The common pheasant was first discovered in the territory of the ancient Caucasus. Hence its second name - the Caucasian pheasant. It is not known for sure how, but the bird was imported to other countries, and today it can be found in many corners of the earth. It was partially domesticated, and they also learned how to breed hybrid breeds, crossing representatives of different species and even genera of the Fazanov family.
origin of name
The name of the largest representatives of the Kurinsky Detachment is associated with the Georgian Rioni River, which is more than 300 km long, on which several hydroelectric power stations are located today. The ancient Greeks nicknamed her Phasis. Probably, it was the detection of these birds on the banks of this river that gave them this name.
According to another version, pheasants were called like this after seeing them for the first time around the city with the same name. In the 6th century, the Carians founded the Phasis colony on the southern bank of the Phasis River, which was the easternmost city of the Pont area and a trading center.
Species of the genus Pheasants
The division of the genus Pheasants into two species is highly controversial, since not all ornithologists agree that common pheasant and green pheasant are two separate species. Some of them believe that the latter is a subspecies of the first. The green pheasant is found today in Japan, North America and Hawaii, and in size it is much smaller than the pheasant.
In the territory of the CIS countries green pheasants are not found, but common pheasants are common. They can also be seen in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia, in the countries of Central Asia and the Far East. In some zones, one of more than 30 subspecies of the common pheasant lives, in others - several at once.
Subspecies of the pheasant
Some of the more than 30 subspecies of the common pheasant used to be considered separate species of the genus Pheasants. However, a detailed study of the birds helped to find out that all of them belong to common pheasants and differ mainly in one coloring, and the differences are most pronounced in males. Pheasants that have more dramatic differences, such as long feathers on the ears or the breast, belong to other genera of the Pheasant family.
The Transcaucasian pheasant has a green head, light brown wings, a purple chest, and a neck. In North Caucasus, unlike the previous one, there is a brown or brown spot on the belly. The Tajik pheasant is endowed with a black-green breast and a yellow-red upper body. One of the subspecies - hunting pheasant - is the result of the creative introduction of man. It was created by crossing the Transcaucasian and Chinese subspecies.
A review of the common (Caucasian) pheasant includes a description of its dimensions and appearance. The body of this bird is very close in structure with the body of a chicken, from which an ordinary pheasant has a very long tail. In the coloring of the males of its various types there are green, purple, yellow, gold and other rich colors. The skin around the eyes is bright red without feathers. According to the bird custom, females have a nondescript pockmarked color in brown, sand or gray tones.
A male pheasant can reach a length of 90 cm, of which 50 is the 18th striped tail, and the length of the female usually does not exceed 60 cm, half of which is the length of the tail. The maximum mark to which the weight of one common pheasant can reach is 2 kg.
Common Pheasant is able to move fairly quickly on the ground, but to make a flight - for the bird it is a very difficult task, which it masters extremely rarely. This type of pheasant usually settles in thickets located near a water source. It is rare to meet them in the fields and forests. Males carefully guard their territory, sometimes even to death.
In the hottest part of the day, the birds take shelter in dense thickets, leaving morning and evening for a meal. They also spend the night there. Until spring, pheasants live in separate same-sex flocks. In flocks of males there may be hundreds of individuals, females form flocks of smaller ones. In early spring, the males are separated from the pack, choose a female for themselves and hoarse and loud singing attract the attention of the chosen one and competitors, notifying them that the place is taken.
Nest for laying pheasants arrange in the grass, usually located in the thickets of shrubs. Males do not take any part in hatching eggs. The whole month the female herself takes care of herself and of her offspring. From one to two dozen chicks are born usually before the onset of summer. In the wild, the bird leads a monogamous life.
The diet of pheasants includes both plant and animal food. With their powerful legs, they skillfully dig up various roots and seeds in the ground, as well as bugs and worms. The pheasant's menu may include more berries and clams. In the fall, pheasants gain weight, and in the winter they quickly drop it, since they have to expend tremendous efforts to get food. During the short winter day, they do not have time to get so much food so as not to waste their own fat reserves. Many individuals do not live until spring.
All pheasants have many enemies. “Worm - pheasant - fox” - this is how an exemplary food chain looks like with the participation of these birds. Common Pheasant is eaten by foxes, coyotes, jackals, hawks, goshawks, jays, magpies, crows, birds of prey.
