In the garden and garden business, nitrogen fertilizers are the main substance that provides the plant with good compaction of the roots, the emergence of new leaves, flower growth and fruit development.
Nitrogen feed is especially important for fruit and berry crops. It provides an increase in the growth of fruits and improves their taste. Nitrogen is easily absorbed in such types of soil as podzolic, peatlands, black soil.
A lot of nitrogen is contained in organic compounds, however, such its form acts as a kind of bait for many pests. Under the influence of a large number of insects, the plant may not survive. Therefore, gardeners apply a more useful form of nitrogen fertilizer based on minerals for garden and garden crops.
With an insufficient amount of nitrogenous fertilizers, the plant grows very weakly, the vegetative organs develop slowly, the leaves grow small, their appearance is colored with a yellowish tinge, and soon they fall off prematurely. These processes are detrimental to the plant, and can lead to an interruption of the flowering period and a reduction in fruiting.
Nitrogen fertilizers introduced in time and correctly, will contribute to the healthy development of the plant and the desired result for the summer resident.
Liquid nitrogen fertilizers
Production of liquid fertilizers is much cheaper than solid counterparts. Therefore, liquid fertilizers can be purchased at lower prices. The effectiveness of such fertilizers does not depend on their natural state.
Most gardeners who are just starting a gardening business are interested in, what liquid nitrogen fertilizers are they?
There are three main types of nitrogen compounds designed to fertilize the soil:
- Anhydrous ammonia,
- Ammonia water,
Anhydrous ammonia. A fairly concentrated solution that looks like a colorless liquid. Anhydrous ammonia is produced in the factory, as a result of the liquefaction of ammonia from the gaseous state under the influence of high pressure. The resulting liquid contains 82.3% nitrogen.
Nitrogen fertilizer in a liquid state is stored in tightly closed containers. Do not store it in a pot of copper, zinc and similar alloys. It is recommended to use iron containers, or steel and cast iron. Anhydrous ammonia must be stored in closed containers, as it tends to evaporate quickly.
Ammonia water. The nitrogen concentration in this fertilizer is about 16.4% minimum and up to 20.5% maximum. It does not have a destructive effect on ferrous metals. Ammonia water has a slight pressure, which allows it to be stored in vessels made of carbon steel. This type of liquid nitrogen fertilizer to apply over long distances is not profitable and not practical, since nitrogen tends to quickly evaporate. Nitrogen-based fertilizer loses some of its original properties during transportation.
Adding nitrogen fertilizer to the soil is fairly simple, but nitrogen losses can also occur as a result of the process of evaporation of free, anhydrous ammonia. Soil colloids instantly absorb nitrogen. A small part of nitrogen fertilizers, as a result of entering into a reaction with soil moisture, is converted to ammonium hydroxide.
In soils saturated with humus, the efficiency of nitrogenous fertilizer increases several times. In this case, ammonia losses are minimal.
In sandy and sandy, unstable soils with minimal saturation of humus, ammonia losses increase several times, respectively, the effectiveness of application decreases.
In the presence of large amounts of land that need fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers, there is a special technique. With her assistance, fertilizer is applied to a depth of 12 cm on light soils. This is done to minimize nitrogen losses and increase its effectiveness. Surface application to the soil will not give any result.
Fertilizers containing nitrogen are also applied to the frozen soil in autumn, or when the soil is cultivated before the sowing campaign.
Ammonia The production of ammonia takes place as a result of the mixing of aqueous ammonia and nitrogen fertilizers. The resulting composition has about 30-50% nitrogen. It is in ammonium compounds in different compounds and proportions (nitrate and amide form)
For horticultural crops, ammoniates in the liquid state are not inferior in their properties to solid types of nitrogen fertilizers.
Soil should be fed with liquid fertilizers in a special uniform to prevent it from falling on the skin and respiratory tract, as well as on the mucous membranes. For the protection of the eyes it is necessary to use glasses, and for the protection of respiration - masks or respirators.
Types of nitrogen fertilizers and methods of their use
Nitrogen is one of the main components of the mineral fertilizer complex for feeding plants. Its main function in this complex is to increase the fruitfulness of garden crops.
As for doses for entering into the soil, then for berry and fruit crops the norm is 9-12 g / 1m 2 of soil. For crops that have a bone inside, these values are 4-6 grams / 1m 2 of soil. With a simple feeding, to support the general condition of the fruit, a dosage of up to 4 g / 1 m 2 area is applied.
