Many summer residents who have successful experience in growing crops in greenhouses, dream of bringing this business to an industrial level, so that the crop is enough not only for their own needs, but also for profit. Of course, a couple of summer houses in this case can not do, you need an industrial greenhouse, which will have the proper equipment and resources. Industrial greenhouses made of polycarbonate make it possible to realize this dream, because they are relatively not difficult to build, and at the same time they meet all the necessary requirements.
Industrial greenhouse is a real complex that combines great opportunities. True, to provide these opportunities, certain knowledge, financial capital and considerable experience are needed.
The construction of industrial greenhouses consists of a number of works that must be performed at a professional level. Not all lovers of this event will be able to. If you doubt your abilities, but you do not want to refuse to grow crops on an industrial scale, then an alternative to self-construction can be industrial greenhouses.
Features of industrial greenhouses
The fundamental factors that affect the efficiency of greenhouses are:
- Materials used,
- The presence of heating, lighting, automatic irrigation, as well as additional functions of greenhouse equipment,
- The possibility of providing a constant temperature,
Therefore, the above points should be given special attention, as the success of the greenhouse business depends on them.
Industrial greenhouse inside
Types of greenhouses
Before you start developing a project, you need to decide on the type of future greenhouse.
Modern greenhouse complexes are divided into two types, depending on their operation:
- Seasonal. Seasonal greenhouses are usually used from March to November. They grow planting materials and plants that are in high demand among consumers.
- Year-round. These greenhouses make it possible to harvest even when frost is losing "overboard". Despite the fact that they are much more complex to manufacture and costly, they pay off much faster than seasonal ones.
In addition, there are other differences.
In particular, they differ in technical characteristics:
- Breeding greenhouses,
- Flower (greenhouses),
On a photo - the rack greenhouse of industrial type
By cultivation technology:
- Soil (soil),
By design features:
- Hangar and block,
- Straight and arched.
By construction features:
- Metal frames.
And also, by type of fencing:
- Coated with polymeric materials or greenhouse films,
Arched industrial greenhouse
Therefore, at the stage of choosing a greenhouse, it is important to determine the list of crops that are supposed to be grown in the greenhouse, as well as the optimal technologies and production volumes.
All the knowledge gained by you at your summer cottage or garden will do little to help with industrial cultivation of crops.
A simple example of this is that you will have to deal not with 20 square meters, but 500, 600 or even with several thousand square meters.
After selecting the type of greenhouse, it is necessary to determine its size. To do this, do not interfere with the professional project and consultation with a professional farmer, who will help to calculate the capacity of the future design.
Then you can calculate the approximate cost of industrial greenhouses. Depending on the budget, you can make certain adjustments to the project.
In addition, when developing a project, it is necessary to take into account the basic requirements that the site must meet for the future greenhouse:
- Protection from snow drifts and northeast winds,
- Calm terrain, the slope level of which does not exceed 0.04 percent,
- Availability of communications, water,
- Fertile soil that can be used in soil mixtures,
- Lack of sources that pollute the environment
In addition, there is a certain order of orientation of the greenhouse relative to the cardinal points. According to experts, in areas that are located north of 60 degrees north latitude, the latitudinal orientation is optimal, if to the south - then the meridional.
Nowadays, the following materials are used for the walls and roof of industrial greenhouses:
Glass constructions perfectly transmit the light that plants simply need for photosynthesis. But at the same time, glass is a rather heavy and fragile material. Therefore, such structures require powerful metal frames. Adverse environmental conditions can easily destroy the coating.
Recently, cellular polycarbonate has gained immense popularity, since this material has several advantages:
- The industrial greenhouse from polycarbonate possesses good thermal insulation that simplifies maintenance of temperature condition.
- Polycarbonate has a high light transmission ability. This figure reaches 85-90 percent, which is not much less than that of glass.
- Cellular polycarbonate can eliminate harmful radiation. As a result, multiple scattering of rays favorably affects plant growth.
In addition, polycarbonate is characterized by high resistance to temperature, durability, and also meets all fire safety requirements.
As a rule, such an industrial greenhouse is made with its own hands from light high-strength metals. Due to the ease of manufacture, their production is carried out as soon as possible. In addition, industrial polycarbonate greenhouses can serve up to 15 years or more.
In addition, there are other advantages of this material:
- Low price
- Polycarbonate buildings do not need periodic capital repairs,
- No special care is required for the material.
Given all the advantages and disadvantages of these materials, the choice becomes obvious.
Greenhouse construction stages
The process of building greenhouses includes several successive stages:
- Earthworks and the foundation of the greenhouse,
- Manufacturing of frame structures,
- Carrying frame installation,
- Installation of transparent elements
- Installation of internal equipment and soil preparation.
