Gala - late autumn (sometimes referred to as early winter) diploid apple variety, bred in 1962 (according to another version - in 1957) in New Zealand by breeder J. H. Kidd as a result of crossing two varieties - Golden Delicious (Golden Delicious) x Kidds Orange Red (Kidd's Orange Red). A new variety quickly gained worldwide popularity (2nd place in the world in apple production), almost immediately after its launch, the gardens were planted in the USA, Canada, Brazil, and Europe. In the North American continent and in the UK, the apple tree Gala has become a leader in the production of apples, along with such world-famous varieties as Red Delicious and Golden Delicious. Many British farmers and gardeners began breeding this apple in the 80s on a commercial basis. At present, Gala’s share in the total British commercial apple production is about 20%. In the mid-70s, this apple tree began to pass a primary test in the experimental plantations of Ukraine, and in 1993 it was zoned in the steppe zone. But all the same, in the plantings of industrial gardens, Gala has so far occupied a minor place.
Trees sredneroslye. The crown is wide-oval, medium thick. Skeletal branches have an average strength, when moving from the trunk form an angle of 45 to 75 degrees, the ends are directed upwards. Fruiting is of mixed type, the fruits are tied up on pegs, fruit twigs and tops of annual gains.
Flowering trees occur in srednepozdnye terms. Pollen has good viability (from 73 to 89%). Gala refers to partially self-pollinating varieties. The best pollinators are Elstar, Katya, James Grieve.
Fruits form fairly one-dimensional, usually of medium size, one apple weighs on average 115-145 grams (the maximum weight does not exceed 170 g). The shape of the fruit may be rounded or rounded-cut-conical, ribbing is weak and noticeable mainly on the top of the apple. The main color of the fruit is yellow or greenish-yellow, the top color is expressed in the form of a striped-diffuse blush of an orange-red hue on almost the entire surface of the fruit. The skin is dry, thin, but dense.
The flesh has a light yellow color and a dense, granular structure, the taste is juicy, sour-sweet (but moderate sweetness), crispy, brittle, with a pleasant, fresh nut-caramel flavor. On a tasting 5-point scale, the taste rating of apples is equal to 4.6 points. It is worth noting that when evaluating the fruits of this variety, three main indicators are always used - freshness, hardness and sweetness. Apples can be used for various purposes: fresh consumption, drying, processing into juices, compotes, jams, mashed potatoes, jams, etc.
The period of removable ripeness of fruits falls on the second half of September, the consumer period begins only in November. Under storage conditions, apples are beautifully stored for up to 2 - 2.5 months, in a refrigerator, the shelf life is increased to 6 months. The long period of storage of fruits is also favored by their high resistance to falls. The transportability index is average.
Fruiting begins at 6 - 7 years after planting on a strong-growing stock and at 3 - 4 years - on a dwarf. Young apple trees bear fruit every year and form a moderate harvest. In general, the yield is quite high, from an adult tree can be collected from 55 to 80 kg of fruit. It is also worth noting that the variety has a tendency to overload the crop, in this case, the apples shrink.
Winter hardiness is average; apple trees can tolerate short-term frosts down to minus 28 ° C. Scab resistance is medium and powdery mildew is rather high. Also, the variety has a very high susceptibility to European cancer. Damage caused by a bacterial burn, moth and moniliosis is possible.
Since fruits can become shallow when they overload, when caring for trees, it is necessary to normalize the total number of flowers and thin out the ovaries to increase the commercial quality of apples.
The main advantages of Gala apple trees are: excellent dessert taste of fruits and the possibility of their use for various purposes, high and regular yield, early entry into fruiting, high rates of keeping quality and firmness of apples to falls.
The main disadvantages include: the tendency to shallowing the already not too large fruits when overloading trees with a crop, insufficiently high winter hardiness, high susceptibility to certain diseases.
It is also worth noting that the Gala variety has a large number of clones. Currently, more than 20 hybrid forms with a more saturated fruit color have been created. After the removal of Gala, it was considered that the fruits of a new variety of medium and below average size with insufficiently bright surface color will not attract the attention of buyers who are accustomed to more colorful and large apples. Of course, the situation began to change dramatically for the better after the appearance of brightly colored mutants of Gala on the fruit market. Among them: the Scarlet Gala, the Royal Gala, the Prohibitively Red Gala, the Royal Gala, the Ultrared Gala, the Big Red Gala, the Galaxy, Mitchgla, Spur red Gala, El Nino and others.
The very first clone was the Royal Gala variety (other names are Tenroy and Ten Hove Gala). He was discovered by gardener Ten Howe in the city of Matamata (New Zealand). The active introduction of this apple into the gardens began in 1973, and now it is planted with vast areas in industrial plantations in Europe and America. Moreover, by the main features (growth pattern, requirements for climate, soil and agricultural technology, morphological features of vegetative organs) Royal Gala is no different from the original variety. The difference is visible only in the form of a fruit (it is cut off-cone-shaped) and its top color (a diffuse, rich flush of a dark red hue on the entire surface of the apple, sometimes there are also darker strokes). The color of the pulp also has a more intense color.
