This perennial belongs to the family Lily. It blooms from the beginning to the end of spring. The plant propagates by means of bulbs, from which a thin stem grows no more than half a meter high, and also with the help of seeds. In the upper part of the smooth and thin stem there are threadlike leaves, at the bottom their ends are twisted in the form of spirals. The lower leaflets are longer than the upper ones. Grouse leaves are sharp, from 6 to 9 cm long and from 2 to 5 mm wide.
Flowers fritillaria collected in racemes at the top of the plant or in the axils of the upper leaves. They have a dark red color, on which there is an even darker chess pattern. Inside the flower is yellowish, each lobe is outlined with a greenish strip.
The perianth is much longer than the pedicels. The stamens are shorter than the pistil, which is divided into three separate stigmas to the middle of the column.
Fruits of the hazel grouse - a small box in the shape of a hexagon with a slightly dulled top and narrowed bottom. The average size is 3.5 × 1.8 cm.
Fritillaria, besides Russian, has a few more species, many of which can often be found in summer and garden plots:
- Grouse imperial,
- Grouse chess,
- Mikhailovsky grouse,
- hazel grouse Persian,
- grouse Kamchatka,
- hazel grouse yellow.
Plant out seed from late August to early September. Later planting can lead to the death of plants. Perennial can die, if you plant it in wet soil or in lowlands. These flowers feel comfortable in well-lit places. The soil must be rich and well drained. The hole after planting must be filled with soil with the addition of peat or humus.
Spreading the bulbs
Fritillary bulbs require careful and careful treatment. The hazel grouse planting material reacts very strongly to any mechanical damage: any room or cut can cause the bulb to dry out and then die.
The bottom of the landing hole is sprinkled with large river sand - in the fine sand, the bulbs can simply rot and die. Planting bulbs, slightly tilting them to one side, - this also protects the planting material from rotting, eliminating the possibility of fluid accumulation between the onion flakes. Before planting, it is better to disinfect the roots. This can be done with a solution of potassium permanganate followed by powder treatment of charcoal. Transplantation of bulbs should be carried out 1 time in 5-6 years. To do this, dig out the bulbs and leave in a cool, well-ventilated room for a half to two months. During this time, roots appear on them, and they are ready for planting in the soil.
Perennials are planted according to the standard for all bulbous technology, when the planting depth is three times the size of the bulb. Shallow planting of plants can lead to the fact that hazel grouse just will not bloom. For the winter, a bed of hazel grouses should be well insulated with loose material so as not to cause dampening and death of the plant. Best for this purpose fit dry healthy leaves.
Video: how to plant grouse
When watering a plant, you need to remember that the roots of even faded plants must be located in moist soil. Watering is necessary only a couple of times a month, but you need to make sure that the earth does not dry out.
Fritillae planted in open ground should be fed during flowering. To do this, you can use wood ash, which is scattered around the flower, followed by mulching with humus or peat. Before flowering, in the middle of April, it is best to feed hazel grouse with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, for example, ammonium nitrate.
The time for transplanting hazel grouse comes when the plant has already finished the growing season. These perennials can make a lush bloom in one place for 3-4 years. Then the bulbs should be dug, but you need to remember that they do not have scales, so you should not let them dry out. To do this, they need to be transplanted into the ground as quickly as possible.
Storage of planting material
The bulbs are stored in dry, well-ventilated areas, where the air temperature does not rise above 30 ° С even in summer. In July and August, the roots begin to grow rapidly, so it is very important to provide the grouse with appropriate storage conditions for the autumn planting.
Seeds of perennial harvested after complete drying of the box and immediately sow them in a specially prepared soil. To ensure good drainage, the sowing grooves must be at least 10 cm wide and about 1 cm deep.
The width between the rows should be equal to the width of the furrow. Then the seeds are watered and sprinkled with a layer of peat (no more than 2 cm).
The first shoots of the plant will give the next spring, and will begin to bloom only after 5-7 years. Therefore, this method of reproduction is not very popular. It is justified only when a large amount of planting material is needed.
Bulbs grouse Russian do not form a lot of kids. But those that still grew on the main bulb, easily separated from it and planted in the fall in the soil in compliance with all the rules described above. This method is used more often than sowing seeds, because it is less laborious than the others, and the most effective.
Reproduction by dividing the bulbs
A flower can also be propagated by dividing a large bulb. To do this, it is cut into 2 parts and left for some time to dry cuts. It is best to dip the halves in a disinfectant solution, dry and sprinkle the places of cuts with ashes. Then the seed is planted in the prepared soil. This type of breeding allows you to get the first flowering of fritillary next year.
Use in landscape design
Russian grouse - the true king of the spring garden. It blooms one of the first and is good in some monogamous plantings in sunny places. The unusual color looks favorably on the alpine hills and rockeries. Low fritillary flowers are ideal for creating color accents in small isolated flowerbeds.
