Such a well-known Russian summer residents culture as beans, is among the ten most consumed products in the world. This unpretentious and productive culture can be grown practically in any climate and on soils of any structure. There are a huge number of varieties and forms. Below in the article and consider what types of beans are (with photos). Perhaps this will help one of the gardeners to decide on the choice of a particular variety of this wonderful culture.
Today, biologists are aware of more than 250 species of beans, annuals and perennials. They are classified, first of all, into two large groups:
- Phaseolus L (American).
- Vigna Savi (Asian).
The second type of bean is distinguished by very long pods and small seeds. Cultivated this crop mainly only in Asia. In European countries, Russia, South and North America, the most widely used beans are Phaseolus L. Its main distinguishing feature is short pods and rather large beans with a characteristic “beak”.
Varieties in the form of a bush
Currently in the world can be grown varieties of beans:
All these types of beans are quite popular with domestic summer residents. The main stem of wobbling varieties can reach a length of five meters. Curly beans are slightly shorter. Her whips grow in a season no more than 2 m. Shrubs are quite compact plants. Their height usually does not exceed 30-60 cm. This variety, in turn, can be strongly or poorly clean.
Views by use
In the gardens of Russian summer residents most often you can see the usual shelling beans. It is grown solely on beans. Recently, however, varieties of this crop, cultivated for green juicy blades, have become increasingly popular in our country. There are the following types of beans in this group:
- asparagus sugar
The pods of the first variety of beans from the inner side completely lack a firming thick parchment layer. That is, they do not have rigid fibrous tissue, the presence of which is characteristic of all shelling varieties. Such blades can be fried, braised or boiled. Eat them also raw or in summer salads.
The light taste of asparagus is what distinguishes green beans. Its types, like the shelling, are diverse (curly, bushy, climbing). But all of them due to this unusual taste are called asparagus.
Semi-sugar beans are very similar to the pods. At the very beginning of growth, its shoulder blades are also completely devoid of a hard fibrous parchment layer, and therefore can be eaten. The difference of this variety from sugar is only in the fact that as the maturation the parchment layer appears in its shoulder blades. Therefore, it is impossible to delay harvesting such beans. The hardened pods of semi-sugar varieties can, however, simply be left on the lashes until mature beans are obtained.
Different types of asparagus and shelling beans give very tasty shovels and beans. However, in the gardens of Russian summer residents is often grown and another very interesting form of this culture - decorative. Flowering bean varieties are used most often to design various kinds of vertical surfaces in courtyards and gardens. Planting ornamental varieties taken near hedges, gazebos, terraces, near fountains, etc. There are two main types of such beans:
All varieties of decorative beans have one very interesting feature: the shade of the buds of this plant always coincides with the color of its fruits.
Varieties by type of beans
Bean seeds can have very different shapes, sizes and colors. The number of beans in one pod can also be different - from three to seven. In the temperate latitudes of Europe and Russia most often grown unpretentious varieties with white seeds. Farmers in South America and Asia prefer to cultivate dark beans.
The largest beans of this culture can be classified into three main groups:
- small seeds (1 thousand beans weighs no more than 200 g),
- medium seeds (200-400 g),
- large seeds (more than 400 g).
Different types of beans can have white, black or red beans. There are also varieties with variegated seeds. The number and ratio of beneficial substances in the beans of different colors may vary.
Beans of this color are characterized primarily by the fact that they do not contain too much protein (per 100 g - 7 g). Therefore, such beans should definitely try to grow people suffering from excess weight. It is useful to eat white beans and senior citizens.
In addition, the seeds of such beans contain a lot of iron. Therefore, their use in food contributes to the strengthening of the cardiovascular system and the overall improvement of the body. Cooking beans of this color is best in combination with vegetables containing large amounts of vitamin C.
Types of white beans, like any other, are different. If you wish, you can purchase seeds of bush, curly or wobbling forms.
The best varieties with white beans
Virtually all types of beans are grown according to the same technology. The yield of this garden crop depends for the most part only on the selected variety and the amount of time given to plants during the warm season. White beans in summer residents are very popular. Accordingly, there are a lot of varieties of it. The most popular are:
- "Black eye". The fruits of this bean are very small. The variety is called so because its white seeds always have a small black dot. The skin of these beans is very thin, and therefore they prepare quickly and do not even require soaking.
- Chali This variety gives a rather large seeds, used mainly only for the preparation of second courses. The consistency of the bean "chali" is very dense. And therefore you can safely boil them first, and then fry.
- "Nevi". This pea bean is valued for the fact that it contains a large amount of iron and fiber and has a very beneficial effect on the human body.
The types and varieties of this culture must also be considered. Beans of this color are no less popular with domestic housewives than white ones. Red beans contain quite a large amount of protein - 8 g per 100 g.
The main advantage of beans of this color is that they contain a huge amount of antioxidants. According to this indicator, red beans are ahead even of currants. Actually, antioxidants are special substances that protect the human body from harmful radionuclides and slow down the aging process. It is due to their presence and is considered one of the most useful crops of all grown by summer residents, red beans. There are different types of it. This color can have both ordinary and Asian beans. There are bush and lashes varieties with red seeds. Can have such color and seeds of the decorative form of haricot.
The best varieties with red beans
A variety of beans with such seeds in suburban areas of Russian summer residents can also be seen quite often. The best red shelling varieties in our country are:
- "Rapid". The beans of this bean ripen in 55-60 days after planting. Their main distinguishing features are: long beautiful and neat shape, pleasant pink-red color.
- "Tomato". This sort of red beans is great for canning and cooking traditional Georgian dishes. Its fruits are brown, oblong and slightly flattened.
- "Tashkent". This rather thermophilic variety is grown mainly in the southern regions of Russia. However, when using the seedling method, one can get quite good yields in the middle zone of the country. The beans in this variety are rather large.
This variety is also grown by domestic summer residents, but much less often white and red. However, this does not mean that black beans are less useful. Protein in it, for example, contains more than white and red (9 g). And therefore, if necessary, it can even become an excellent substitute for meat. Moreover, black bean proteins in their characteristics are close to an animal protein.