Metal frame assembly
Construction works do not seem to be anything complicated, the instructions for their execution are the same as for the construction of ordinary, country greenhouses, with the exception of scale. A much greater complexity is the internal equipment of the greenhouse, as it requires additional knowledge.
In the place where the greenhouse will be built, the groundwater level should not rise high.
In industrial greenhouses, first of all, it is necessary to maintain a certain temperature regime throughout the growing season of the plants. This problem can be solved with a high-quality greenhouse heating system. For this, heating boilers with high efficiency are installed.
Another significant element for the greenhouse is the installation of a drainage system. Installation of pump filter installation must be provided in a mandatory manner, as this will allow economical use of not only water but also fertilizer.
The greenhouse should be located in the lowland so that it is less blown by the winds.
Modern technologies in greenhouses provide systematic management of most of the processes necessary for growing crops. An industrial greenhouse, with full automation, can be serviced by even one person. Modern equipment for greenhouses is quite expensive, but for some reason it allows to increase the yield and significantly reduce operating costs, which generally improves the efficiency of this business.
Winter-type greenhouse is not so easy to do. If you feel that you can not cope, it is better to seek the help of professionals. But if the drawings were correct, the project will definitely succeed. Then the costs will pay off quite quickly and fully.
In order not to lose the material, be sure to save it to yourself in the social network Vkontakte, Odnoklassniki, Facebook, simply by clicking on the button below:
Differences industrial greenhouses
The main feature of such structures is their size, industrial greenhouses are tens or even hundreds of times more of their “summer” counterparts. The area of such buildings is measured in hundreds of square meters, the length, width and height of greenhouses are not far behind it. Some industrial greenhouses are similar in shape to the usual dacha variants and are strongly elongated, their length is an order of magnitude greater than their width. Others, on the contrary, resemble squares or rectangles with practically equal sides - several buildings elongated along the length are built close to each other, there are no walls between them, the result is an agrotechnical structure of an impressive area, already measured in thousands of square meters. Examples of some industrial greenhouses are shown in the pictures below.
"Array" of several industrial greenhouses, united in one building
A rough idea of the size of industrial greenhouses can give a drawing of this structure, consisting of three arched sections, connected in one complex. All dimensions are in millimeters.
Important! It should be understood that the greenhouse in the country in most cases is created in order to increase the yield on the site and provide themselves and their families with fresh vegetables of their own production. Industrial greenhouses, on the other hand, are subject to a slightly different goal — to obtain as large a profit as possible by growing crops for sale.
Choosing one or another type of industrial greenhouse, rely on those types of plants that you plan to plant
Industrial greenhouses are distinguished by a reinforced frame - with an increase in the size of the structure, the area, and hence the mass of the skin becomes larger. In addition, the snow load on the building also grows, and if for the country greenhouse the deflection and carcass collapse in the winter is unpleasant, but not critical, then for her “big brother” this is a real disaster. More details about the features of this part of the design of industrial greenhouses and their main forms are described in one of the following sections of the article.
We have already said that similar facilities are aimed at high yield and efficiency, because the more vegetables or berries will be grown for sale, the higher the profit per square meter of greenhouse. Therefore, they often use all opportunities to create optimal conditions for plants - artificial lighting, especially nutrient-rich soil, complete protection from insect pests and weeds, increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the micro-atmosphere of the building, ventilation and heating.
Farm and industrial polycarbonate greenhouses
By the way, about the latter. The availability and complexity of the heating system of an industrial greenhouse directly depends on what time period of use it is designed for.
Industrial winter greenhouse
On this basis, there are two types of buildings:
Seasonal greenhousesas it is clear from their name, they are designed exclusively for use in the summer season - seedlings are planted in the spring, then it is grown into full-fledged bushes, later the harvest is gathered, and closer to late autumn, the building is prepared for winter. Arrangement of such greenhouses requires less initial investment. In some cases, the construction does not have significant differences from the buildings of the ordinary cottage, it is simply “scaled” in size.
Example of a seasonal industrial greenhouse
Year-round industrial greenhouses same designed for growing different crops at any time of the year. This implies the presence of a strong foundation that excludes freezing of the soil inside the building, as well as the presence of a complex system of heating and lighting plants. Such systems are designed to compensate for the lack of heat and sunlight characteristic of late autumn, winter and early spring. Compared with seasonal, year-round industrial greenhouses require significant initial investment, but also pays off faster, because the trade in fresh vegetables and berries in the winter can bring a lot of money.
The whole process of building an industrial greenhouse consists of the following steps.
Step 1. Registration of an individual entrepreneur or farmer, obtaining or buying a land plot.
SP design scheme
Step 2. Choosing a place under the greenhouse, the construction of the foundation.
Step 3. The construction of the frame.
Step 4. Plating installation.
Polycarbonate sheathing and insulation
Step 5. Installation and connection of equipment for irrigation, ventilation, heating and lighting of plants.