Pheasant meat is valued more than chicken, and besides, they carry eggs well. Farmers breed them in specially constructed cages, and people who do not have a farm, usually make spacious enclosures. It is important to take care that there are bushes or any buildings in the bird’s territory where she could hide herself and where her fearful offspring could hide.
For breeding ordinary pheasants, you must buy fertilized eggs or chickens, or purchase or catch a male and a female of the same species. After that, caring owners carefully study the subspecies of the common pheasant, which they deal with in order to create optimal living conditions for it. No less carefully should pick up a daily diet for birds. Nutrition of pheasants plays an important role in the well-being of birds and their ability to multiply.
The pheasants are madly in love with the Colorado beetles, so they can be used to save planted potatoes without the use of toxic chemicals. These birds are prone to stress, which can affect their health, their ability to lay eggs and reproduce. They may become agitated because of sudden movements around, due to a change of owners or an established regime.
Features of hunting for pheasants
Pheasant hunting is not allowed everywhere. In the spring, a general ban was imposed on their capture or shooting. Usually hunting is done with a dog, often with a spaniel. Having caught the trail of a bird, the dog runs after it, and when the pheasant takes off, the hunter shoots. The dog finds a dead or wounded bird in the thickets and carries it to the owner. Pheasant hunting is carried out only in the morning and evening part of the day, when the bird leaves the secluded corner in which it lives.
In many parts of the world, pheasant hunting is very popular. Sports interest, as well as the great taste of meat have developed such a great interest in this activity. In antiquity, when there was a question about what would be served to the royal table: an ordinary pheasant or an ordinary chicken, the choice always fell on the first one. He was served on a platter in full plumage.
Common pheasants have a bright multi-colored color, but they are not as beautiful as other members of the Pheasant family, for example, the golden or eared pheasant. But this type is the fastest in the race. For birds, this is certainly a big plus, but for hunters for their valuable meat, this, of course, is a huge minus. Pheasants adapt well in captivity, if the aviary has enough space and secluded thickets or special buildings for solitude.
What is the name of the female pheasant
Females of pheasants do not have a special special name, but most often they are called chickens or hens. This name is used not in vain, because these birds belong to the order of the Curonidae and have a body resemblance to the chicken.
Distinctive features and appearance of the female
In total, there are about 30 subspecies of pheasants in nature, which differ in color and some details of their appearance.
The male pheasant has a bright plumage and a long wedge-shaped tail, which makes it very noticeable, so its life is often in danger. The female is masked much better due to her color. The color of feathers on the body of females is brownish-ocher with light and dark spots.
Their tail is short, indistinguishable in color from other feathers. Thanks to such muted tones in coloring, the female pheasant can hide well among nature with the babies.
The molt of heterosexual representatives of these birds runs at different times. In males, it begins when females hatch eggs, but in chickens a molt occurs when the chicks grow to a size smaller by a third than the size of an adult.
The male's legs and beak are yellowish, and the female is gray. The periopulmonary region is of the same red color. The length of the female is less than the male: it is approximately 60 centimeters. Her weight is only 700 grams - two times less than that of males.
Features of the life cycle of the bird
The life of domestic pheasants has significant differences from fellows in the wild.
It is not easy to see pheasants in the wild: they are shy and often hide, females are particularly well disguised. They live in thickets of grass, shrubs and plants, which are easy to hide. In their natural environment, they feed on berries, grains, worms and insects.
Birds keep very large flocks - there may be up to 150 individuals. When winter comes, females and males begin to keep separate groups that make up the males - up to a hundred persons, and up to 10 in the chickens.
To raise offspring, chickens themselves build nests covered with grass or shrubs, and if on the territory of all chickens they hatch eggs, the representative of the stronger sex ceases to protect it.
The female has one clutch per season, however, there are cases of repeated clutch when the initial was destroyed. Most clutches are done from late April to early June. The average incubation period is 23 days. The described birds can be called long-livers - in the natural environment they usually live from 5 to 7 years, and in particularly favorable, deprived of danger conditions their life expectancy can be up to 15 years.