The advantages of seeds of this color, among other things, include the fact that their consumption contributes to the normalization of the chemical balance in the stomach.
The best varieties of black beans
Since this variety is grown by Russian gardeners not too willingly, and there are not so many varieties of it. The best available are:
- "Kidney." The beans of this bean are distinguished by a reniform shape and a black (slightly reddish) color. After cooking, the skin of the seeds of this variety becomes very thin. This also changes the color of the beans. Boiled seeds acquire a delicate pink hue.
- "Preto". Seeds of this variety have a rich black color and white hem. Inside the cream beans. The main distinctive feature of this bean is a light berry aroma. The taste of preto beans is also original - sweetish with bitterness. Boil these beans for a long time, at least 90 minutes, with pre-soaking.
Different types of black beans, like white or red, can be curled, braided, bush. Eat these beans for food, usually in the form of side dishes. But very often they are also added to hot first courses. The taste of soups and borscht black beans can do much more pleasant and rich.
What are the varieties and types of asparagus beans
This form, as already mentioned, is not too popular with domestic summer residents. However, asparagus beans in the gardens of Russians in recent times can be seen more and more often. Many varieties of this variety also exist. Horticulturalists of central Russia will most likely fit:
- "Oil King". The pods of this early high-yielding variety have honey-yellow color and are completely devoid of fiber. Taste, judging by the reviews of summer residents, they are just gorgeous.
- Sachs. This early ripe bush variety is also very popular with gardeners. His pods are green, slightly curved. The height of the stem of the Sax bean does not exceed 40 cm.
The above varieties refer to the bush. But there are very popular types of asparagus bean curly. These include:
- "Golden Nectar". The blades of this early variety ripen on the 70th day after planting. The color they have is yellow. The length of one pod can reach 25 cm. The whip weight of this bean is rather large. Therefore, they are recommended to prop up something.
- "Purple Queen". This is an unusually interesting variety, the pods of which have a rich purple color. The main advantage of the "purple queen" is a high yield, as well as excellent taste qualities of the blades.
- "Winner". These beans during flowering are sometimes even confused with the decorative. Pods in the "winner" variety are flat and very long (up to 30 cm). Since this bean is distinguished by its capriciousness, it is worth growing it only for experienced summer residents.
Asparagus (string beans) is harvested, the types and varieties of which are quite diverse, approximately according to the same technology as the usual shelling. The only thing at the growth stage of the blades she needs more careful watering.
Asian Bean Varieties
By its biological features, it is similar to ordinary beans grown in America, Europe and Russia. The only difference is that its pods are longer and juicier. The most popular are the following types of Asian beans:
- "Mash". This variety is traditionally cultivated in Pakistan and India. Its distinctive feature is that its beans are very similar to green peas.
- "Adzuki". The Himalayas are home to this rich bean. Adzuki are grown throughout Southeast Asia and in Japan. The beans of this variety have a beautiful dark red hue.
- "Urd". The beans of this bean are somewhat similar to the seeds of “mash”, but have a black color. The species is very ancient. Grown it more than 4,000 years ago. Currently, such beans are cultivated in India, China, Japan and many other countries in the Asian region.
- "Serpentine Pea". This is a very popular variety in Asia, producing very long pods.
The best varieties of Asian beans
Of course, breeders, as a very popular variety, also didn’t bypass their attention. The best varieties of such beans are:
- "Macaretti". This variety has a very powerful lashes. The length of its pods in some cases reaches 35 cm. The advantages of a variety, among other things, include unpretentiousness. Maceretti shoulder blades mature approximately 63-65 days after planting.
- "Liana". This green bean forms shoots up to 3 m long and therefore needs support. Its blades are allowed to be eaten both raw and thermally processed.
In addition to these two varieties, Chinese green bean species "CJI 28/2 contou" and "Groik" are quite popular. These two hybrids give shoots no longer than 1.5 m, and therefore do not need support. Also well-established among gardeners and bushy varieties of Asian beans "Gasson" and "u-tya-kontouu." The height of these hybrids does not exceed 0.7-0.8 m, and the pods have a parchment layer. Therefore, they are grown exclusively on beans.
For the first time green beans are found in Chinese letters. And the material evidence of its existence relates to the territory of South America. It was there that the plants were grown by the ancient Incas and Aztecs. Much later, scientists were able to detect fossilized bean seeds in the area. As for European culinary traditions, this culture is firmly established in them somewhere in the 18th century. After the Italians appreciated the exquisite taste of green beans, it came into fashion in France, after which it appeared in the Old World.
The most popular American types of beans with flat and long beans. In contrast, Asian ones have a characteristic cylinder shape. The shape of the plants can be bush, half-eyed and curly. The length of the latter reaches 5 meters.
There are varieties with different number of seeds and beans of various sizes (from 5 to 15 cm). Interesting and the color of the beans, distinguish brown, green, yellow. Seeds are often white, cream, brown, red, black, greenish. In size, small-seed, medium-seed and large-seed crops are found. The classification by type of structure and taste is as follows. Semi-sugar, sugar and asparagus, as well as cereal (they are shelling) varieties of green beans are known. According to the ripening period, early-ripening (up to 70 days), middle-ripening (within 70 - 95), late (harvest can be harvested not earlier than after 90 days).
What is the bean still? Even varieties that are designed for cultivation in areas with different climates are derived. They endure dry weather, high humidity, the presence of too low or high temperatures. Next we look at the best varieties of beans in more detail.
From the video you will learn what are the varieties of beans.
Asparagus, it is sugar beans, is considered to be valuable in terms of taste. Since its blades do not have fibers, as well as a layer of parchment. Beans of such varieties are excellent for eating fresh, cooked, canned, frozen. Let's call some varieties.
Saksa 615 is a sugar crop with an early ripening period and a high degree of yield. Its bushes can grow up to 35 cm in height. The blades are up to 12 cm in diameter, have a delicate light green color. Culture features are persistent immunity to disease, excellent taste and product characteristics.