The mutant Mondial Gala is very popular (otherwise Mitchgl or Imperial Gala). He was discovered in 1978 by gardener D. Mitchell in Hastings (New Zealand). The shape of the fruit, in comparison with the original, more elongated, covering color is presented in the form of a brownish-red blush over the entire surface of the apple and it begins to form only 3 weeks before the removable ripeness of the fruit. Also on apples Mondial Gala can form apples with a barely noticeable blurry-striped orange-red blush on ½ of the surface of the fruit.
Another popular mutant is Gala Mast (other names are Regal Quinn, Regal Gala, Regal Prince Gala). It was discovered near Hastings (New Zealand), in the garden of N. Fulvord. Unlike the original variety, resistance to powdery mildew is lower than average. The best pollinators of Gala Mast are Idared, Elstar (and clones), Gloucester (and clones) and Melrose. Fruits are tied most often on 2-year-old, 3-year-old rings and annual gains. The bloom is intense, the fruit is very generous. Without thinning the ovaries possible periodicity in fruiting. As for fruits, they are larger and slightly wider in the calyx zone. The average weight of an apple is 160 - 173 g. This is Gala's most large-fruited mutant. The shape of the fruit is round-cone-shaped. The top coat color is very attractive and saturated, it appears by the end of August, expressed in the form of a bright blurry-red carmine blush. The flesh has a yellowish cream color. During storage, the fruit can be affected by gray mold and bitter rot.
Among all the hybrid varieties of Gala, the most famous are Jazz and Delfoh. The new, less studied clones of Gala include apple trees: Galaxy, Spur red Gala, Scarlet Gala, Gala Rouge and Galagored (aka Cooper Gala).
The very name of this variety of wonderful fruits, which were obtained experimentally by the breeder J. Kiddu in the early 60s of the last century, is interesting. Gala in Russian means "solemn." And indeed, apples, by their very appearance, awaken joy and the desire to receive bright impressions. But first, a little about the fate of these, without exaggeration, the beautiful fruits.
The variety got the right to separate existence in New Zealand, and its progenitors were two popular varieties: Goden Diliches and Kids Orange. To date, the selection of Galov apples successfully continues and more than two dozen varieties are already known. The high yield of the variety contributed to the rapid spread across all continents: Gala occupy the second position in terms of productivity among other varieties of apple crops.
In European countries and the United States, where Gala apples grow, they are very common. On the territory of Russia, they appeared relatively recently - about 20 years ago. But even in such a short time for the distribution of fruit trees, this variety managed to get acclimatized well in this part of Europe and demonstrates good yield.
All representatives of this species differ in saturated color. There is this fruit culture and other features. Will help to learn about all the characteristics of the apple gala variety description in detail:
- The main indicator of any fruit crop is the beginning of fruiting. The apple variety Gala has been bearing fruit already for 6–7 years after the seedlings have been planted in the ground. In the dwarf subspecies, this period is almost two times shorter, that is, the first apples appear on the tree already by 3-4 years.
- The ripening period of the fruit. This variety is considered late and the fruits reach maturity only by the end of September, but this period may last until November.
- Flowering also later. Usually this period comes at the very end of spring.
- Pollination method. Apple trees are considered a partially self-pollinating species.
- Harvesting usually takes place in early autumn, that is, in September. On average, one adult tree can collect up to 90 kilograms of fruit.
It should be added that Gala always demonstrates good resistance to cold conditions. Trees are able to withstand even frosts of 30 degrees, if subzero temperatures are short in time.
The most popular subspecies of this variety are apples Jazz, Delfoha, Big Red, characterized by a particularly bright color. Gardeners are happy to breed these varieties and get excellent apple yields every year. Although each of these varieties has its own unique features, they have a lot in common, including care, cultivation and storage methods.
But perhaps the apple tree Gala mast stands out from all this group, the description of the variety of which deserves special attention. This subspecies is very resistant to the problem of all gardeners - powdery mildew. Good pollination ability with other varieties, and most often it happens Gloucester and Idared, significantly increases crop yield.
Apple mast in spring amaze with its lush flowering, and by autumn large-sized fruits ripen on a tree. So, one apple can reach up to 200 grams of weight. Breeders consider mast the most successful subspecies of the gala. Such an apple mutant has a smooth, saturated color, and in form resembles a diamond.
Other varieties have less impressive characteristics, although there are certain advantages. For example, apples royal gala or shniga, which are considered the first successful clone, are successfully cultivated on an industrial scale in Western European countries. This variety differs from the original somewhat elongated shape of the fruit, as well as juicy color.
Interestingly, in addition to the skin of the fruit, the flesh can be colored. I would like to dwell separately on the taste characteristics of the gala. Almost all types of fruits have a moderate sweet taste with a sourness, and the aroma of such an apple has a pleasant shade of caramel.
