Bush without foliage. Forsythia different early flowering. Buds appear before the green. As a result, a golden ball is visible. If you do not form a crown, cutting it, you get a free-form composition.
Abundant flowering of the bush makes you forget about the leaves. For them, the branches simply have no place. Green appears when Forsythia fades away. William Forsyth found a shrub buds, and therefore drew attention to it.
The botanist took the cuttings and took them to Europe. Wes from China. It is there that Forsythia grows in natural conditions. If we consider that the shrub is named after Forsyth, it is more correct to call it Forcing. However, the people got accustomed to a modified version of the name of the flower.
Description and features of Forsythia
Shrub Forsythia - a kind of Chinese Sakura. Like Japanese cherry, the plant blooms in early spring. Sakura buds are also ahead of the appearance of greenery.
However, cherry stands in bloom for only a few days. Forsythia in the spring pleases with an abundance of yellow buds for a month and a half. Like sakura, the flowers are medium in size, with only petals on them. 4. They have 5 cherries.
Forsythia buds resemble bells. They gather in clusters of 3-5 pieces. The yellow tone of the buds is barely noticeable, and it can be almost red. When the color subsides, fruits are formed.
This is a box with seeds on umbrellas. They resemble those that are formed in dandelions. Umbrellas help the seeds to be transported through the air, rooting for many kilometers from the parent plant.
Forsythia plant It belongs to the Maslin family. Sakura refers to Plum. But the size of the bushes are the same. Like a cherry Forsythia yellow grows to 1-3 meters tall, depending on the type and variety.
However, we will devote a separate chapter to specific features. In the meantime, we will mention that bushes are usually 1–2 meters wide in width. Respectively, blooming forsythia interests only gardeners. In houses, shrubs are seldom kept, as a rule, in large and light halls into which palm trees will enter.
Forzition picturewhere the bushes are already with leaves, stands out by their opposite position on the branches and the oval shape. The length of the plate reaches 15 centimeters. Like the leaves of the sakura, Formation greens have a jagged edge and a pointed tip. The latter, in some varieties, is divided into 3 blades.
Among the bushes, the heroine of the article is a long-liver. Buy Forzition, means to provide your garden with beauty for at least 50 years. It is believed that donated flowers grow better and grow.
Therefore, instead of buying Forsythians, many try to take a seedling from a friend. We learn what begins cultivation of Forsythia in open ground.
Planting and maintenance of Forsythia
Planting and maintenance of Forsythia begin by choosing a breeding method. On sale there are cuttings of a bush, cuttings and seeds. The latter are sown in the middle of spring with the expectation of 30-50 percent germination.
Given the spreading of future bushes, seeds are laid at least a meter away from each other. Instill 5-8 grains in the well. If several germinate, leave the strongest escape.
In Russia Reproduction Formation seeds begin with their planting in household or greenhouse pallets. Already grown bushes are transplanted into the garden. As a rule, this happens in the 2nd year of life, but it can also be in the 1st.
Up to 12 months, shoots are stretched to 4-8 centimeters. In the second year of life Forsythia bush reaches a height of 12-30 centimeters, and on the 3rd - almost a meter.
Forsythia flower forms at least the 6th year of life. So, the beauty of the plant will have to wait. The first 6 years - only trunks with rough grayish bark and unremarkable leaves. In the first year after transplanting the bush into the open ground, cover the soil with a layer of fallen leaves. It will warm forzition, not allowing to die.
The reproduction of forsythia by layering begins with the cutting of a bush. There is a stump. Over the summer, flexible, healthy and young branches grow on it. In the fall, they are placed in furrows in the ground. Branches bent to the soil should go into it by 2-3 centimeters.
In order the elastic branches are not straightened, they are fixed with arcs of wire. They have over shoots, powdered earth. Located on top, the ground gives extra weight.
The land before reproduction Forzition loosened layers. At the bottom of the furrows in the ground piled fine crushed stone. It serves as a drainage, does not allow the branches to rot. Already in spring they will give roots and young shoots.
So, a few more children may grow around the mother bush. However, taking into account the spreading of Forsythia, the branches should be long. Such over the summer are increasing, as a rule, in hanging forms. We will talk about them in the next chapter.
Most often, the heroine of the article propagated by cuttings. They can be prepared in the winter. This is true for Siberia. In central Russia, cuttings are prepared in the summer.
In the first case, the branches are stored until spring in a cool and damp room. During summer breeding, the cuttings are immediately placed in the soil. Rooting is recommended in greenhouses from the film. In them, branches give roots in a month.
For one cutting is enough 2 internodes. Under the bottom remains about half a centimeter of the trunk. The lower leaves of the branch are broken, and the halves are cut from the upper ones.
A waste of resources on the green prevents cuttings to give roots. When they appear, the plants are covered with foliage and left to winter in a greenhouse. Under the open sky, Forzition is recommended to endure for the 2nd year.
Forsythia cuttings winter breeds harder. Shoots have time to stiffen, less active in the vegetative plan. Summer cuttings are green, flexible, full of juices for rapid growth.
Having taken root, the heroine of the article does not cause trouble. Bushes feel equally good both in the shade and in the scorching sun. Drought and frost are also equivalent for Forsythia, experiencing both weather phenomena.
Pruning shrub forsythia
Bushes are rarely sick, resistant to parasites. Trimming Forsythia For the formation of the crown flower is transferred easily, as well as grafting. Bushes quickly increase the lost mass.