The main types of nitrogen fertilizers:
- Ammonium nitrate. This is a universal fertilizer with a fast-acting effect. The nitrogen content is 35%. It is realized in the form of white-pink granules. Ammonium nitrate is introduced into the soil in spring, in an amount of from 25 to 30 grams / 1m 2. Saltpeter is diluted with water in a ratio of 20 gr. / 10l. It has a strong nourishing effect on black soil,
- Ammonium sulfate. Has the appearance of crystallized salt. The amount of nitrogen in it reaches 21%. It is possible to bring in the soil both in the spring, and in the fall. Ammonium sulfate is not washed out of the soil. Among the properties of fertilizer can be noted the function of a slight acidification of the soil. In the soil make 40-50 g. / 1m 2 before planting, and fed 25gr./1m 2,
- Urea. One of the main nitrogen-containing fertilizers is 46% nitrogen. It has the appearance of a crystalline salt. Summer residents this nitrogen fertilizer is mainly used to feed the spring. In the fall, urea is used for heavy soils, in proportion from 20 to 25 grams / 1m 2. For feeding plants apply up to 10g. / 1m 2 area, diluted in 10 liters of water. For carrying out spraying a more concentrated solution is used - from 30 to 40 gr. / 10l. water.
Nitrogen fertilizers play an important role for the good development of horticultural crops. The main task for the cottager is timely feeding the plant with this type of fertilizer. How to apply nitrogen fertilizers, and in what proportions is described in detail in the instructions on the packages and in information sources.
The effect of nitrogen on plant growth and development
There is a direct relationship between the lush, dark green foliage of a plant and the amount of nitrogen it needs. And this relationship is photosynthesis.. Chlorophyll plays an important role in the process of plant photosynthesis. That nitrogen is the main component of the protein, which is involved in the formation of chlorophyll.
The nitrogen reserve is contained in the soil (humus), accounting for about 5%, depending on the climatic zone. The most nutritious soil is the one where there is more humus. But even if the soil is very rich and fertile, only 1% of nitrogen will be available to the plant. This is due to the fact that the process of decomposition of humus and the release of mineral salts is very slow. At the same time in spring, during the period of active growth and development, garden crops most in need of nitrogen. Its deficiency can lead to a slowdown in the growth and development of horticultural crops. To prevent such a situation and to guarantee the correct growth of plants, it is necessary to provide them with additional nitrogen fertilization.
Types of Nitrogen Fertilizers
Organic fertilizerwhich will contain nitrogen can be obtained independently using a compost pit and plant waste. In such plants as clover and lupine, 0.4 - 0.7% of nitrogen is contained, and in green foliage - 1%, in bird droppings (chicken, pigeon, duck) and manure.
But before the nitrogen in the organic fertilizer goes into the mineral form, which will be available for plant nutrition, it will take time. If it is necessary to feed more quickly, you should use industrial-made nitrogen fertilizer. The popularity of industrial mineral fertilizers due to their effectiveness, ease of use. There are several main groups:
- nitrate fertilizers: sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate,
- ammonium fertilizers: ammonium chloride, and ammonium sulfate,
- ammonium nitrate fertilizers: a complex group of nitrogen-containing supplements, such as ammonium nitrate,
- amide fertilizers: urea,
- liquid fertilizers: ammonia anhydrous and ammonia water.
Sodium nitrate (sodium nitrate)
Grayish or yellowish powder, easily soluble in water and containing 16% nitrogen. Sodium nitrate is produced by crystallization using natural deposits or ammonia of synthetic origin. Sodium Nitrate - alkaline fertilizer, so it is more efficient to use it on acidic soils.
Do not use on soils oversaturated with sodium. It should be used during planting and fertilizing, quickly absorbed by plants. Sodium nitrate is actively used during spring dressings of beets, potatoes, fruit and berry, ornamental crops. It is desirable to exclude use in the fall, as there is a probability of leaching of nitrogen from the soil. When storing not caking.
Calcium nitrate (calcium nitrate)
Available in large pearl-colored granules or in crystalline form. The granulated form is more popular because it is not sprayed during use. In nitrate form, contains 15-17% nitrogen. As part of calcium nitrate - calcium - 19% and nitrogen - 13%. Calcium nitrate, while following the recommendations and dosages, has a positive effect on yield and does not adversely affect humans. Despite the fact that nitrate contains nitrogen, it does not oxidize the soil, so it is used on different types of soil. With regular use - improves the properties of acidic soil.
Calcium, which is part of calcium nitrate, ensures the full absorption of nitrogen, contributing to the development and growth of culture. Calcium accelerates the germination of seeds and tubers, increases plant immunity and winter hardiness, strengthens the stands and the root system.
Ammonium sulphate (ammonium sulphate)
Available in white or gray crystalline form, it is easily dissolved in water. Contains about 20.5% of nitrogen and is suitable both for fertilizing and for the main application. Contains ammonia nitrogen, which is fixed in the soil, so the most suitable soil is light, permeable. It should not be used on neutral and weakly acid soils, since ammonium sulphate has the property of acidifying the soil. It is optimal for dressing heathers, rhododendrons and other inhabitants on acidic soils. When storing not caking.
Available in white granular form with a nitrogen content of about 35%. It is used both as an auxiliary feeding, and as a basic fertilizer. Saltpeter is less effective on very moist soil, as it is a non-balancing substance and can leach into groundwater. Therefore, mainly its territory of use - soil with low humidity. Ammonium nitrate with regular use increases the acidity of the earth, to prevent this, use neutralizing agents.
Store fertilizer in a dry place, as it tends to absorb moisture and clog. If before use it was found that saltpeter was formed into large stones, then they should be broken to evenly distribute the top dressing.