Step 6. Preparing the soil for planting.
No one needs to prove how much quality equipment for greenhouses affects the yield, and this is the main goal for which greenhouses are installed. Read more in this article.
As for the first step, here it is better to get acquainted with instructions and recommendations from professional lawyers and owners of agrotechnical complexes that have already achieved success. And about the choice of a place for an industrial greenhouse and further work basic knowledge can be obtained here in this article.
Industrial greenhouses and their types
Industrial greenhouses are usually distinguished by their shape, size and seasonality of use.
Polycarbonate industrial greenhouses are:
- Arched. Perhaps the most popular type of greenhouse. Its advantages include good illumination, resistance to strong side winds, it can withstand a large amount of precipitation (good in winter and rainy weather). The construction in the form of an arch allows to build a large-scale greenhouse complex,
- Pointy. All characteristics and shape are very similar to the arched greenhouse, but the lance design has a pointed roof. Such a roof does not allow snow to accumulate, and sunlight easily penetrates the greenhouse,
- Gabled The least popular industrial greenhouse from polycarbonate among farmers. This form must withstand a large load, this requires the manufacture of a reinforced frame. On the area dvukhskatny greenhouse inferior arched view.
The size of industrial greenhouses of polycarbonate is divided into small, medium and large. Drawings are usually made according to these parameters. You need photos of the greenhouse complex can be found in special magazines.
In addition to the standard dimensions of greenhouses, you can order the desired design that will satisfy the needs of the farmer.
Industrial greenhouses also share the season of their use:
- Seasonal. Seedlings in such greenhouses grown from spring to autumn. Industrial greenhouses of this type have an important advantage - they do not need to be dismantled for the winter, the manufacture of such greenhouses implies a strong frost-resistant construction that will withstand the loads from snow. From the minuses it is possible to single out the fact that the soil in such a structure will freeze to a great extent in the cold. This is due to the fact that the land outside the building is covered with snow, which at least warms it. And in the greenhouse the snow simply does not fall. As a result, in 3-4 years the soil will not be so fertile. However, professional farmers have found a way out of this situation: they personally fill the ground with snow into the greenhouse complex.
- Year-round industrial greenhouses. It is possible to conduct business with the use of such greenhouses all year round without damage to finances. This facility requires special equipment, including lighting, heating. Most often, the production of this type of greenhouses involves the cultivation of flowers, sales from which in the winter time will recoup all costs paid for the maintenance of the year-round facilities. The so-called winter greenhouses have good financial returns.
Industrial greenhouse: features
Industrial greenhouses differ from the usual large size, they use heating systems, which allows to obtain several harvests in year. Greenhouse buildings occupy a significant area and, as a rule, have a great height.
Such structures can be multi-tiered and multi-storey. For conditions Far north greenhouse buildings are being built with walls of capital construction materials that use only artificial lighting.
Large, most equipped with electronic tracking systems and technology, greenhouse buildings are built in Holland.The useful area of such facilities is several thousand square meters.
This is real covered plantations.
Vegetables, berries and flowers are grown here not only in the soil, but by methods hydroponics.
Then the plants are planted in a synthetic porous material resembling glass wool.
This material is supplied with minerals and water, selected individually for each culture. This technology allows for very high yields.
For голландских тепличных комплексов Special equipment is produced for heating, irrigation, irrigation, fertilization.
In such buildings do multi-tier heating system and heated floor, the heating system provides for the production and supply to the premises carbon dioxidewhich is needed for metabolic processes of plants in the daytime. Dutch greenhouses are delivered to customers worldwide.
Russian enterprises mastered the western production technology of industrial greenhouses.
Russian products cost farmers and individual customers much cheaper imported, moreover, local enterprises that are engaged in the production of farm greenhouses, make them adapted to the weather conditions of the regions.
Large volume industrial greenhouses allows you to grow plants on racks, hanging pallets, using several tiers. The number of "floors" depends on the height of the plants. In greenhouse buildings done artificial lighting, which allows plants to receive more light in early spring and late autumn, as well as in winter.
Industrial greenhouses - photo:
Serially produced models
Large enterprises in all regions Of Russia develop standard projects for conventional and industrial greenhouses. They created a series of projects and offer the buyer a large selection of products.
What are industrial greenhouses? There are several types of professional greenhouses for the farmer:
- multitone with gallery,
- block multi-span,
- garden centers.
Farmers and farmers enjoy the greatest popularity among farmers and owners of private plots. tunnel greenhouses. The series is developed by manufacturers based on existing building codes and regulations in Russia.
Industrial-scale greenhouses are produced under the film and under the polycarbonate, the design uses different types of frame. The section of greenhouses can be arched, "Gothic", "with straight mills" and with "straight walls reinforced." The width of the greenhouse building ranges from 3.5-12 meters.