Difficulties in growing
These perennials are strong enough. The only thing that can provoke plant diseases is planting on waterlogged soils. This can cause bulb rot and a complete lack of flowering fritillary.
In addition, problems with flowering can occur not only because of improper care, but also because of the size of the bulb. Very small roots can cause a complete lack of flowering, or give a small and nondescript color.
The plant does not tolerate drafts and northerly winds. When planning planting a Russian grouse in his garden, this fact should be taken into account.
Diseases and pests
Proper agricultural technology guarantees the almost complete absence of plant diseases. But there are some moments in the care of the Russian grouse that require special attention:
- Fungal lesion of the bulbs. To avoid the spread of the disease, planting material is carefully sorted out, separating diseased bulbs from healthy ones. The affected parts are removed with a knife, and cuts are treated with antiseptics. Planting such planting material should be on a separate flower bed.
- Lilac beetles and rattles. A small number of insects can be simply collected by hands from plants and destroyed. For mass lesions, special insecticides should be used.
The increased interest in the unusual and beautiful flower led to the fact that the Russian grouse is on the verge of extinction today. It is completely destroyed in its natural habitat in order to decorate it with flower beds and garden plots. This flower is unpretentious in the care and multiplies easily enough, just a pity that you can meet it today less and less.
It is a medium bulbous plant with thin, fleshy peduncles, reaching a height of 50 centimeters. His gathered in loose brushes of 2-5 pieces of six-petal flowers seem to be asleep, bending down.
The length of flowers is 3-3.5 centimeters, most often they have a thick red-brown color, but there are also white-flowered forms, which are often planted next to dark-colored ones. They stay on the plant for about three weeks.
Right below the inflorescence are thin tendril leaves with spirally twisted sharp ends that can twist around the shoots of stronger and taller neighbors, protecting peduncles from sudden gusts of wind. The lower leaves are lanceolate, their length is up to 9 centimeters.
In the photo below you can see specks covering the petals of flowers in a checkerboard pattern. They are not as bright as some other grouse, but together with the tendrils they give the plant a special charm. But the inherent set of early flowers a pleasant aroma, he is deprived.
The vegetative period of the Russian grouse does not last long. It belongs to ephemeroids (most of the time spending in the period of rest plants), and its above-ground parts die off soon after the seeds ripen - in the middle of summer. After that, the plant falls asleep until next spring.
Description The plant is pretty simple, as for all grouse - Russian grouse bulbs are medium-sized, rounded, about a centimeter in length and height, located near the surface of the earth. They are very fragile, as they are not protected from above by thick covering scales characteristic of many members of the Lily. This should be borne in mind when transplanting.
During the season, each bulb produces 1-3 children, thanks to which the hazel hen gradually forms flowering curtains from a variety of plants growing in the neighborhood and is rarely found alone.
Grouse Russian in nature
Under natural conditions, this plant can be found on a fairly extensive territory. The area extends from Western Siberia and Altai to the Central Black Soil Region, the foothills of the Caucasus and the eastern part of Ukraine. Residents of the Kursk, Belgorod, Voronezh, and Volgograd Oblasts probably have seen it at least once in nature.
The favorite habitat of the hazel grouse of the Russian is an open area: steppes, meadows, ravine beams, sometimes it grows near forest edges, among thickets of bushes, in the light shade of trees. But on the flood meadows and along the banks of reservoirs you will not meet him, an excess of moisture is dangerous for him.
Active human development of fertile land led to the destruction of a significant part of the plant population. The immoderate gathering of the hazel grouse of the Russian into bouquets during flowering also made its contribution - its dark bells are visible from afar in the spring, they attract attention with their unusual coloring, and spring fires (fires), often occurring in steppes both due to man’s fault and for natural reasons. Therefore, in 1988, the plant fell into the Red Book of the RSFSR. At the moment it is on the pages of the Red Book of the Russian Federation and Ukraine, protected in all regions where it grows.
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The Russian grouse flower is not only very beautiful - it is unlikely that among the April pioneers of the garden it will be possible to find a lot of almost black flowers - but it is also undemanding to the conditions. It can grow even a beginner color lover.. In order for him to feel well in the garden, it is necessary that the place chosen for planting be:
- Enough dry, protected from spring floods.
- Light - the more light the plant gets, the better.
- Well fertilized.
The Russian grouse plant, like other inhabitants of the steppe and forest-steppe zones, needs a fairly fertile and light soil with a neutral or alkaline pH. In no case should it be sour and too heavy. Stagnant water is fraught with fleshy tender bulbs. But the drought is not terrible for them, as are the frosts: in the middle zone of Russia and in more northern regions, the Russian grouse does not require shelter when grown in open ground.
Despite endurance and decorativeness, the hazel grouse is not very common in florist collections. However, like other grouse, every year they are becoming more and more popular.