Butter King - asparagus species, pleasing the owners of good yields. It grows up to 40 cm in height, suitable for open ground, has a strong immunity. The beans have a length of up to 20 cm and a beautiful golden-yellow color, are used both fresh and after cooking, can be preserved or placed for storage in the freezer.
Bona - a variety that has an early ripening period, is well resistant to diseases, reaches 40 cm in height. It is grown up in the conditions of an open ground. The beans are painted in various shades of green, their length is not more than 13, 5 cm. They are tasty and versatile in terms of cooking.
Semi-sugar types of culture are grown to grow both for eating and in order to obtain selected grains. And the beans are best to eat in the stage of milk maturity.
Among the universal species can be called grade Second. It belongs to the early ripe, has a high yield, feels great in the conditions of open ground. Shrubs usually grow to 40 cm, and tasty shovels are about 12 cm, have a characteristic green color. Наделен хорошим иммунитетом.
Сорт Рант представляет собой кустовое растение, с которого удается собрать большое количество зеленых бобов, имеющих размер около 13 см и нежные розовые семена. Созревает довольно рано. Бобы подходят как для приготовления различных блюд, так и для закатки на зиму.
Еще один раннеспелый вид – это Индиана. На кусте вырастают белые зерна с оригинальным рисунком красного цвета. Он немного похож на головной убор, который носили индейцы. Отсюда и название. This variety gives high yields and has a strong immune system.
Green beans are still shelling. Its pod is not used for food. Already at a young age, she becomes tough due to the early formation of the parchment layer. But it can accumulate a large number of elements useful for the human body. Such beans are well preserved throughout the winter, and before cooking it is recommended to soak and then cook for at least 2 hours.
A prominent representative of the shelling beans is the Swallow variety. This is a stunted culture with beans, the length of which is not more than 15 cm. It ripens quite early, pleases normally boiling soft grains that have a standard white color. On the surface, you can see a picture depicting the tail of the swallow. The features are durable immunity, the ability to easily tolerate water shortages, and unpretentiousness in terms of care.
There is also Chocolate. This is a grain bean, endowed with an average ripening period. In beans there are iron, magnesium, potassium, a lot of protein. The bush is quite tall - up to 60 cm. The beans themselves are painted in an unusual chocolate brown color.
Mid-season variety Rubin is also popular among gardeners in our country. His bushes reach up to 55 cm in height. It has dark purple grains, the protein content of which is up to 27%. Such a plant is resistant to possible lodging and bacteriosis, but requires a certain degree of light and planting on fertile soil.
These varieties of favorite vegetables are, among other things, decorative. They not only give delicious beans, but are a true decoration of any garden plot. The beans from their nature got their original form and non-standard coloring. In order to speed up the time of ripening of climbing species, experienced summer residents often pinch the tops of the crops. It is advised to do this at the end of the growing season.
Royal cereal beans quickly braid any proposed support. It has many beautiful and big colors in white. You can use it for landscaping your garden. It is a late-ripening species with large-sized beans and a good degree of yield. The composition includes a lot of protein. When planting, observe a distance of about 30 cm between cultures and up to 40 cm between rows. Then it is really possible to form bushy shoots and get the largest royal fruit - beautiful and tasty.
Bluekhilda is an early ripe version of your favorite culture. On lashes having a length of up to 3 meters, many pods (25 cm each) of an interesting purple color grow. It has such advantages as excellent taste, resistance to weather changes, versatility, ease of care.
Green giant beans is a plant with pods about 22 cm long. Liana can grow to a height of 3 meters. The variety acquires the ability to bear fruit already 55 days after planting and retains it until the onset of cold weather. During the flowering period, you can see small flowers of purple hue. The beans are very tender, sugar, not covered with parchment and do not contain fibers.
Among practical gardeners, determinant varieties of the favorite culture are particularly popular. Since they do not need a lot of space and there is no need later to carry out tying. In height, such plants reach about 60 cm.
A prominent representative of the species is the Crane. On it are formed the most delicious fruits of a rounded shape, having a size of up to 15 cm. Their taste qualities appear already at the stage of maturity. Seeds also have good taste. Early maturity, the view is endowed with increased yield and good immunity.
The early ripe flamingo culture allows you to grow neat shrubs up to 60 cm in size on the plot. It normally adapts to the proposed conditions, gives good birth to selected variegated fruits. Which combine white and pink colors. Seeds are multicolored. Beans have an exquisite taste, high nutritional value. They can be eaten in any form.
For lovers of exotic designed unusual varieties of your favorite culture. Such beans are not only colorful, but also have their own "flavor" depending on the variety.
For example, the bushes of the “Fashion” type allow to grow beans with white color of the valves, having purple-violet inclusions on the surface. When measuring the length of each bean can reach 18 cm. It has an average maturity. Acquires a small parchment layer and white seeds by the end of the growing season.
Yin-Yang pleases owners with higher yields. Bushes usually grow no more than 45 cm. The plant got its name thanks to an interesting color. On the beans you can see a pattern resembling a well-known dual symbol.
Another unusual copy is called the Violet Dream. It has an average ripening time. Beans have an elongated shape and rich purple color. Such a tall plant is beautiful not only during the flowering period, but also before harvest, which is always unusually rich.
What happens bean
In nature, there are about 250 varieties of beans, and the varieties bred and varieties bred by breeding are much larger. Botanists and gardeners classify them according to various criteria.
Based on the appearance of the plant, the beans are:
- bush. A compact compact plant, the height of adult specimens does not exceed 45–60 cm (in some varieties it is only 25–30 cm). It is this type that is most in demand by those who grow beans on an industrial scale, since it allows them to significantly save space when planting. Spray beans are also valued for carelessness and cold tolerance. It is even suitable for cultivation in Siberia. Fruits ripen earlier than other varieties, and "together", almost simultaneously,
- curly. Lianoid plant with a thin stem, stretching to 5–6 m in length. The absolute majority of varieties are characterized by a long vegetative period, so in the Urals and in Siberia, when planting crops in open fields, the gardener most likely simply will not wait, especially if the summer is not very good in terms of weather. If you grow such vines on the trellis, they take up very little space. There are also decorative varieties that can be used in landscape design, for example, to create "scenes", "green walls",
- semi-floating It does not differ from the previous variety practically with one exception: the length of the stem does not exceed 2 m.