In the domestic cultivation of these birds, they are placed in spacious open-air cages: 1 individual must have at least 1 square meter of territory. Creating conditions close to nature, shrubs or grass are planted in aviaries where birds can hide.
From February to September, in the poultry yard, farmers divide their livestock into small families, where up to four chickens fall per male. This separation is necessary to prevent clarification of relationships and fights between males, to which they are especially prone during this period.
Adult hens carry about 100 eggs per year. The breeding season in captivity begins in February and lasts until the end of June. Masonry hatch in a cozy dark place. The incubation period is from 23 to 26 days.
At home, birds are deprived of many dangers and stress, waiting for them in the wild, so their lifespan can reach 18 years.
Interesting facts about pheasants
Talking about pheasants, it is impossible not to recall some interesting facts about them:
- These birds can sing. Creek pheasant can be compared to the singing of a rooster. The cries of females can be heard very rarely, their voice is more like a squeak.
- The favorite dish of pheasants is the Colorado beetles, often these creeks of birds are farmers with potato fields.
- Pheasants are fearful — any excess movement can cause their excitement and stress. They may be so worried that it may impair their health and reproductive functions.
The female pheasants, like the males, without understatement can be called beautiful and unusual birds, which have their own unique character and habits. And to breed these birds or watch them in the wild conditions - will be left to your discretion.
The content of the article
To distinguish the male from the female, just look at the color of plumage and equipment. Males are much more females. The body length is 85 cm, while the body mass reaches 2 kg. A characteristic feature of a simple pheasant is a bare ring around the eyes. The pheasant has a long colorful tail in the form of a wedge, winged wings are round.
The pheasant male has large spurs on its paws, with which it fights on the female. Males are always colored brighter than females; they are distinguished by metallic luster on feathers. The bird's back feathers, golden with black splashes, slowly flow into a copper-red color with a purple tint over the tail.
Feathers on the tail have a yellow-brown shade with a copper-plum border. The ring around the eyes without feathers and bright red. The female pheasant cannot boast such a colorful plumage. It has a light brown or sand color with black spots on the feathers.
Where does the female pheasant live?
The female of the golden pheasant is a land bird that chooses forests, shrubs, marshlands for a long stay. This allows them to get something like protection from predators - the fox is unlikely to jump into the prickly bushes. Female nests near the ponds, along the banks of rivers or lakes.
The frightened bird will not run and will not soar to the top of the tree: it will hide in dense thickets. Therefore, the nests of these birds are right on the ground. They climb trees to get fruit in gray or in winter when it becomes difficult to find food on earth.
What does the female eat?
The food of the female is in small berries, different fruits, seeds, or green shoots. Also birds feed on worms and insects. Favorite food is a flowering plant rhododendron. To diversify their diet, they can peck insects. During the day, they are looking for food in the lowlands, and with the advent of the night, so that no predator can get to them, they sleep in the treetops.
The pheasant rarely leaves its habitat, preferring to always be in a particular area. Pheasants who live among mountains fly in low-lying areas during the day. If food is catastrophically needed, then they can fly through even the most hard-to-reach arrays.
Mating season in females
Scientists have conducted a series of studies that showed that pheasants are monogamous in the wild, that is, they spend most of their lives with one partner. If they are grown in captivity, they become polygamous. The mating season in birds begins in early spring. The female can carry from 8 to 20 brown eggs.
Pheasant female incubates eggs for up to 28 days, and the male does not participate in this. In winter, pheasants live in groups, but females and males live separately from each other. People have tamed pheasants and are often bred in hunting areas. But for hunting, a hybrid type of hunting pheasant is often used - a mixture of Chinese, Caucasian, and Semirechensky subspecies.
Pheasants living in China make nests in the last month of winter. At this time, the behavior of birds completely changes. There is rivalry among males, they become aggressive and try to intimidate a competitor, trying to win the favor of a female. The mating season means a loud and piercing cry of the males. If the female has heard calls from the male and has agreed, then the male begins to dance in front of her. He spins around the female, flaps his wings, showing her his gorgeous tail and collar.
The specifics of the content in the autonomous economy
To make the farm flourish, you need to protect the birds from stressful situations. They have an excellent memory, so they are able to recognize the owner by face, habits, voice. When a stranger comes, they begin to behave restlessly.