Currently, pure saltpeter is practically not available for sale, it is mainly included in the mixture. The most suitable mixture will be one where the content of ammonium nitrate does not exceed 60%, while the neutralizing substance is 40%. This ratio of feeding contains in its composition 20% nitrogen.
Concentrated fertilizer with a nitrogen content in the amide form of about 46% and is easily soluble in water. The use of urea for additional feeding during the warm period of the year on neutral soils is more efficient. Because the nitrogen contained in urea is poorly absorbed by plants, since it is necessary that it passes into the mineral form, and the transition process depends on the temperature and acidity of the soil.
Fertilizer is used for foliar feeding.due to the gentle effect on the leaves of the plant. And also used for spring application before planting. It is desirable to use urea in liquid form, this method will allow the fertilizer to be evenly distributed in the soil, in case of a high concentration of nitrogen burns are possible in the plant.
Liquid ammonia is distinguished by two types.: in the first, the ammonia content is 20-25%, in the second - 16-20%. The nitrogen content is 82%. In the process of fertilizer requires embedding in the ground by 8 cm, otherwise it will evaporate. Liquid fertilizers have several advantages:
- low cost,
- plants absorb liquid fertilizer well,
- uniform distribution over the entire area to be treated,
- longer duration of exposure.
But many gardeners and gardeners are stopped by such moments as:
- transportation and storage (it is not recommended to store at home),
- liquid fertilizers burn leaves,
- fertilization process requires special equipment.
In the spring, during the period of active growth, the plant needs not only nitrogen, which contributes to the formation of foliage, but also other substances and components that help growth and development. Namely:
- phosphorus helps the plant with the ovary, increases the winter resistance of the culture,
- Potassium improves immunity, thus plants are more resistant to various diseases and negative natural phenomena.
Each plant has its own needs
It is necessary to understand which crops require a high nitrogen content in the soil, and which should not. When nitrogen deficiency plant slows growth, and the foliage turns yellow. Providing the right dose feeding, we help the plant to develop properly, to form healthy foliage, and also to accumulate the necessary amount of protein in the fruit.
But if you overuse these fertilizers and exceed the needs of the crop, then all the forces of the plant will go to the foliage, which will have a negative effect on flowering, ovary and fruit ripening. Too much nitrogen causes foliage burns. In the future, the death of the foliage and then the root system itself.
So, garden and garden crops are divided into four groups, each of which needs its own, certain amount of nitrogen.
First group. This group is characterized by a high demand for nitrogen both before planting (sowing) and during the growing season. The recommended dose is at least 25g. ammonium nitrate, taking into account the area of landings - 1 square. If it is planned to use other types of fertilizer, their amount should be adjusted, taking into account the nitrogen content. The first group of cultures include:
- fruit trees and shrubs: plum, blackberry, raspberry, cherry, strawberry,
- vegetable: pumpkin, pepper, rhubarb, zucchini, eggplant, potatoes, cabbage,
- decorative cultures: peony, balsam, rose, dahlia, nasturtium, carnation, lilac, phlox paniculata and others.
Second group. Cultures in this group require an average nitrogen content. The recommended dosage for nutrition is 20 grams. ammonium nitrate per 1 square. m. landing area. The group includes:
- fruit and berry crops: currant, apple, gooseberry,
- vegetable: beet, tomato, cucumber, garlic, carrot, parsley, corn,
- decorative: most of the annual flowers, delphiniums.
Third group . Moderate nitrogen requirements are typical for this group. Recommended 15 grams. ammonium nitrate per 1 square. m. landings. The cultures of the third group include:
- fruit trees: pear,
- vegetable: radishes, onions, early potatoes,
- ornamental: bulbous species, saxifrage, daisy, juniper, primula.
Fourth group . Plants in the group require a minimum nitrogen content, namely 7-8 grams. nitre per 1 square. m. landings. The fourth group of cultures include:
- vegetable: beans, aromatic herbs, peas,
- ornamental: Japanese azalea, young, rhododendron, heather, purslane, Erica, Oriental poppy and others.
Basic rules in the application of nitrogen fertilizers
The correct dosage and regular timely use of nitrogen fertilizers favorably influences the development and growth of garden and garden crops. The required amount of fertilizer is calculated based on the soil, the plant itself and the season. But there are also basic rules for the use of fertilizers:
- A favorable period for applying nitrogen fertilizer is considered to be early spring. In the autumn, there is a high risk of nitrogen leaching by groundwater,
- fractional introduction of the component - the key to a positive result,
- при применении азотных удобрений на кислых почвах, предварительно следует смешать их с известью и мелом, обеспечивая быстрое усвоение растениями,
- применение азотсодержащих удобрений благоприятно сказывается на сухих почвах в области лесостепи и степи,
- чернозем желательно удобрять через десять дней как сойдет снег,
- To ensure good nutrition, complex fertilizers are recommended.
A plant that consumes the necessary rate of nitrogen is well developed and has healthy foliage of dark green color. As well as a balanced and regular nitrogen nutrition contributes to a high quality crop.