True, in this lies the catch. If you cut the shoots too short, Forsythia will throw all her strength into the formation of greenery. Flowering can wait, but it will not work.
From the soils of the heroine of the article favored to alkaline. Natural alkali - limestone and other sedimentary rocks, for example, shell rock. Accordingly, it is necessary either to enrich the soil with chalky masses, or to plant the plant in a substrate that already contains them.
Types and varieties of Forsythia
Decoratively grow 6 types of shrubs. The first is “European.” It grows by 2-3 meters and is characterized by a narrow crown. She is like an egg. Consequently, bushes can be planted not at a meter distance from each other, but at about 50 centimeters distance.
On the photo Forsythia European
Buds "European" bushes reach a diameter of 2 centimeters, drooping, lemon tone. Sounds beautiful. But, among other Forzitsy, "European" is recognized as the least decorative. But, the species blooms annually in the conditions of the capital, St. Petersburg, Krasnodar.
In the mountainous areas, Forsythia "The Greenest" is well accustomed. She has dark green, elongated leaves and yellow-green flowers. The branches of the bushes are vertical, powerful, stretched to 3 meters.
On the photo Forzition is green
The crown of the “Greenest” Forsythia is sprawling. The diameter of the flowers on the branches - about 3 centimeters. Representatives of the species do not tolerate cold, in Russia they bloom every year only in the southern regions. Outside the bushes freeze slightly.
The third type of Forsythia is “hung.” It is also called "crying." Like the "Greenest", loves mountainous areas and foothills. "Crying" Forzition is recognized as beautiful, but in Russia it grows only in the Crimea and the Caucasus. The name of the species is due to hanging branches. The rims of the buds on them have orange stripes. The diameter of the flowers is 2.5 centimeters.
On the photo Forsythia Hanging
Breeders crossed "Weeping" and "Green" Forsythia Intermediate the hybrid was called the "Medium". The name corresponds to the data. Straight at the ends of the shoots hang down at the ends. As the parent plants, "Medium" differ in height, power.
The combination of genes gave hybrids that survive in the northern regions of the non-black-earth zone of Russia. No wonder that Forsythia "Medium" - the most popular in domestic spaces.
On photo Forsythia Linwood
Take for example grade Lynwood. Forsythia with such a name, it is resistant not only to frost, but also to drought, it comfortably feels in a gassed atmosphere, and therefore it is suitable for planting in the city.
It remains to mention Forsythia "Geralda" and "Egg". The latter is miniature, more than 2 meters does not grow. Representatives of the species are distinguished by the brightness of greenery and single planted buds. They bloom even in Siberia. Its inhabitants are stocked with seeds and seedlings of the Dresdner, Tetragold and Melissa varieties.
On the photo Forsythia Tetragold
The Forsythia "Giralda" is also miniature, but it is more spreading than "Egg" and is inferior in the color of the buds. They are light yellow, almost vanilla. Differs "Giralda" and thin branches.
They are good for decorating fences. In April, they will be covered with buds with a diameter of about 2 centimeters, gathered in inflorescences of 2-3 pieces. Flowering is possible in conditions of Central Russia and the Ural region.
Healing properties of Forsythia
In China, forsythia is included in the 50 best medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. The reason for this: - the composition of the plant. His shoots contain rutin. Otherwise, it is called vitamin R.
The human body needs it, but unlearn it. Meanwhile, rutin strengthens the capillaries, lowers blood pressure, normalizes heart rhythm.
Contains forsythia and phyllrin. It belongs to glucosides. The “family” of the latter has benefits for hair, nails, and skin. Enhances the effect of a number of essential oils. They are in the shoots of Forzition too.
Another component of the heroine of the article is lignans. These are polyphenols. For the body, they are phytoestrogens. So called plant compounds that can replace human hormone.
On the photo Forzition intermediate or medium
Vegetable estrogen, with a lack of its own, prevents the development of cancer, mainly breast tumors. Therefore, Chinese doctors postpone dried forsythia in first-aid kits for women.
Together beneficial substances Forzition have not only antitumor, but also anti-inflammatory effect. Plant juices help with diseases of the gallbladder, liver, cardiovascular system.
Doctors recorded Forzition in broad-spectrum antibiotics, antifebrile and antiemetic drugs. Prescription is done by traditional medicine specialists.
Forsythia cuttings cost from 90 rubles. Seedlings in the form of one-year-old bushes offer from 160 rubles per piece. Price depends on the type and variety of the bush. Some positions in the seedlings are 600-950 rubles. The average request is 250-400 rubles.
Forsythia in seeds - a rare offer. If it is, for a pack of 1 gram you have to pay about 200 rubles. In conditions comfortable for a bush, germination is almost 80%. So, the costs are justified. True, Forsythians grown from seeds, as a rule, bear fruit after sapling plants.
In Russia, Forzition was delivered in the 1861st year. At least, by this time a note on the planting of a bush in the botanical garden of St. Petersburg. In Europe, the plant came from China in the 17th century.
On the photo Forzition Plpchuschaya
But, the main selection work was carried out in the 20th. It is this century that appeared Forzition cold-resistant varieties. Now, there is an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the Chinese "Sakura" in Primorye, in the Urals, in Siberia.
Perhaps the plant will not only decorate the garden, but also improve health. In most Russian regions there are Tibetan medicine clinics, which means that there is someone to consult about using Forzition for medical purposes. Flower shoots are not only dried, but also make tinctures on them.