Industrial greenhouses "Farmer" designed with respect SNiP 2.10.04-85, they are intended for the industrial cultivation of vegetables, berries and seedlings. The framework of the farm greenhouse is assembled from a galvanized profile on the bolts.
Arched trusses are pulled together by straight beams. The cross-section of greenhouse buildings is semi-circular (arched) or pointed ("Gothic").
Sizes of industrial greenhouses "Farmer":
The height in various models of the series is 3-4 meters. This allows you to grow both tall crops and small plants, placing the seedlings on the racks.
Greenhouses of this series are mounted on any foundation or on the ground, in which stands are dugged. The width of the structure is from 3.5 to 7.7 meters. The basic package includes double gates, which are mounted at the ends of the greenhouse building. At the request of the buyer, air vents can be additionally installed.
Greenhouses covered transparent cellular polycarbonate. The customer can choose the thickness of polycarbonate - 6 mm (recommended), 8 mm or 10 mm. Polycarbonate is fastened with special fasteners "polyfrag"; covering material on the end walls is fastened with corner brackets. In the greenhouse "Farmer" vegetables can be grown year-round.
Selection and drafting
Before building a greenhouse, the farmer and the owner of a private farm need to decide what he will grow in the summer and in the winter. As a result, will be compiled farm greenhouse drawingas well as a list of requirements.
Experience has shown that in the construction of a responsible structure, which will serve for years, it is better to rely on specialists. In specialized firms, customers are provided with a choice of dozens of ready-made projects that correspond to their wishes. Here you can buy a ready-made greenhouse unassembled and mount it on the foundation. As a rule, businesses offer installation services.
Projects and drawings of industrial greenhouses:
How to build industrial greenhouse? In order for the greenhouse to serve for many years, it must be mounted on the foundation. The foundation allows you to securely fasten the structure, prevents the penetration of atmospheric water from the outside, protects the cultivated area from weeds.
Any kind of small industrial greenhouses is suitable. foundation - on stilts, block, point, slab, brick. For large greenhouses, they usually make a concrete foundation, less often use timber.
For farm and industrial greenhouses use durable frame arched or gable form. The frame is collected from the hat profile, from the profile tube or from the corner.
Hat frame is quick and easy to assemble, but this design can not stand heavy snow weight. If you decide to build farm greenhouses from a profile pipe, then the framework can be welded. The pipe has a round or square section. This design also does not withstand a lot of snow weight.
The best is the frame from the corner (corner profile). It is assembled on bolts, without welding, the profile is galvanized and can serve for many years. This design can withstand the weight of snow. up to 100 kg per square meter.
The frame is fixed on the foundation. For strength, use anchor bolts or pre-fixed studs. This mount will provide sufficient rigidity and strengthwhile the difference in the heat capacity of building materials will not contribute to the loosening of the structure in extreme heat and frost.
The frame may be aluminum. But the aluminum construction will deform under the influence of winds and heavy snow.
Winter industrial greenhouse - project:
Currently, the most popular covering material is cellular polycarbonate. It is easy to install, it is reliable in operation, does not collapse from accidental sharp blows. This material will not be broken even by a strong hail.
Foreign industry produces cellular polycarbonate various thickness (from 3.2 to 25 mm) and structure. For small winter professional greenhouses made of polycarbonate, they use material from 3.2 to 6 mm thick. Transparent polycarbonate is usually used for greenhouse buildings and greenhouses. The coefficient of light transmission depends on the thickness of the sheet and varies from 62% before 83%.
The coefficient of light transmission of glass is high (88-92% for glass of various thickness). Greenhouse facilities can be glazed with both window and greenhouse glass, which is much stronger. Dutch industrial glass greenhouses cover with a special look. float. This glass is cast in the finished form, which increases its strength.
Film Industrial greenhouses have been used for a long time, but this material has several disadvantages. The film is difficult to fix without damaging. Winds stretch the film, it begins to inflate and breaks, because of what it has to be changed. Arched farm greenhouses under the film, which are located in areas of strong winds, have to overlap annually.
Film farm greenhouses - photo:
For heating Industrial greenhouses in the winter establish solid fuel, electric, gas boilers and oil-fired boilers. They heat the water, which circulates through the pipes, conducted along the contour of the building, and under its floor, fills radiators. Thus, both air and ground are heated.
Industrial greenhouses can be heated with warm air from heating appliances. The room heats up very quickly, but after turning off the equipment, the temperature quickly decreases. At the same time, the ground does not heat up.
For heating farm greenhouses you can use infrared heaters PLEN. Heater panels are mounted under the ceiling; during their work, the ground, plants and structural elements are heated, but not the air.
Infrared radiation works just like the rays of the sun. Excess heat enters the air. This type of heating industrial greenhouses expensivebut very effective, plants feel great in infrared rays and give great harvests.