Spray bean is a fairly compact plant.
The beans can be edible, or the beans themselves, or whole pods. Interestingly, before the beans were considered coarse food, suitable only for the common people. But the pods were very popular with the aristocracy. Depending on what part of the plant is eaten, beans are:
- grain (shelling). Only beans are edible in such varieties. Even the young pods are very hard and are not suitable for food at all. But the beans are extremely tasty and nutritious. Often due to the coloring they look very unusual, so the dishes are interesting and elegant. In the palette there are almost all the colors of the spectrum - from white and pale yellow to red, dark purple and almost black, including any shades of green. There are varieties with variegated beans. Hard pod provides good keeping quality and transportability. Interestingly, white and green beans are more popular in Europe and in the post-Soviet space, while in America and Asia, dark beans are popular,
- asparagus (vegetable). The whole pod is consumed as food. This variety has another name - sugar beans. The pods, even when fully ripened, retain their softness and do not appear as a hard coating, similar to frozen wax. They can even be eaten raw. Beans are also distinguished by softness and tenderness. They are quite small. Such beans are used not only for cooking the first and second courses, it can be preserved and frozen, including at home,
- semi-sugar. Quite a small group of varieties. In a young bean, the whole pod is eaten whole, when it ripens completely, it is already inedible. After ripening, only beans can be eaten. The pod becomes very stiff and coarse fibers appear in it.
The beans of different varieties of beans vary greatly in shape, size and color
There are other classifications. In terms of ripening beans may be early, middle or late ripening. In Russia, mainly the first two varieties are planted, so that the crop has matured even in temperate climates. Beans of early beans ripen in 50–65 days or even faster. For mid-season varieties, the vegetative period is 75-80 days, and for late-ripening varieties - 3 months or more.
If we take as a criterion the mass of beans, the beans are small, medium and large. In the first case, one thousand pieces weighs no more than 200 g, in the second - 200–400 g. Large beans are considered to be weighing 400 g or more.
When choosing a variety, it should be borne in mind that red beans owe their color to a high content of antioxidants. These substances effectively remove toxins from the body, slow down the aging process, stimulate cell renewal. White has a low protein content, but it has a lot of iron. It is very useful for those who want to lose weight, as well as for older people. Black beans are characterized by a record high content of amino acids, vitamins and trace elements. With regular use in food, metabolism is normalized, the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
Beans are not only healthy, but also very tasty.
Cultivated not only edible, but also decorative beans. Some varieties do not even yield a crop, but they are very beautiful and abundant in bloom. Plants are annual and perennial.
In those varieties that still form the pods, the color of the beans necessarily coincides with the shade of the petals. The most popular with gardeners varieties with blood-scarlet flowers.
Beans can be grown not only for the sake of the harvest, but also for the purpose of decorating the garden plot
Video: the health benefits of beans
In addition to the American bean (Phaesolis genus), familiar to gardeners for a long time, there is its Asian "relative" (genus Vigna). Recently, she quickly gaining popularity. From the point of view of botanists, she still is not a bean, but the opposite opinion has taken root in the people. Its main difference is the size of the pods. In length they reach 80–100 cm, in each of 2–3 dozens of beans.
Vigna is a close “relative” of beans, but from a botanist’s point of view, these are still two different cultures.
The Russian gardeners got acquainted with the beans relatively recently, but they appreciated this culture very quickly. Asparagus varieties are the most popular among them, but other varieties are also grown:
- Sachs without fiber 615. A variety created in the USSR in the 40s of the last century. Large beans of early ripening, pods are formed in 45-50 days. They grow up to 9–12 cm in length, slightly curved. Lime colored beans. The plants are very compact, the height of the bush does not exceed 35–40 cm. In each pod there are 4–10 beans weighing 5–5.2 g. The variety is valued for good (more than 2 kg / m²) yield. This is achieved due to the fact that 6-10 pods are located in each sinus. It also notes the presence of good immunity against diseases typical for culture, especially those caused by viruses and bacteria, and anthracnose. Beans are high in vitamin C and amino acids,
- Oil King. One more extremely popular early ripe grade. One of the recent achievements of breeders. Ripens in almost one time with Saxa. Suitable for growing outdoors in temperate climates. Plant height up to 40 cm, compactness allows to place 30–35 bushes per 1 m². The flowers are white. The pods are rather large (up to 20–25 cm in length), but thin (1.5–2 cm in diameter), honey-yellow in color. Each has 4–6 beans. Their weight reaches 4–5.1 g, they are considered large. The variety is suitable for use in cooking and for canning. Productivity is not bad - 2.1–2.3 kg / m²,
- Purple Queen (also found under the names Purple Lady, Red Duchess, Purple Queen). Mid-season variety of beans, which is valued by gardeners for extreme simplicity in care, as well as excellent taste. Successfully takes root and brings a bountiful harvest in almost any substrate. The flowers are purple-pink. The length of the pods is about 15 cm, they are painted in a rich purple color. During heat treatment, they change the shade to dark green. The average weight of beans is 4.5–6.6 g. The yield varies from 1.6 kg / m² to 3 kg / m²,