Advantages and disadvantages
Although it is clear from the description of the variety and its individual subspecies, what are the advantages of the fruits of apples Gala, but perhaps it makes sense to recall once again about some features and to consider in detail the qualities that have fallen out of sight. Among the advantages of the variety Gala should be noted:
- annual fruiting
- high yield
- good disease resistance
- a low percentage of falling fruit, which is due to the strong attachment of an apple to the stem,
- long storage period
- sweet dessert taste
- fruiting begins at an early age.
Thanks to the expressive taste, Gala apples have found wide use in cooking. In addition, none are great for the nutritional diet of those who wish to quickly lose excess weight.
As for the minuses, then, like any fruit crop, there are negative properties for the variety of apples Gala. Although they are few, but still worth talking about them. Among the disadvantages are the following characteristics of the variety:
- as the tree ages, the fruits become smaller,
- resistance to negative temperatures is insufficient,
- relatively low resistance to some types of plant pests.
But the existing shortcomings are not a reason for refusing to grow these wonderful apples. Knowing about the negative aspects, you can simply strengthen preventive measures and provide trees with good care.
The benefits of apples, no one in doubt. Therefore, I would like to continue the description of the Gala apple tree by listing its excellent qualities, which are provided by the fruit composition. These apples contain:
- iron, without which the normal blood formation process is impossible,
- ascorbic acid (vitamin “C”) - it takes care of the body’s defenses,
- Calcium is necessary for a person, especially young children, for the growth of bones and healthy hair,
- Vitamin A supports good eyesight.
This combination of useful ingredients makes Gala apples a very attractive addition to the children's diet.
As for feeding fruit trees, it is carried out in the autumn period. For this purpose it is better to use organic natural fertilizers. Ideal - manure and compost. Before entering into the soil, you should add special mineral fertilizers for fruit trees. That the tree grew and actively fruited, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the spring.
Young apple trees are usually treated with chalk solution. Moreover, it covers only the lower part of the trunk. When the tree reaches the age of five, you can already use a solution of lime. Bordeaux liquid 3% is traditionally used to prevent diseases of other parts of the tree. In the spring, this composition is sprayed with the crown of an apple tree, and when the buds appear, copper peroxide is used at half-percent concentration. It is recommended that the same solution be repeated for the season after the flowers wither.
In order to prevent diseases, it is necessary to disinfect the upper layers of the soil with bleach.
Juicy and beautiful apples varieties Gala can be the pride of any gardener. Having provided the trees with the necessary care, a caring owner will enjoy the amazing taste of juicy fruits all year round. Perfectly fit these apples for jam and jams, which can then be added to pastries. Many admirers of natural products harvest from this type of apples juices, and even light wines. According to experts, Gala apples are considered the best in their segment of production.
Apple tree gala variety description
Apple Tree Gala is very much appreciated among gardeners of Russia. Its early ripeness, yield and winter hardiness distinguish it from many other species. There are also many subspecies created on the basis of the variety Gala.
Gala apple trees are low, medium in size with a wide oval crown. The branches are not very thick and have a large angle of inclination from the trunk (up to 80 degrees). Both annual shoots and old branches are capable of bearing fruit. The blooming of the apple tree Gala begins rather late (at the end of spring).
Refers to partially self-pollinating. To achieve maximum fructification, it is better to plant several other apple trees alongside, such as Elstar and James Grieve.
Apples gala fruit
Gala apples are medium or large in size, their weight can reach up to 150 g. The shape is round, sometimes slightly elongated to the bottom. Mature yellow fruits may have a large bright blush. The skin is thin, soft and easy to chew.
The flesh of the apple gala is dense, yellow, very juicy, has a unique caramel flavor. The tasting score is 4.5 points out of 5 possible. Fruits are versatile in use and are suitable for cooking and preservation, and for eating raw. Gala is one of the main varieties from which baby food is produced.
This variety of apple trees belongs to the late autumn. Maturation begins in late September and lasts until November. Apples are well stored for up to 2-3 months, without losing their qualities. Their transportability is average.
Apple tree gala in bloom
Apple tree Gala begins to bear fruit for 6-7 years after planting. If you give preference to dwarf saplings, then this period will be reduced to 3-4 years. Productivity is good and can reach up to 90 kg from one tree. Fruiting is regular and annual, but with the age of the tree the size of apples tends to decrease. Чтобы этого избежать, необходимо регулировать количество цветков: уменьшение объема урожая приведет к повышению его качества.
Гала - это сорт средней зимостойкости, он хорошо переносит холода с недлительными морозами до минус 30 град. по Цельсию. Apple trees are resistant to such diseases as powdery mildew and scab.
Subspecies of a variety of apples Gala
There are several dozen clones created on the basis of the Gala. Their main goal is to increase the color of fruits and give them an even more attractive presentation. The most common ones are:
- Royal Gala,
- Scarlet and Red Gala,
- Gala Mast
- Big Red,
- Spur Red Gala.