These birds face many dangers, so it is not surprising that they are so accommodating. At the slightest danger, they are trying to take off. In order for them not to run away, primary feathers are pruned and settled in cages. Pheasants very quickly get used to living in such territories and feel relative safety.
In the diet of diamond pheasants, it is customary to use almost all available root crops and grain crops. Due to the use of fish oil in poultry nutrition, it is possible to achieve easy digestibility of food and speedy weight gain.
Pheasants are very aggressive birds
For this type of bird is characterized by aggression towards their relatives, so it is necessary to ensure that they do not arrange fights. It is important to remember that any stressful situation, first of all, will affect the immunity and productivity of pets. No need to make sudden movements and make loud noises, coming up to the birds.
Pheasants often get sick. Their diseases are divided into:
Infectious pheasant diseases
Peculiarities of pheasant breeding, for the most part, depend on the variety. Also care for them and breeding is very different from breeding other birds. Для оптимального содержания на участке ограждается территория, из расчета 2 м 2 на голову. Фазаны довольно высоко могут подниматься в воздух, поэтому ограждение накрывают сверху мягкой сеткой.In no case can not use metal mesh for these purposes, because the bird soars up a candle at the slightest threat and such an obstacle will surely hurt his head.
Based on the fact that monogamous or polygamous breeds, birds should be divided into families and settled in enclosures. During the tribal period, it is not necessary to release the males for walking all in one place. They are very aggressive and usually fight to the death.
the breeding period is not worth releasing males for walking all in one place
The egg production period begins in April and lasts through August, and the mating season begins in February-March. Based on the characteristics of the breed, females lay eggs in the grass, in the bushes or on the branches of trees. For the comfort of the birds, it is necessary to create all conditions close to natural.
How to breed pheasants in autonomous farms?
Rearing chicks can occur in two ways:
In rare cases, both methods are used at once: the first 20 days the eggs lie under the female, and then they are transferred to the incubator.
Pheasant Hatching Egg
In the warm season, the temperature in the aviary or cage should be maintained between 5 and 30 degrees Celsius, while in the cold season a temperature drop below -20 degrees Celsius will be fraught with bird health.
For growing pheasant under the hen you need to build a special wooden box - cage, the outer wall of which is movable. If necessary, it is replaced by a crib cover so that the chicks can get out, while the female always remains in place. In front of the front wall of the cage build a cage, the size of which you can choose to your taste. The frame should be covered with a metal grid with intervals of a maximum of 10x10. This is necessary so that the little ones could not jump out, and the sparrows could not get inside. At night and in bad weather the cage should be closed.
Zadok and pheasant enclosure
Zadok is 40x40. The floor must be made of wood. The female should always have free access to food and drink. Often, the female is walked for half an hour every couple of days.
In a confined space, incubation should not last more than 14 days. Then the female is transferred under the open sky. The box with the hen should be left in the tall grass. When pheasant nests hatch, they will walk in the afternoon and eat pasture, and return to mother during the cool time of the day.
Incubation under the heaters is carried out both indoors and outdoors. If cultivation is carried out indoors, then the floor must be cement, wood or clay.
Hatching pheasant in the incubator
In the room where the pheasant is, you should not make narrow passages, because the chicks often choke each other at the exit. The ideal option for exit is a round hole at the level of the floor in the corner of the room. In order for the chicks not to get sick, their habitat must be dry, warm and equipped with a special container for food and drink. The litter must be made of large materials that the chicks cannot swallow. For example, straw perfectly absorbs moisture and retains heat. Under the bottom of the straw is best to put a layer of lime. In the angular spaces of the pile of straw should be more. A suitable temperature regime is set the day before the chicks appear.
In the summer, the adult chicks are transferred to the street. If the brood appeared in the cold season, then they can be released not earlier than one month after birth, or even after 45 days.
In summer, the bird should be watered only with cool water, and in winter, on the contrary, warm. It is important that one person feed and take care not to cause stress in birds. In the cold season, an aviary is suitable for pheasants, as long as it has good bedding and a reliable canopy.
Pheasants in the aviary can be kept all year round.
In one enclosure should not be several individuals of the male during the breeding period, otherwise they just peck each other. When the chicks hatch, the temperature in the house should be + 28 ° C for the first few days. Also in the house with chicks should be populated no more than 30 individuals per square meter.