- Nagano. Ultra early variety of Dutch breeding, beans ripen in 40-45 days. You can sow this beans in open ground in the middle of May. The variety is distinguished by unpretentiousness in care, resistance to diseases typical for culture. The pods reach a length of 12-14 cm, are painted in a saturated green color. Beans are white or white-green, each with 4–10 pcs. They weigh about 3.5 g. The average yield is 1.2 kg / m²,
- Bona. Variety from the category of medium. Originally from Poland. The state registry is recommended for cultivation in the Central region. When disembarking on time, the crop is harvested in July. It matures in 45–78 days. The flowers are white. In each bosom of the leaf, 3–10 green pods are formed, 12–15 cm long. In each of them, 4–6 white, glossy beans are found. Productivity is not bad, but not a record one - 1.4 kg / m². The pods are very delicate, well suited for fresh consumption. The variety is valued for the stability of fruit bearing, good immunity, suitability for mechanized harvesting,
- Inga. Ultra early high-yielding variety of beans. The vegetative period is only 45–48 days, you can count on more than 2 kg of beans from 1 m². Pods are pale green, short (8–10 cm), with a diameter of about 2 cm. Each has 4–10 barrel-shaped beans. Differs in universality of appointment and compactness of a bush. Its height does not exceed 35 cm,
- Note. Medium term beans. The vegetative period is 56–59 days. Because of the very high (3.3–3.4 kg / m²) yield, the variety is popular with those who grow crops on an industrial scale. The height of the bush is 35–40 cm. Up to 18–25 bright green pods 12–15 cm long and about 0.8 cm in diameter are formed in the bosom of each leaf. The beans are brownish, weighing 2.6 g,
- Cinderella. Early ripe beans. The height of the bush reaches 50–55 cm. The flowers are large, bright pink. The pods are yellowish, slightly curved, 12–14 cm long and about 0.5 cm in diameter. Beans are ellipsoid, white. The yield is about 1.7 kg / m². The variety has “innate” immunity to bacteriosis and anthracnose,
- Dewdrop. The vegetative period is about 2 months (if you are lucky with the weather, the beans ripen faster). The bush grows to 35–40 cm in height. Pods are light yellow, 10–12 cm long. White beans, medium-sized, weighing about 3 g. The variety does not differ by high yield. 1.2 m² of beans ripen per m²
- Siesta. A variety of early ripening. Stunted bushes, up to 45 cm. Pods of sunny yellow color, 12-14 cm long. Beans are white or creamy, weighing 4.5–5 g,
- Aida Gold. Pods and beans are colored golden yellow. Dwarf shrubs, up to 40 cm. The yield is low - 1.1–1.3 kg / m². Suitable for cultivation in the open field and in the greenhouse. The term of ripening of the beans is highly dependent on the weather, can vary from 1.5 months to 70-75 days. Even fully ripe pods do not crumble for a long time,
- Sugar Triumph 764. Crop ripens in 50–65 days. The height of the bush - no more than 40 cm. The flowers are crimson. Lettuce-colored pods, slightly oblate, very juicy, 12–16 cm long. Beans are yellow. Productivity is not bad - 2 kg / m² or slightly less. The variety is relatively rarely affected by fungi,
- Moscow white green-handled 556. Mid-season variety, the crop ripens in 50–65 days. Plants no more than 30–35 cm in height. Lime leaves are glossy. Pods are bright green, 9–11 cm long, snow-white beans. The grade is appreciated excellent tastes, well tolerates both a lack and an excess of moisture,
- Tatyana. Early beans. The plant is 45–50 cm tall. The flowers are large, bright purple. Pods are bright yellow, curved. The beans are almost black, medium or large size. Their taste is amazing, but the yield, unfortunately, is low - 0.73 kg / m².
Black Eyed Peas
Asparagus beans can be both bush and curly. Both varieties are quite popular with gardeners.
- Golden nectar. Curly beans. Ripens on average in 2 months. Pods are about 25 cm long, golden, beans are pale yellow. Often grown and to decorate the site. The flowers are very beautiful golden-orange color. Из-за тяжести урожая обязательно нуждается в шпалере или иной опоре,
- Победитель (Турецкие бобы). Позднеспелый сорт, урожая придётся ждать не менее 3 месяцев. По сравнению с иными разновидностями этот сорт вьющейся фасоли довольно капризен и в уходе. Особенно требователен к теплу, поэтому высевается достаточно поздно, когда вероятность возвратных весенних заморозков минимальна. При высадке между растениями нужно оставлять не менее 30 см, плети сильно расползаются. Стручки ярко-зелёные, длиной 20–30 см. The flowers are often bright scarlet, but can be red, and pale pink, often on the petals there are white streaks and specks. Flowering is very abundant, it continues from June to September. Beans pale lilac, pinkish or almost white with a pattern of brown-black specks or plain,
- Sweet courage. Early beans from the category of bush. Plant height does not exceed 40 cm. Flowers are white. The harvest ripens in 45–55 days, very amicably. The pods are bright yellow, cylinder-shaped, slightly curved, reaching 15–16 cm in length. Beans white, medium-sized (about 3 g). Productivity is not bad, 1.8–3.3 kg / m²,
- Crane Early shrub variety. The harvest ripens on average in 50 days. The plants are compact, 40–52 cm tall. The variety is distinguished by unpretentious care. It is intended mainly for freezing for the winter and canning. The length of a bright green pod is 11.7–13 cm, diameter is up to 1 cm. White beans are 2.9–3.2 g in weight. The yield is not too high - 0.9–1.3 kg / m². The variety is not affected by bacteriosis,
- Panther. One of the most common varieties of asparagus beans. The height of the bush to 40 cm. Beans ripen in 2 months or a little more. Fruiting friendly. Planting seeds preferably in a well-warmed substrate. Beans are yellow, fleshy. The pods are slightly paler, curved, up to 15 cm in length. The variety has a very high immunity to bacteriosis and anthracnose. Also appreciated for good yield (more than 3 kg / m²).
Curly beans can be grown not only for the sake of harvesting, but also as a rock culture, if you want to shade other plantings.