This is one of the first clones. Actively distributed in the industrial areas of Europe. It is practically no different from the original - only the elongated shape of the fruit and the brighter color of the skin and flesh.
Apples Gala subspecies royal
Apple trees of this subspecies are more resistant to powdery mildew. They are well pollinated by other varieties such as Idared and Gloucester. Differs abundant flowering and fruiting. Apples are very large and can reach up to 180 g. This is the most successful and common subspecies of the apple tree Gala. The fruits have a rich red color, and their shape resembles a diamond.
Apples Gala subspecies mast
The variety of apples Gala is famous not only for the beauty of the fruits, but also for their quality and taste. It is popular throughout Europe and America. Excellent characteristics make it one of the best industrial varieties.
Description, characteristic of the variety
Autumn variety. Trees of medium height with a wide oval crown formed by not dense branches extending from the trunk upwards. The strength of skeletal branches is moderate, the angle between them and the trunk is from 45 to 75. Trees are resistant to short-term low temperatures, and they do not tolerate long-term low temperatures.
Gala has mixed-type fruiting, the place of formation of ovaries:
Fruits have a beautiful shape, almost all grow the same size - medium, the weight value is 130 g. Fruits have a beautiful shape; it is usually less conical, less often rounded. Apples are skinned and very thin, but at the same time have a good density, its color may be yellow or yellow-green. Gala can be distinguished by a red blush covering almost the entire fruit. The peel is so dense that it does not get damage when the apples fall.
Juicy, dense, crispy flesh is characterized by color - yellow, taste - sour sweet. Tasting score - 4.6 points. Apples are versatile. They can be eaten both raw and used in cooking, they are traditionally used in processing plants, of which they prepare food for children.
Trees begin to bear fruit after five years, and if the rootstock is dwarf, then after three years. The harvest time for apples falls in the autumn months: September, October, November, so the variety can be considered late autumn, flowering is also later. Although Gala is a self-pollinating plant, it is better to follow the recommendations of experienced gardeners and have pollinators next to it to increase yields. Varieties - pollinators for Gala:
Gala Mast Description
Of all the species obtained from the apple variety Gala Gala Mast, one of the most large-fruited, fruit weight - 160 g, diameter 7 cm. Breeders from New Zealand brought the variety Gala Mast due to mutation. A tree, as well as at a parent grade of average height. The crown is wide, cone-shaped, the thickening is medium. To form the crown of the correct form is easy.
Apple has a low immunity to powdery mildew, it is not often affected by scab, and rarely affected by a bacterial burn. Flowering begins late. Pollinators:
It is required to carry out the normalization of the ovaries, since in the presence of pollinators the fruits are fastened well. In one inflorescence can form up to three ovaries. Flower buds are laid on last year's growths and biennial kolchatka. It begins to bear fruit early and gives high yields. If you do not ration the number of ovaries, then the apple tree will not bear fruit every year.
For fruits with a round-conical shape, one-dimensionality is typical. Classic color appears on the fruits only at the end of summer - in August. Mature fruits have a greater commercial attractiveness than the classic variety Gala, they are brighter with a rich red blush. The flesh can be distinguished by the presence of fine grain. It is juicy, quite dense, has a pleasant aroma, has a sweet taste and light sourness. The color is creamy yellow.
The crop ripens at the end of September, if it is not harvested in time. Apples are cracked, but not showered. Up to 70 kg of apples are removed from one apple tree. The crop is stored for up to six months, during storage it can deteriorate due to infection with rot and mold.
Planting and caring for an apple tree
Gala grows well and gives great harvests in many countries; here it can be grown in the steppe and forest-steppe parts of the country in areas with a temperate climate. The soil in the southern forest-steppe areas is fertile, has a large humus layer, in its composition it is suitable for growing fruit trees.
Seedlings of this variety better take root during the autumn planting. Landing term calculated based on local climatic conditions. A young tree will have time to take root if it is planted about a month before the first frost.
Dig a hole in advance, she must stand up to plant at least two weeks. The diameter of the pit is 1 m, the depth is 1 m. While digging a hole, remove the upper fertile layer and add 2-3 buckets of humus and several glasses of ash to it.
A sapling when planting should be tied to a peg driven in the center of the pit, this will exclude mechanical damage to the trunk and branches. Pristvolny circle well shed water, the seedling should get enough moisture when planting.
The peculiarity of the variety is that it does not like excess moisture, therefore, plan watering in accordance with weather conditions. Young trees in the first three years of watering every week. Mature trees that have entered fruiting season should be watered if dry weather and the top layer of the ground is dry.
Necessary agrotechnical reception, when growing apple varieties Gala and Gala Mast - rationing of fruiting. It is used to produce large, one-dimensional fruits. Work on the removal of excess ovaries carried out in the spring, leaving the amount that does not lead to depletion of the tree.