The pheasant is a bright representative of the chicken-shaped squad. In habits they practically do not differ from chickens. Today, pheasants are bred in zoos, private farms. Their meat is very valuable due to its composition and dietary qualities.
Birds rarely use wings to move, mostly moving at a run. Favorite habitats - high vegetation, slums, branchy trees, thorny forests. At home, the bird easily gets used to living in the aviary.
Pheasants - a great yard decoration
Breeding pheasants is not difficult, and most importantly inexpensive. Many novice farmers begin their promotion in the business with the breeding of pheasants. Their meat is very much appreciated by elite restaurants, and feathers can be used as decorative ornaments. Most of the funds will have to invest in the case initially, with the purchase of livestock. In the fall, it will be cheaper to buy pheasant than in spring, because it is during this period that they begin to rush.
In general, the technology of breeding birds is not so difficult, but you should read the relevant literature, and even better to watch a detailed video about pheasants, which tells about their habits, habits and living conditions. The world of these birds is unique and for any connoisseur of beauty there will be its own breed.
Like many inhabitants of the fauna, these birds have certain differences between males and females. Characteristics of the appearance of males usually begins with the fact that they are very bright and visible from afar. Male pheasant has a golden, orange, green and even blue color. The long tail is always brown in color with dark purple stripes, and the rings around the sockets are always red and have no plumage.
Also, males are distinguished by the presence of spurs, which makes them related to roosters. The length of the body alone reaches 90 cm, the tail - up to 50 cm. The weight of such a carcass is slightly less than 2 kg. Against the background of such a “heat bird”, females look inconspicuous and faceless. Their plumage is always gray-brown, the length of the body is almost 3 times less, the tail has a purely symbolic meaning. Nestlings of such a pair up to a certain age do not visually differ from each other and look also inconspicuous.
The common pheasant has about 30 subspecies in its genus. There are several common ones:
- Hunting pheasant. This is a hybrid of Caucasian and Chinese pheasant, bred in an artificial environment and settled in the territory of America and Europe. Purebred subspecies has a bright rich color and is most common in breeding work.
- Silver common pheasant. The bird has a wide crest of long black feathers. The back, neck and part of the wings are white with brown waves. Breast and abdomen - rich black. The forehead of this species is naked and bright red. The length of the body of the male is 120 cm, the tail is 70, the females are smaller than 70 cm, the tail is about 20 cm. Habitats are the mountains and thickets of bamboo in Southern China, prefer to settle high above sea level.
- Royal Pheasant One of the most popular and large decorative subspecies. The size of an adult individual reaches 2 m in length, 1.5 of which are the tail. It also lives in the mountainous terrain of China. The color of the bird is golden brown, the white part is under the beak, the black halo is around the neck. Females of the royal pheasant have a reddish color with dark dots or ripples.
- Diamond pheasant. This subspecies has the most beautiful representatives and various characteristics. The breed is distinguished by a contrasting plumage with a deep emerald goiter and back. The wings are rich green, the tuft is red, the tail is black. The abdomen, goiter and breast of the birds are white, with an oblong pattern of black stripes. Females have a standard color, but with a more intense black pattern throughout the body. They have a gray or blue eye contour. The length of the male is 150 cm, 100 of which fall on the tail. Females - 67 cm, while the body - about 30 cm from the total size. Habitat - Eastern Europe.
- Golden common pheasant. China is considered the homeland, but since these pheasants have a catchy appearance and attract hunters and predators, they are now kept mainly in zoos and reserves. The bird has a golden and bright red coloring. On the head there is a golden crest with an orange rim and black ripples. The bright tail includes blue blotches.
- Body length with tail: males 70–90 cm, females 55–70 cm.
- Weight: males 1.3-2 kg, females 1-1.4 kg.
- Tail length: males 45-60 cm, females 20-25 cm.
The wings are short, oval. Spurs on his feet. The tail is long, wedge-shaped. Consists of 18 feathers, tapering towards the end. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced: males of pheasant are much larger in size and brighter in color than females.
It is interesting! One of the features of the appearance of the male pheasant is the area around the eyes and cheeks without plumage. During tokovanie these areas become bright red.