- Blauhilde (Bluhilda). Very powerful climber, which necessarily need support. The scourge grows up to 5 m in length, the pods up to 25 cm. The pods and flowers are inky purple, with time the leaves turn purple. Harvest matures in 95–110 days. Bloom this bean begins quite early, flowering continues until almost the first frost. Harvest should be collected on time - overripe pods become harsh. When heat treated, they turn green. The beans are leveled, weighing about 5 g, creamy beige. After cooking, they become a little oily,
- Turk (also known as Fiery Red). Mid-season variety of asparagus beans. The length of the vine is 3–3.5 m. It is characterized by dense foliage. Stems thin. White flowers. The length of the flattened pods is 18 cm, the diameter is slightly more than 2 cm. They are painted in a salad color with ink-purple specks. The average yield is 4–4.5 kg / m². The variety almost never suffers from bacteriosis and anthracnose,
- Harmony. Semi-sugar beans. The variety has an average ripening period (65–80 days). Differs in unpretentiousness in leaving and stability of a harvest. Fruiting stretched, continues until the first frost. The length of the vine is 3–4 m. The pods are pale golden, about 20 cm long. The yield per plant is 0.3–0.5 kg of snow-white beans. In shape, they are slightly elongated, reniform,
- Spanish white. It is appreciated for the large size of beans and their excellent taste. Pods are not suitable for food. They are painted in bright green color, the average diameter is 2.5 cm, reaching 11-15 cm in length. In each, 3-5 beans weighing approximately 7 g. The crop matures in 70-75 days. The length of a powerful liana is up to 4 m. The flowers are large, with white petals,
- Borlotto. Asparagus beans come from Italy. The length of the vine is 3–3.5 m. It takes 55–60 days to reach the stage of technical maturity, and 70–80 days to full maturity of the beans. Flowers fiery red. Pods grow up to 12-14 cm in length. On the cream background a pink-scarlet pattern gradually appears, like stains on marble. In each of them there are 4–5 beans of the same color. As they ripen on them, a similar pattern arises. After cooking, this bean gets a light nutty flavor,
- Green giant. Curly green beans. The pods are large, 20–22 cm long, tender and juicy. The length of the vine is about 3 m. The first pods ripen 55 days after disembarkation, then fruiting continues until the first frost. The flowers are small, the color of the petals varies from pale lilac to bright purple,
- Violetta (Violet). Among gardeners it is also known as Draconian tongues. The length of the vine is up to 2.5 m. The flowers are large, mauve. Pods are painted in pale lilac color. Beans as they ripen change shade from lettuce to brownish. Productivity - 2.3–2.5 kg / m²,
- Nomad. A variety of medium early ripening. The beans are ovoid, sand-colored with a pattern of thin purple strokes. It is appreciated for its high resistance to anthracnose and good for gray rot. When grown in a greenhouse in temperate climates, fruiting continues until the end of October,
- Gerda. Early asparagus beans. The length of the vine does not exceed 3 m. Be sure to have a support. Pods are pale yellow, up to 20 cm in length and slightly more than 1 cm in diameter. Productivity - about 4 kg / m². The flowers are small, white. The beans are also white, medium-sized,
- Golden neck. Early ripe asparagus variety. Liana is very short, rarely grows more than 1.6 m. The flowers are large, white. Pods curved, pale yellow. Productivity - 2,8 kg / m ². The beans are medium and large, white,
- Festival of rh. Semi-sugar variety of Dutch selection. The state registry is recommended for growing in greenhouses. Crop ripens in 67 days. The length of the creeper reaches 2–3 m. The pods are straight, bright green, very large (up to 35 cm), but do not exceed 1.5–1.7 cm in diameter. Lettuce-colored beans, each pod contains 10 pieces. The variety has a long shelf life when fresh, and is also suitable for freezing. Productivity is very high - 9–11 kg / m²,
- Lambada. Middle late asparagus beans. Gardeners appreciate the drought and cold resistance, excellent taste. The length of the creeper rarely exceeds 3 m. The flowers are pale pink. Pods 25–28 cm long, curved, flat, light green in color with vague mauve spots. Productivity - 3 kg / m²,
- Pink The length of the vine is 2.5–3 m. The crop ripens in 65–80 days. Pods up to 20 cm, each with 6-10 beans. On the general lettuce background, bright purple thin strokes and divorces are clearly visible. Differs in excellent tastes,
- Fatima. High-yielding variety, with 1 m² collect 3.2–3.5 kg of beans. The length of the vine is up to 3 m. A distinctive feature of the variety is the pods aligned, straight. They are very tender, salad-colored, 21 cm in length, 2 cm in diameter. In each there are 4–10 beans. The height of the bush is 40–45 cm. The variety belongs to the category of early ones. The crop ripens on average in 55 days. Fruiting stretched, taste excellent;
- Hell Rem. The variety is unremarkable with practically nothing, except for a pronounced aroma resembling the smell of mushrooms. Because of this, it is widely used in cooking. The pods are very tender, pale yellow, the beans are pinkish.
Shelling (grain) beans
Beans extracted from shelling bean pods must be soaked in cold water for at least 2-3 hours before eating, and then boiled for at least 60 minutes. They are distinguished by a very high nutritional value, for vegetarians they can easily replace meat products.
- Chocolate girl. The variety is medium late, the crop ripens in 80–100 days. The height of the bush is 33–62 cm. The flowers are bright pink. Beans unusual dark brown. The variety is drought-resistant to heat and is recommended for cultivation in the southern regions. Ripening pods are not showered from the bush. The amino acid content of the beans is somewhat less than in most varieties of beans. Rarely affected by anthracnose and bacteriosis, more often by ascochitosis,
- Swallow. The variety is medium early, short, the height of the bush is not more than 40 cm. The pods grow to 15 cm in length. Beans white, covered with bright purple spots. In shape, they are mostly rounded. This bean is unpretentious, drought-resistant, has a good "innate" immunity,
- Ruby. Bush variety of average maturity (74–87 days). Plant height varies from 25 cm to 57 cm. The flowers are pink. The pods are narrow, 12–15 cm long. Pods of rich cherry color, sometimes with a purple subtone. Hue is preserved during heat treatment. The protein content in the beans is very high, up to 27%. The variety does not suffer from bacteriosis. Demanding on lighting and soil quality,
- Dream mistress. The variety has an average ripening period (64–86 days). The state registry is recommended for cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory. Bush height 31–58 cm. Flowers are white. Pods flattened, 20–25 cm long. Beans are very large, monochromatic, snow-white. The variety is drought-resistant, mature pods are not showered. The plant rarely suffers from ascohyte and anthracnose,
- Ballad. Sprouted beans of medium late ripening (77–105 days). Plant height - 36-50 cm. The flowers are pink. Pods monophonic, bright green. Bean creamy beige or yellowish, in small lilac speck. The variety is drought resistant. It has a high content of amino acids. Practically does not suffer from bacteriosis, can become infected with anthracnose,
- Little Red Riding Hood. The height of the bush does not exceed 35 cm. The leaves are lime-tinged, the flowers are snow-white. The beans are white with a bright red spot, occupying about half the surface area. The harvest matures in 95–100 days. Fruiting friendly.
