a mushroom month, can bring great luck to lovers of quiet hunting. Spring warm weather in combination with high humidity and suitable soil types create favorable conditions for the early germination of spores of some species.
To see which mushrooms grow in Kuban in May, it is enough just to come to any mixed forest of this region and look closely at the ground, fallen trees and old stumps. It is here that the first edible mushrooms of the Krasnodar Territory usually appear.
One of the first to notice is a birch bark or an oyster mushroom. It grows on the bark of trees in large groups. This is a small mushroom that appears as early as May. The period of its fruiting lasts all summer and autumn. Humid subtropical climate is perfect for birch breeder. The harvest of this species is always rich.
Oyster mushroom has a hat of irregular rounded shape. Over time, it becomes slightly concave in the center. The edges of the upper part of the fungus are thin and curved inward. The diameter of the cap reaches 5-15 cm. Its color may be pale pink, gray or brownish. The peel is not separated from the fruit body, the flesh of which is light, with a pleasant mushroom odor. The photo is not very accurately able to convey the shade of oyster mushrooms, but it is difficult to confuse it with dangerous species, since poisonous mushrooms do not grow on trees.
Another May mushroom, which can be found in the Kuban, is called “green flywheel”. It got its name thanks to the olive-golden color of the cap. It can reach 15 cm in diameter. Young mushrooms hat convex globular shape. The foot has a lighter shade. The skin of the fruit body is dry. The flesh turns slightly blue after cutting.
Since April, in the forests of the Krasnodar Territory one can find a grainy butterdish, which bears fruit almost until the onset of cold weather. This mushroom has a convex rounded orange-brown cap. After rain, it usually becomes slippery, as if oily. Hence the name. The leg is rather short, with a fine mesh.
All edible mushrooms growing in spring can be fried, boiled, dried, pickled or pickled. Their great advantage is that the period of active fruiting of many poisonous species does not coincide with the time of their appearance. This partially reduces the risk of poisoning. But still the collection of this natural delicacy should be treated very responsibly, even in May.
Quiet hunting in the Kuban in summer and autumn
With the onset of mid-June, the mushrooms in mixed forests become much larger. Some of them can be found only in summer, others grow almost until the end of autumn. The second is the white mushroom, traditionally considered a noble species. Every lover of quiet hunting wants to find him.
Cep, grown in the Krasnodar Territory, is no different from those harvested in other regions. The hat is round and convex. Over time, it becomes flatter. Its color is first light gray, then gradually darkens to brown-brown. The leg is always light. The flesh is white with a pronounced mushroom flavor and fresh taste.
Noble mushrooms grow in large numbers in beech-fir and oak-hornbeam forests, which Kuban is rich in. This species is suitable for any processing and is considered universal in cooking.
Grabovik is another interesting mushroom characteristic of Krasnodar and the whole region. It stands out among other species with its golden yellow wrinkled cap. Grabovik leg often curved. It has a fibrous surface and thickens at the base. The flesh of this species is fleshy, heterogeneous. On the cut it gets dark.
Grabovik grows in the foothill areas. Most of these mushrooms can be collected in coniferous forests with clay type of soil. But in mixed oak forests, grabers are found in rather large groups. The period of its fruiting lasts from July to September.
No less popular mushrooms of the Krasnodar Territory are hedgehogs. They appear in the middle of summer in deciduous and mixed forest zones and finish fruiting in November before the onset of cold weather.
The thick and uneven hat of the urchin has wavy edges and an irregular oval shape. The color of the upper part of this species is pinkish yellow. The pulp of the fruit body on the cut has the same shade. The cylindrical pinkish stem tapers towards the base. Hedgehog yellow grows on any soil. It belongs to 4 categories, suitable for frying, boiling and stewing.
Krasnodar region in the number of different types of fungi compared with Primorye. Favorable climatic conditions contribute to this diversity. Here you can find almost all the mushrooms that exist in Russia:
- brown cap boletus
- aspen mushrooms,
- honey and many others.
But besides edible species in the Kuban, you can find a large number of mushrooms that are unfit for human consumption. They are represented by dozens of titles. Inedible mushrooms can be very dangerous, because many of them are toxic. Therefore, collecting forest gifts should always be extremely careful.
Dangerous species of mushrooms in the Krasnodar Territory
Some poisonous mushrooms are edible doubles. Only a few external signs allow them to be identified. But an experienced mushroom picker will always be able to accurately determine whether it is worth eating one or another mushroom or it’s better to stop using it.
The most famous poisonous mushrooms are toadstools and toadstools. The first type has a characteristic coloring of the cap. It is reddish in color with white patches. The toadstool leg is rather thin, usually white.
Pale toadstool got its name for a pale gray color with a slight greenish tint. The cap has a dome-shaped shape, the edges of the upper part are uneven, sometimes wavy. Leg usually thin, tapering at the top. The most characteristic external feature is a thin translucent ring that has a mushroom under the cap. This element is in many poisonous species, which allows them to be distinguished from edible.
Another poisonous fungus, which is best avoided, is called satanic. It has a pale gray cushion cap. Its bottom edge is reddish. The leg of this species is very fragile. It is usually colored yellow-red. The flesh of the satanic mushroom is white, but on the cut turns blue and blushes.
Conditionally edible mushroom or dangerous poison?
In the Krasnodar region is very common pig. Until the 80s of the last century, it was considered conditionally edible. It was eaten after a long treatment: soaked in water for 72 hours and boiled for 30-60 minutes. Today this mushroom is recognized as poisonous. It contains a dangerous toxin that can destroy red blood cells and cause acute renal failure, which may even be fatal.
Svushka has several names: barn, pig, Dunka. It is a mushroom with a yellow-brown round cap, with concave edges, growing in places with high humidity in large groups. Straight small foot has the same shade as the upper part. The flesh is fleshy, devoid of pronounced taste and aroma.
Conditionally edible species
There are many specimens in the region that can be eaten after thorough heat treatment.
- Svushki. These are the most common mushrooms of the region. In the last century, they were considered conditionally edible mushrooms, and now they belong to poisonous representatives. Они содержат опасный токсин, разрушающий эритроциты и вызывающий острую почечную недостаточность. Поэтому в настоящее время лучше обходить стороной этих представителей.
- Лисичка ложная. Растет она в лиственных и хвойных лесах.You can distinguish it by a bright orange cap with a diameter of 3 to 6 cm, resembling a funnel. They are only used in food. They should be soaked for three days, periodically changing the water. Then boil for at least an hour.
- Morel cap. It is very easy to identify this mushroom by its original walnut-like hat. Their leg is cylindrical and always curved. These mushrooms grow near water, as they like moist soil. In the Krasnodar Territory, they are often found in mountainous areas. To make them edible, they should be boiled for a long time, changing the water periodically.