The color of the male - pheasant is a work of art. In general, the overall tone is golden red or with a purple sheen. The wings are light brown. Head of emerald-metallic color. The front of the neck and chest are purple, with a metallic sheen. On the nape there are long golden feathers, fringed with green at the top. The area behind the neck is thick blue or purple tint. The foreground color has a scaly pattern of dark spots. Almost all feathers of the upper part of the body have a red border. The bottom is lighter. The belly is usually dark brown in color. Beak and legs are yellow.
Numerous subspecies of the common pheasant have a number of features in color. For example, a Georgian pheasant has a brown spot on its belly, framed by shiny feathers. The color of the Japanese pheasant is predominantly brilliant green. Copper-red shades prevail in the color of Khiva’s pheasant.
Females are not distinguished by colorful plumage. Thus, nature protects, makes them invisible to predators, giving the opportunity to carry and feed the offspring. The color of the females is usually variegated, but in the range of sandy-brown shades. On the body is a pattern of black-brown scales. On the head and neck area are closely spaced stripes, because of which these parts look darker. There is a very faint violet glow. On the upper part of the chest and at the bottom of the neck there are brown spots of a semicircular shape. Legs and beak gray.
Character and way of life
The owner of such colorful feathers in life has to constantly hide, so as not to become prey to a predator. Pheasant is extremely shy and cautious. Prefers to hide in the bushes or is in the high thick grass. As far as possible, climb trees and rest among the foliage. Before descending to the ground for a long time looking around. Then suddenly and rapidly falls down, abruptly changes the angle and goes on a horizontal trajectory, planning in the air.
It is interesting! Among all the representatives of the family of grouse-like pheasants is a record holder in running speed. The posture that he takes when running is also interesting: he pulls the neck and head forward while raising his tail. So, instinctively laid mechanism, helps to significantly improve the aerodynamics of running.
With the exception of the breeding season, the coming spring pheasants are kept by the same-sex group. Groups of males are more numerous than groups of females. Exits commit to finding food in the morning and evening. With the arrival of spring, the behavior changes. Pheasants are kept in small groups of families. For life choose an area near the reservoir, rich in vegetation and food. Settled in the forests, undergrowths.
Thickets of thorny shrubs that protect these birds from predators are very fond of. A large predator only in extreme cases will climb through the thorny bushes. Tugai thickets and impassable reed sections of river valleys complain. Nests are built on the ground, near water. In normal time, the pheasant gives voice only in flight. The sound is sharp, strong, jerky. During the over current period, it emits special voice signals.
The pheasant is widespread quite widely: from the Pyrenean Peninsula to the Japanese Islands. It lives in the Caucasus, in Turkmenistan, in the Far East, in North America and in Europe. Able to live wherever in winter the height of the snow cover does not exceed 20 cm. In the mountains, he feels comfortable at an altitude of up to 2600 m with hell sea level.
Common Pheasant Diet
The diet of pheasant consists of plant foods: seeds, berries, shoots, fruits. More than 100 plant species are consumed. Pheasants also do not refuse animal food: worms, snails, insects, spiders, small snakes and rodents. However, more pheasants prefer plant foods. Newborn pheasants feed for a month only on food of animal origin, and growing up mainly transfers to the vegetable diet.
For good digestion, pheasants need a gastrolite: pebbles. Food is mined on the ground, raking the ground with strong paws and a sharp beak. From the bushes collect food bouncing. During the period when food becomes less, can find the remains of fruits on trees.
Reproduction and offspring
With the arrival of spring, the mating season begins for pheasants. If earlier males and females lived apart, now the situation changes radically. Males are separated from the pack and leave. Having chosen or won over a territory of about 400-500 meters, they actively begin to defend it.
To do this, constantly patrol the area, on the one hand showing the other males that the territory is occupied, on the other hand actively inviting females to themselves. Females, unlike males, do not walk alone, they are kept in groups of 3-4 individuals. From this group the pheasant carefully chooses a partner.
It is interesting! Under natural conditions, pheasants are monogamous, but in captivity they show polygamy.
Males are actively fighting with their brethren, defending the territory of 400-500 meters and constantly patrolling, protecting them from invasion and inviting females to themselves. Females come in small groups of 3-4 individuals. The male chooses a female and makes a pair with her.