If the extra ovaries do not remove the apple tree will be overloaded with fruits, and as a result will form less flower buds. In this case, next summer the harvest will be small, the apple tree will rest. When removing excess ovaries, remember that the distance between the remaining fruits should be at least 15 centimeters.
To prevent disease and scare away pests by using preventive measures:
- In early spring, until the snow melted the trunk and the large skeletal branches of the lower tier were whitened.
- In the spring, while the kidneys have not yet dissolved, the entire crown should be carefully sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
- After flowering, repeat the treatment, but use copper oxychloride.
Perform the first pruning the next year after landing. It is important not to be late and execute it before bud break. It is necessary to trim the top of the central shoot and shorten the branches, this initiates the growth of new shoots.
In the future, each year at the beginning of spring, trim last year's growth by a third of the length. This not only improves the appearance of the crown, but also leads to the rationing of the crop, making the annual fruiting real.
Garden pests and control
The main pests that reduce the yield of apple trees:
- codling moth,
Weevil eats flowers, and thereby reduces yield. It is necessary to fight with him as early as possible, until the females have begun to lay eggs. The first simplest way is to lay a cloth under a tree, shake it by the trunk, destroy the fallen beetles. The second method is wood treatment with Calypso. It is safe for bees and can be used without harm to them.
Moth eats apples from the inside, spoils the crop. In the spring you need to arrange trapping belts. You can use for them burlap soaked with whey. Spraying trees with fresh infusion of wormwood helps well, the smell deters insects.
Sheet wrench affects the leaves and buds. Trees on the leaves can be sprayed with infusions of tomato tops or wormwood leaves, Lyufoks means good for the moth-sheeter.
The time spent on cultivating apple varieties Gala will quickly pay off worthy yields of tasty and beautiful fruits.
In my garden two apple varieties of Gala grow. I have no special knowledge of growing apples, take care of them as much as I can, but the trees bear fruit well. There are enough apples, some of them even sell, we have regular customers who, like us, love Gala for its taste.
From one Gala tree we collect so many apples that we have enough and just eat and make preparations. They lie well, we taste them for a long time. Caring for an apple tree is not difficult, it takes little time.
Gala variety is the best variety for industrial gardens and household plots. From apples you can cook cider, wine, jams, compotes. Excellent breeding variety.
Tree and Fruit Characteristics
- Growth - average.
- Crown - wide in girth, the shape is oval.
- Branches - diverge from the trunk in the upward direction, do not grow densely, the strength is moderate.
Characteristics of the fetus:
- The size more often average, less often - large. As the tree grows older it decreases.
- The form - rounded, there is a little elongated.
- Weight up to 150 gr.
- Color - red, with a small amount of yellow thin vertical lines.
- Taste moderately sweet-sour, the aroma is delicate with a caramel touch.
- Fruit pulp dense, granular in structure, crunchy, the skin is thin, but durable. When falling, fruits rarely fight and get damaged.
Where is growing?
Basically the variety is grown in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of the continents. It is considered that in these regions the most suitable conditions for the composition of the soil and its moisture content for the fertile cultivation of this fruit tree.
Recently, the apple tree has been adapting and spreading more and more in the subtropics and tropics. Countries that have started to engage in technical cultivation of the variety are Brazil and China.
The gala is well developed and fruited in temperate climates. It can be found in Poland, Ukraine, Russia.
Planting rules seedlings
Landing place to choose with low moisture, that is, away from water. It is recommended to have other apple varieties near the location of the gala tree. At the same time, it is not at all necessary that they belong to varieties of this variety. Other apple representatives will play the role of pollinators, which will improve the quality and yield of gala.Planting seedlings
Other landing guidelines:
- landing time - no later than 30 days before the first frost,
- preparation of the landing pit - a full month before the day of planting the sapling,
- the size - up to 1 meter deep, 1 meter wide,
- planting mix - a layer of fertile soil, collected during the preparation of the pit, is mixed with fertilizers of organic composition, add a little ash and lime
For a quality crop, you need to keep under control the number of inflorescences. With too many of them, which happens with the age of the tree, the fruit is a lot, but small in size. To improve the quality, it is necessary to thin out the apple ovaries slightly each year and reduce the number and density of inflorescences.. So you can save the quality of the crop.Thinning apple ovaries
Not too strong the plant does not tolerate excess moisture. The initial frequency for young saplings is once a week. Further, as they grow older, it is necessary to reduce watering, conducting them only with strong drying of the upper layers of the soil.
Young plants are usually covered with a solution of chalk in the lower part of the pillar. After a five year milestone, a lime mixture is used. Also In early spring, the crown is treated with an atomizer with a Brodsky liquid of 3% concentration, and during the appearance of buds and after the withering of the inflorescences, ½% copper oxychloride is used.Spraying trees in spring
Periodically it is recommended to disinfect the top layers of the soil from insect pests. To do this, use chlorine lime and digging up the soil around the tree.