Unusual Bean Varieties
Some varieties of beans bred by breeders look so that not everyone will decide to try these beans. Although at the same time, they often differ in unusual taste or have other peculiarities inherent only in this variety.
- Black eye. Beans are white, small, with thin skin. They do not need to be soaked before cooking. Each has a small black spot. Because of this, the variety got its name,
- Preto The beans are black, with a small white scar. The core is beige and cream. They have a pronounced berry flavor. The taste is sweet, with a light bitter zesty. The skin is very dense, boil them for at least 1.5 hours,
- Kidney. The beans are shaped like a kidney. They are painted in a very dark red color that appears black from a distance. In the process of heat treatment, the skin is thinned to such an extent that it practically disappears, its color changes to pastel-pink,
- Welt. Bright pink or crimson glossy beans are very effectively contrasted with salad pods covered with lilac strokes. The undoubted advantage of the variety is a good resistance to anthracnose and ascochytosis.
How to choose a variety for your region
The climate in central Russia is, of course, not subtropical, but rather mild. Very unlucky with the weather in the summer gardeners are quite rare. Accordingly, in these conditions, it is possible to grow almost all varieties of beans, even curly ones, which have the longest growing season. But still, to hedge, the latter is better to plant seedlings. Therefore, when choosing, you can focus mainly on yield, taste and dimensions of plants.
The Urals and Siberia are deservedly considered to be a “risk farming zone”. When grown in open ground, only early and mid-early varieties of beans have time to mature there. We'll have to abandon climbing species, unless they are planted solely for the purpose of decorating the site. In open ground in these regions, it is desirable to plant the seedlings.
Asparagus beans grow a low bush, ripen quickly, very tasty and light food, especially just cooked (whole pods) and with butter. From varieties love Saksu.
Beans are not necessarily green and thin. The winner is an asparagus variety of Fire Beans, it looks decorative, its beans are long and without a parchment layer. Incidentally, it can be used as an asparagus, if you have time to collect very young, until a parchment layer begins to form in the sash. If young beans are constantly removed from the beans, it will still turn green, bloom and tie new beans until it freezes. Incidentally, Blauhilda in the garden will be dark purple, and after heat treatment will be green. In general, green beans are many varieties, but you also pay attention to the yellow ones. They look very elegant on the plant, and the dishes, blanks of beans of different colors and shapes look very beautiful.
I really like asparagus beans! Blue Hilda’s curly beans grows well, but she needs good support, she made a netting net for me and crawled onto a neighbor’s plot, and the long pods hung on our side and at our neighbors. And, of course, the Oil King! The best, productive and not overripe! Bean pods I blanch and freeze for the winter. This year bought a purple king green beans, I will try!
I really like beans. Butter King. Tender and very fruitful. From climbing climbed somehow Mauritanian. It was very fruitful, but I like the first one better.
I have an asparagus bean blauchilde. Sowed two years, the harvest is beautiful. With two props collected a day in a bucket. And ate, and canned, and namorozila, and distributed.
Beans - it is very tasty, useful and interesting! Beans are different - bush and curly, asparagus and grain, with different lengths of the pod, white and yellow, red and purple, speckled and striped. That is, for every taste. Growing conditions, however, they have virtually no difference, except that for climbing need support. Sow the beans with the calculation of seedlings after possible return frosts. She is afraid of them. Asparagus is eaten and harvested along with the pods. Delicious. Grain is grown to ripen grains. Gather the pods, dry and thresh. For all the years while I was growing beans, there were no special difficulties with her. Only watering during germination, growth, flowering and tying and pouring the pods. When ripening grain watering sharply removed. Nothing ever hurt, no pests were noticed. Curling sow under the window of the kitchen veranda. I will go out onto the porch, reach out, tear off the bundle (it grows in bunches) and onto the griddle. Five minutes, and you're done!
Growing beans is not such a complicated procedure. Modern varieties bring harvest not only in the usual cultural conditions, but in temperate climates. The plant was appreciated by vegetable growers in central Russia, the Urals, and Siberia. Certain difficulties arise at the stage of selection of a variety, because the range in stores is extremely wide. Therefore, it is desirable to first get acquainted with their description, to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Oh, F-Sal! What you need to know about the product
Beans are a tasty and nutritious product, rich in valuable substances. This is a real record for the content of vitamins and trace elements, amino acids. The content of legible protein type of legumes can compete with chicken meat. That is why the plant is so fond of vegetarians, athletes.
Beans must be present in a healthy diet. After all, it is so easy to cook tasty, hearty and healthy dishes from it. Soups, salads, side dishes, snacks and even pastries - the product will successfully fit into the menu of people with any taste preferences.
The vegetable analogue of meat is recommended to be consumed regularly - at least 3 glasses of boiled beans per week. The product is useful in certain diseases of the kidneys, liver, bladder, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, heart failure. Beans reduce the risk of cancer and have a beneficial effect on the skin. It is also an excellent antidepressant and diuretic. Do not include this type of legumes in the diet only if there are contraindications: jade, gastritis, gout, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, colitis, ulcer.
To prepare the beans, you must first soak the beans. It is advisable to soak them in water for at least 8 hours. But this rule does not apply to all varieties. For example, green beans can be cooked without soaking.
Eating only 100 g of boiled beans per day, you protect the cardiovascular system from the appearance, development of diseases. This is because the product contains large amounts of potassium. And this type of legumes has a positive effect on the nervous system.
All varieties of beans
The culture of the legume family is classified according to a number of characteristics. The main ones are the shape of the plants, the size of the seeds, the taste and structure of the beans. So, in the form of beans can be curly, poluriyuscheysya or wove, bush. And the size of the seed - large, medium, small seed.
According to taste and structure, there are three main types of plants:
- Asparagus or sugar.