A mating dance or toking of a pheasant begins with the fact that the pheasant rises and begins to beat its wings intensively so that they do not touch the ground.. At the same time, the tail opens, rises by 45-50 degrees. Male pecks, loosens the soil, picks up the grain and throws them, thereby inviting the female. Interesting sounds that makes a pheasant during tokaniya. There is a loud mating cry, which consists of two syllables "kx-kx". It is a sharp, short, slightly burly and intense sound. After it, the pheasant usually flaps its wings actively and vibrates with its voice. And there is the second voice of the pheasant, at the time of excitement and close proximity to the female, he publishes a low, deaf "gu-gu-gu."
Before mating, non-feathered areas of the body red in the male. After coitus, the male opens its tail and wings toward the female and strongly bends its head downwards, so that it almost touches the ground. Then he slowly goes around his partner and makes a hissing sound. In the case of successful courtship, the female pheasant makes a nest. She does it on her own, the male does not take part in building a nest and raising chicks. The depth of the nest is from 2 to 12 cm, 12-30 cm in diameter. It is usually built on the ground, while they are well hidden in the grass or in thorny bushes.
The female lays eggs of brown color approximately in the middle of March - the beginning of April. She does it once a day. A total of 8 to 12 eggs are produced. Then the female incubates the eggs for 22-25 days. During this period, it practically does not rise from the clutch, actively drives away small predators and protects future pheasants. The female leaves only in cases where the forces leave her. For a while she rises from the nest to eat. As a result, the female's weight decreases by almost half. In rare cases, the male is nearby and brings food.
It is interesting! Pheasant broods occur even in the fall, despite the fact that the female usually produces one egg laying per season. This happens if the first clutch dies in the paws of the predator and the female has no choice but to try to postpone the repeated clutch.
Hatching pheasants for a couple of hours remain in the nest, and then cheerfully follow the mother in search of food. They need protection for about 80 days, but after 12-15 days they are fully capable of flying. The female teaches chicks to get food and at first the diet of babies is animal food rich in protein. Puberty in young pheasants begins with 220 days of life, and this means that they have formed into an independent adult.
From the 250th day many pheasants actively begin reproduction.. As a rule, males do this, since females form in females only by the next spring. In captivity, females unite and care for the whole brood. In such conditions, up to 50 chicks are safely raised. The male also does not care about the offspring. Sometimes the males, despite monogamy, plant in their family two or three females and they bring progeny every year.
The natural enemies of ordinary pheasants are jackals, foxes, pumas, lynxes, wild dogs, and also some species of birds of prey, such as owls, hawks.
Important! In natural conditions, in the first year of life, almost 80% of individuals die.
В современных условиях наибольшую угрозу для фазанов представляет человек. Ценное, питательное мясо этих птиц выступает причиной охоты за ними. Человек часто использует охотничьих собак в ловле фазанов, которые очень легко и быстро этих птиц. Обнаружив фазана, собака загоняет его на дерево и в момент, когда птица взлетает, охотник делает выстрел.
Вкусное и питательное мясо фазана издавно ценится людьми. В 100 граммах содержится 254 ккал. Pheasant meat has a beneficial effect on the body, increases its resistance to various diseases, strengthens the immune system. Pheasants began to be raised from about the 19th century. Used for hunting, food, and atkzhe to decorate the yard. Decorative functions usually served as a golden pheasant.
In the 20th century, breeding of pheasants in private lands became a familiar thing.. Domestic pheasants brought considerable profits to the owners. There is a separate branch-phezanovodstvo. The bird is bred in hunting farms, regularly increasing the number of individuals by the fall - the active hunting season. A special hunting species appears - a mixture of Chinese, Semirechensky and Caucasian species. It also becomes available to purchase chicks in a private farm, for eating and decorating the yard.
Population and species status
The livestock of pheasants is quickly restored despite their active use in hunting. Among natural causes, climatic conditions and predators affect the numbers. In the first case, a decline in numbers occurs after snowy, cold winters. If the snow level becomes more than 20 cm and lasts a long time. In general, the number of pheasant reaches 300 million heads. The International Union for Conservation of Nature considers pheasant to be the “least worrisome” species.