The newly emerging branches are cut to one third of the grown length.. This allows you to maintain high-quality yields and save the tree from further fruit overload.
Diseases and pests
- High disease resistance: European cancer, powdery mildew.
- Medium stability: scab.
- Low stability: bacterial burn, fruit moth, monilioz.
Prevention. For preventive purposes trees sprayed with a special tool. It helps to destroy periodically occurring pests and creates additional protection against various diseases of vegetation. The tool can be purchased at any specialized garden shop.
Galovsky apples - one of the best varieties of apple trees for taste and a pleasant color. Him used for making baby food, in canning (jam and jam), as a filling for baking, in the manufacture of alcoholic (wine, cider) and nonalcoholic (juice) products. According to experts, the gala variety is one of the best species grown on an industrial scale.
Apple varieties "Gala" is characterized by such a description.
- Tree: medium height, not more than 3.5 meters in height.
- Root system: strongly developed, fibrous type.
- Crown: sparse, spreading, rounded and elongated shape.
- Forming branches: medium strength and upper direction of growth.
- Bloom: the end of May and the beginning of June.
- Peduncles: medium, rounded, white.
- Leaves: elongated with a pronounced tip at the end, dark green, their lower part densely pubescent.
Fruits of a grade of "Gala" - the average sizes, one-dimensional and rounded shape. At the top of the apple a small ribbing is permissible. Fruit weight is 115-145 grams, but at the maximum it can reach 170 grams. The color is yellow with vertical orange-red stripes. In some subspecies of the "Gala" variety, red blush can completely cover the surface of the apple. The skin of the fruit is glossy, thin, but strong enough. The flesh is light, with a yellow tinge, dense, with a granular structure. The taste of apples is moderately sweet with pronounced sourness. The aroma of apples - sweet anise with caramel and nutty notes.
Depending on where the Gala apples are grown on the plot, the fruits may vary in size and color. One of the main factors of good growth and development is considered to be solar lighting, or “insolation”. For optimal growth conditions and uniform fruiting throughout the entire crown, the tree requires a large amount of light, so it is important to disembark in well-lit sunny areas.
"Gala" moderately makes penumbra, but this can largely affect the yield of the tree.
For good development, Gala requires fertile soils (chernozem, loam, sandy loam). It is preferable to plant the apple trees on dry and elevated areas without close ground water. This variety loves dry soil without moisture overload.
With watering the soil should not be zealous. Young trees require one-time moderate watering per week, and mature ones as needed. At high humidity, climate additional watering is not required. Affect the health and development of the tree major agrotechnical methods of tillage:
- periodic loosening and annual digging. Such treatment will have a favorable effect on the water-air and thermal “climate” of the soil,
- fertilizing, produced simultaneously with digging, will increase nutrients in the soil. It is important to observe moderation in fertilizer application, and it is better to feed with intervals through the season (year). As a top dressing it is necessary to use organic (natural) fertilizers. For these purposes, a mixture of compost and manure or ash with lime is suitable. Also in the soil can be applied and mineral fertilizers in small quantities, observing moderation,
- soil mulching with sawdust or straw will create favorable soil temperature conditions.
The apple tree "Gala" does not apply to self-fruiting varieties and requires neighborhood with pollinators. Favorable for yield neighborhood with varieties "Idared", "James Griv", "Golden Delicious", "Melrose" and "Elstar".
The beginning of fruiting in a young tree begins only at 3–7 years and depends on the graft (grafting on another plant). With a graft on a dwarf plant, the beginning of fruiting may begin already in the 3rd year, and a graft on a high-growth plant will lead to fruiting only by the 7th year. Fruiting in “Gala” of the mixed type, this means that fruit ovaries can form both on the tops of the fruit branches, and on the fruit twigs (one-year growths) and ringworms (short annual growths).
Transportability and storage
Safety during transportation is estimated as average, but, in general, apples retain their presentation during transport over short distances. The shelf life of apples is long and can reach half a year. It is necessary to store the crop in a cool and dark place (cellar or cellar).
Disease and pest resistance
The apple tree loves dry soils and moderate watering; therefore, it is resistant to fungal diseases that arise against the background of high humidity: scab, powdery mildew (oidium), and rot.
But, like any other fruit tree, "Gala" can be amazed such diseases:
- black cancer - a fungal disease that affects the bark, branches, leaves and fruits.Manifested by black depressed spots and brown dots on the trunk. Penetrates the fungus through damage on the tree,
- root cancer is a viral disease triggered by soil bacteria. External manifestations can only be increasing weakness, lethargy of the tree and stopping in development. Bacteria penetrate through damaged roots.