There are varieties of beans and the color of the seeds and valves, the nature of color (variegated or monochromatic). There are perennial and annual plant varieties. But scientists divide all variety of types of culture into two basic groups - Phaseolus L or American and Vigna Savi or Asian. As the name implies, they differ in geography of distribution. And in Russia, the most popular are American bean varieties. Their distinctive features are large beans of characteristic shape, short pods. While Asian varieties have small seeds, long pods.
Four varieties of beans are most familiar to Russian consumers
- Red - perfectly nourishes, positively affects the work of the digestive system, strengthens the immune system.
- White - rich in iron, calcium, thereby strengthening the teeth, bones.
- Желтая — содержит много витаминов и минералов, годится к употреблению в разных видах: отварном, жареном или сыром.
- Фиолетовая или грузинская — питательный продукт, меняющий свой цвет во время варки.
10 сортов фасоли, которые должен попробовать каждый
Стручки у этого сорта длинные, слегка изогнутые. Сакса обладает сладковатым вкусом, в стручках не содержатся пищевые волокна. The fruit of the plant is often used to make salads.
Lima or Lima
Its seeds resemble slices of mandarin or even a growing moon.
They have an interesting creamy taste, because of which there is another name of the variety - oil beans. The product contains a lot of dietary fiber, protein, fat and vitamins. Often used for frying, stewing.
The seeds may be white or pale green in color. The variety does not require long cooking, it is mainly used for cooking side dishes for meat or as an independent dish.
Interestingly, flageole goes well with mint.
Beans have a delicate flavor, it is quickly cooked, because it has a thin skin. Therefore, the product does not require additional soaking. It is often combined with cabbage, rice, meat, seasonings and other products.
Anasazi is shaped like a kidney, the product contains many amino acids, vitamins PP, C, group B, micro, macro. The variety is indispensable in the diet of patients with rheumatism, with diseases of the bronchi, intestinal infections.
Beans were returned to the list of dietary products relatively recently, and now it is actively included in the program for weight loss. This product contains about 40% of vegetable protein that can replace meat, so vegetarians actively use it in their diets.
It is no secret that protein is very important for building muscle tissue and the immune system. Did you know that eating 100 grams of legumes a day, you fill the daily rate of fiber and half of the daily protein intake for the average adult?
Beans also contain large amounts of vitamin E, which serves as an antioxidant.
In your diet, you can use both familiar varieties of red and white beans, and green beans, and other unusual varieties. From the beans you can cook various soups, dietary salads and side dishes. Before cooking it is recommended to soak it for a few hours so that it becomes softer. Dishes from these legumes are well absorbed by the body thanks to essential amino acids.
In my practice, I often encounter a great delusion: people take beans exclusively for vegetable protein. Even if you do not consider all the existing types of beans, then I can confidently say that there is a lot of carbohydrates in almost all varieties. Therefore, while reducing the weight is not the best option to combine beans with carbohydrate products: cereals, pasta and bread. Also, I do not recommend eating beans for dinner and evening snack. The best time to eat a product is morning and lunch.
What is the combination and how best to use beans? The most important thing is to clarify the “history of passage” of legumes when buying, as now genetically modified types of beans are on the market. Also, do not often eat ready-made beans in tomato or canned, it preserved at least useful substances. Give preference to local types of beans.
To reduce and maintain weight it is good to combine beans with vegetables in light salads (tomatoes, cucumbers, greens, all kinds of cabbage, peppers, beets). Use the product as a garnish in the form of mashed potatoes or the original form in combination with boiled eggs and boiled meat, for the preparation of stews and saute, light soups. Be sure to boil the beans separately from the broth and add to the dish as ready.
The types of beans there are a huge variety, but all varieties are most often similar in composition and beneficial properties. Firstly, this type of legumes improves the work of the digestive system, stimulates metabolic processes due to the large amount of fiber. Secondly, the beans prevent the occurrence of tumors. Thirdly, the rich composition of the product normalizes blood pressure, promotes blood thinning and improves the condition for diabetes. Also, the beans saturate the body with useful trace elements. Therefore, boldly add the usual and unfamiliar to Russian varieties of plants in the diet 2-3 times a week and remember that beauty is, above all, health.
Beans are an excellent dietary product with a high content of valuable protein, which is rarely enough for products of plant origin. And in the beans of beans contain a huge amount of nutrients, so you can call it also a medical product. For example, beans are so rich in sulfur that using them at least three times a week will help reduce the manifestation of rheumatism. Sulfur contained in beans, helps to cope with intestinal infections and skin rashes. In the beans a lot of fiber, which prevents the occurrence of malignant tumors, removes toxins from the body, normalizes the digestive tract and blood sugar levels.
Beans can be recommended to people who suffer from swelling of the limbs and water retention in the body. Potassium contained in beans, is responsible for the regulation of water-salt balance in the human body and contributes to the removal of excess fluid, thereby removing the excess load from the cardiovascular system. The iron contained in it has an anti-inflammatory effect.
Amino acids with which this product is rich are not much inferior to meat. For example, arginine thins blood, and is useful for people with high blood pressure and diabetics. Lysine, tyrosine and methionine help in the quick absorption of protein, facilitating the work of the stomach and intestines.
Whatever type of beans you choose, it will be useful in its own way, and each will have its own unique set of amino acids, vitamins and minerals. So try to make your food as varied as possible.
To get the maximum benefit from the beans, I advise you to observe the following rules for the selection, storage and preparation of this product:
- When buying beans, give preference to beans of the same size with a solid, smooth surface, even color and shimmer.
- Fresh beans can be stored for up to a year in a dry, cool, dark place (it can be a sealed bag or container).
- Do not soak the beans before cooking unnecessarily (the product loses a lot of useful substances when soaking).
- Strictly monitor the degree of readiness (raw beans contain a toxic substance - phasin, which is destroyed only after heat treatment).
- Cook beans on low heat, stirring as little as possible.
- To get rid of the bitter taste, the first water in which the beans are boiled must be drained after boiling. Then, pouring cold water again, add a spoonful of vegetable oil to the pan.