The most dangerous pests of the "Gala" variety, leading to yield reduction:
- Codling moth - caterpillar, and subsequently a butterfly hitting the fruit. As a result of her vital activity, apples fall prematurely,
- Apple weevil-flowering beetle is an insect whose larvae feed on inflorescences of flower buds. As a result, the amount of harvest is significantly reduced or absent altogether,
- the leafworm is an insect whose larvae feed on the leaves, buds, and fruits of the tree. As a result of their vital activity, the leaves are deformed, and the amount of the crop is reduced.
For the prevention of diseases or pests in the early spring, whitewashing of the trunk is used (in a young and low tree, the lower branches should also be whitened). Such an event will create a protective layer and prevent the occurrence of pests and pathogens. The treatment of crown with fungicides, for example, 3% Bordeaux liquid, will also have a favorable effect. It is necessary to make spraying in the early spring in advance before blooming of kidneys. After shedding the flowers, wood treatment with a fungicide (Bordeaux liquid, copper oxychloride) can be repeated.
The ability of the Gala apple tree to tolerate fluctuations in low temperatures and other climatic conditions of the winter period is estimated as average. The variety is sufficiently resistant to short frosts and is able to withstand low temperatures down to -25 ° C. "Gala" - a variety of late flowering, which saves it during the spring "return" frost. With proper care (digging, feeding, mulching), the hardiness of the tree increases.
Options for the use of fruit inexhaustible. Due to the low calorie content and high content of vitamins and minerals apples"Gala" are actively used:
- in cooking - as a separate dish or ingredient for the preparation of sauces, marinades, salads, desserts, drinks, as well as in preservation for the preparation of jams, preserves, compotes. Fruits are used in raw, thermally processed and dried forms,
- in cosmetology - as the main component with a wide range of effects in shampoos, balsams, face masks / hair, creams and lotions, toothpastes, etc.,
- in animal husbandry and zoology - as feed / complementary food for animals.
Subspecies based on the variety "Gala"
Considering the appearance of the variety "Gala" is not too bright and attractive, able to attract the attention of the buyer, the breeders decided to correct the "mistake" and brought out new subspecies of the variety with a more intense color of the fruit. There are more than 20 such subspecies. Among them, the most vivid in their description of apple trees are the varieties: “Gala Mast”, “Royal Gala”, “Mondial Gala”."Gala Mast" (or Regal Queen) was launched by N. Fulvord in Hastings (New Zealand). This is the most popular and most large-fruited subspecies, having a brighter color. A bright red blush of an apple takes up the entire surface of the fruit.
80% of fruits in their mass reach 170 grams, and in diameter - 70 mm. This is the most promising variety for industrial use."Mondial Gala" (or "Imperial Gala") - launched in 1978 by D. Mitchell. Subspecies with a more saturated color, by the end of August, apples become carmine in color or covered with barely brownish stripes. A feature of the subspecies are the fruits of elongated shape. Royal Gala (or "Tenra") - launched in 1973 by T. Howe in Matamata (New Zealand). The subspecies resembles "Gala", but differs in more intense and brightly pronounced color. Fruits have a cone-shaped cut form. It is the Royal Gala apples that planted industrial plants in Europe and the USA.
Although the Gala apples grow quite well in Russia, they were bred in New Zealand by crossing Golden Delicious with Kids Orange Red. This variety is actively exported, so it is not surprising that today fruits are brought to almost any Russian supermarket.
It is worth noting that the country of origin was not the only supplier of such fruits for long. Very soon, the variety "Gala" began to be grown in Brazil, Canada and North America. In the US, such apples are generally considered the most popular.
The apple tree "Gala" ripens in the fall, the terms of removable and consumer maturity are in the range from the second half of September to November. Description of the variety suggests that it is rather undemanding and tolerates low temperatures satisfactorily. For cultivation it is recommended to choose areas with dry land and not be zealous with watering. The yield of "Gala" is high, and its performance is stable. The tree itself is not very thick, it has a wide oval-shaped crown. The height of the apple tree is also not too prominent, and it grows rather slowly. Skeletal branches are weak and directed upwards. Fruiting refers to the mixed type.
Apples have a red-yellow shade, and yellow is basic. On thin and dense skin, vertical stripes of greenish hue are often found. The shape of the fruit is even, slightly elongated, as if cut off. The maximum weight of an apple is from 160 to 170 grams, although there are also babies weighing 120 grams, which, naturally, is not a high indicator. The average weight ranges from 130 to 140 grams. The fruits themselves are rather small. The taste is bright and juicy, but moderate, with something even resembling a pear, and the flesh is granulated, brittle and has a yellow tinge. The smell is fresh, with hints of caramel. According to the tasters, out of 5 balls, the taste of an apple gets 4.6. Essential benefits of variety such as sweetness, hardness and freshness are evaluated.
Apple tree begins to bear fruit from the third to the seventh year, depending on the stock. Dwarf guarantees fruitfulness from the third or fourth year, and strong-growing, in turn, from the sixth or seventh. From an adult tree gardeners receive from 55 to 80 kilograms of apples. In general, fruiting is carried out regularly and moderately. Unfortunately, sometimes there is such a nuisance as overload, which leads to a decrease in the size of the fruit and, consequently, to a deterioration in their quality characteristics. This suggests that it is important to track the number of flowers, as well as thinning the ovary.
"Gala" carries minus temperatures up to minus 28 degrees, but for a short period of time. The variety resists scab well and resists mealy dew well. However, there is a greater likelihood of infection with cancer, codwort and the occurrence of a bacterial burn. Optimal feeding is organic, usually it is settled manure or compost.
It should be taken into account that it is made every two seasons until the autumn. Often, organic matter is mixed with commercial mineral fertilizers intended for fruit-bearing trees. In the spring, Gala needs nitrogen, because this substance is responsible for the active growth of the apple tree.
To plant a variety of "Gala" is possible only in those places that are far from rivers, lakes and other bodies of water, since apple trees require a low level of moisture. Well, if there are other fruit apple trees, not necessarily the same variety. Plant trees need to catch at least a month before the arrival of frosts, and prepare the hole - even earlier for thirty days. A recess is usually dug, one meter wide and the same depth. To prepare the mixture for planting, you need the layer of soil that arose when digging a hole, mixed with organic fertilizers, then add wood ash and, if necessary, lime. It should be recalled that the lime mortar is used in cases where the acidity of the soil is too high.
In order to protect against insects, young apple trees at the bottom are covered with a layer of chalk dissolved in water. After five years, a lime mortar can be used for this purpose. In addition, in the first spring month, the crown of a tree is well treated with Bordeaux liquids, whose concentration will be three percent. When the flower buds have already appeared, or when the inflorescences wither, the treatment is carried out with copper chloroxide 0.5%. From time to time, the soil should be checked for pests. Chlorine lime is used for this, plus the top layer of earth is carefully dug up.
"Gala" is considered partly self-pollinating variety, so for the implementation of reproduction next need to plant other varieties, such as "Elstar" and "James Grieve. Their presence not only activates the process, but also improves the number of fruits and their quality. Fruits are stored from two and a half to six months. In the first case, they remain in rooms where there is natural cooling, for example, in basements or storerooms, and in the second - in the refrigerating chamber.
It is worth noting that, falling, the apple is not exposed to mechanical damage, which explains why they are often grown for sale - “Gala” is not afraid of transportation. The apple goes well both fresh and after heat treatment. Fruits are dried, processed into compotes, mashed potatoes, jams, jams and other dishes.
The main advantages of this variety are called taste, numerous possibilities for use, decent yield, high quality keeping quality and resistance to falls. Among the shortcomings are the possible overload leading to the shredding of fruits, as well as the likelihood of some diseases.
Based on the Gala apples, experts have bred other varieties, for example, Mast and Royal. Experiments on hybridization of hybrids were organized in order to improve the color of the fruit and their external characteristics. The problem was that the lack of color did not attract buyers, so despite the popularity of gardeners, sales in the markets and in stores were slow. Therefore, for example, “Royal” - the very first clone - compares favorably with “Gala” in an even bright red color and cut off conical shape. For all other features, "Royal" is absolutely identical.
In addition to the above, more than twenty hybrids were bred, among which there are even bright orange and yellow striped specimens. The most common are the varieties "Jazz" and "Delfoh." Mondial, which has a more elongated shape and red-brown color, is also very popular.
"Mast" gives large broad fruits, whose weight ranges from 160 to 173 grams and is considered the largest mutant of "Gala". The apples have a rounded conical shape, and the flesh is cream colored.
Chemical composition and calorie content
Calorie apples is 53.7 kcal per 100 grams of product. Compared to other varieties, this indicator is considered above average. Analyzing BJU, you can see that in the “Gala” there are 14 grams of carbohydrates, 0 grams of proteins and 0 grams of fat.
The variety is rich in vitamin A in the amount of 41 milligrams per 100 grams of product. In addition, in the presence of vitamin C - 2 milligrams per 100 grams of product. The fruit includes calcium - 8 milligrams per 100 grams of the product, and iron - 0.15 milligrams per 100 grams of the product.
Apples of the "Gala" variety practically do not bear any harm. They should be avoided only by people with congenital intolerance to this product, usually manifested in the form of allergic reactions. But such cases are extremely rare.
Apples of the "Gala" variety enjoy the deserved love of the Russian population. They are actively used in their natural form, often used to prepare a variety of dishes from salad to baking. Salad of red cabbage, stuffed chicken, rice casserole - all these delicacies can not do without ripe apples "Gala". Fruits purchased at the supermarket have a sweet taste with a slightly sour and crispy inner flesh. Sizes are usually marked medium, weighing up to 140 grams. Consumers note outstanding flavor and use fruit to make curd casseroles, pancakes, pies and drinks.
Among the minuses of this variety, the price stands out - such fruits are not very cheap. However, the availability of fruits for twelve months justifies the relatively high costs.