Shreds of variegated velvet among a riot of colors, Russian grouse flowers swaying on thin peduncles, have a special, refined beauty. Not as lush and catchy, like many other spring flowers, they are at the same time in no way inferior to them and certainly not lost in their form. Particularly good are the dark hazel grouse next to their white counterparts. But any other bright flowers that like sun-drenched, arid corners of the garden will accentuate the gloomy charm of the slumbering red-brown bells.
In traditional medicine, hazel grouse bulbs are used infrequently. The plant was widely used in Chinese and Tibetan medicine. Substances contained in the bulbs of the plant, in small doses have expectorant, sedative and hemostatic effect. However, self-use of the plant is dangerous to health, the alkaloids contained in the plant bulbs are poisonous.
Description of the species
Perennial herb with a small flattened bulb. Stem 15-50 cm tall, straight, with alternate linear leaves, sitting in its upper half. Upper leaves close, filiform, with spirally twisted ends. 1-5 drooping flowers collected in a rare brush. The perianth outside is dark red with a darker obscure checkerboard pattern, inside is yellowish.
East-West Siberian-Central Asian species, mainly found in the steppe zone. In the Tula region grows on the northern boundary of the range. Currently, the only known population in the Efremov district. At the beginning of the XX century. met in large numbers in the former Bogoroditsk district [2, 3], but disappeared there long ago.
Necessary security measures
Creation in the field of an effective control system that prevents the illegal collection of protected ornamental, medicinal and food plants. Monitoring the status of a known population. Creation of the designed protected areas in the habitat of the species in the Efremov district. Search for new places of growth of the species in suitable habitats in the forest-steppe part of the region and taking the identified populations under protection. It is advisable to preserve the gene pool of the local population in a culture, including for the purpose of subsequent reintroduction.
Grouse or fritillaria (Fritillaria L.) is a very beautiful and expressive perennial bulbous plant of the lily family.
The etymology of the name of this plant is interesting. The Russian word "grouse" comes from the word pockmarked, since the flowers of most species of grouse have a variegated color.
The Latin name fritillaria comes from the Latin word fritillus - this is the name of the glass from which the dice are thrown. Grouse flowers are very similar in shape to such a glass.
In nature, hazel grouses grow in a temperate climate in Eurasia and North America. In Russia Ryabchik is Russian (Fritillaria ruthenica Wikst.) Taken under protection and listed in the Red Book.
Grouse - low plants, from 10 to 100 cm. Blossom in April-May. Grouse flowers drooping, similar to the bells. In some species of hazel grouse, these are single flowers; in other species, whole inflorescences.
Grouse prefer loose nutritious soil, like moisture. Grow well in sunny areas, but grouse should be shaded from direct sunlight, as their flowers quickly fade under the open sun.
Grouse - perennial plants, in one place can grow up to 10 years. Grouse propagated by seeds or bulbs. Hazel grouse seeds are sown in the soil in autumn or spring. Flowers bloom for 2-5 year.
Grouse bulbs hibernate well in the soil, but for the winter grouse is preferably slightly sheltered. Gardeners are advised to dig and replant grouse bulbs once every 2-3 years. This is best done in late August and early September.
For transplantation, the fritslyarium prepares the wells in advance, digging them to a depth of at least 30 cm, fill with humus and sand. Grouse bulbs are placed in a layer of sand to a depth of 15-20 cm and then sprinkled with earth.
Grouse look good in group plantings, on rocky areas of the garden.
There are about 100 species of fricellora. In gardening, the most popular are the following grouse.
Grouse Russian (Fritillaria ruthenica Wikst.). Rare, endangered species. In Russia, listed in the Red Book.
Hazel grouse (Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk). A low plant, 20-40 cm. The flowers are light yellow with a greenish tinge.
Fritillaria imperial (Fritillaria imperialis L.). Plant height 40-90 cm. The flowers are lemon yellow. bright orange, brick-red, are collected in umbellate inflorescences of 6-12 pieces. За свою необычайную красоту и декоративность рябчик императорский на многих языках называется "императорская корона": crown imperial, imperial fritillary (по-английски), couronne impériale (по-французски), Kaiserkrone (по-немецки), coroa-imperial (по-португальски).
Рябчик императорский "Lutea"
Рябчик императорский "Rubra Maxima"
Рябчик камчатский (Fritillaria camschatcensis (L.) Ker Gawl.). Высота растения 35-59 см. Цветки пурпурные или темно-бронзовые, длина цветка 3-3,5 см. Обычно на верхушке стебля собрано по 2-3 цветка. В отличие от других видов рябчика цветет поздно - в июне.
Рябчик Радде (Fritillaria raddeana Regel). Очень красивый высокий вид рябчика. Endemic Kopetdag (this is a mountain system in Turkmenistan and Iran). Plant height 75-80 cm. The flowers are large, pale yellow, clustered in racemes of 6-12 pieces. The leaves are glossy, light green. Widely used in gardening.
Chess grouse (Fritillaria meleagris L.). Plant height 30-35 cm. In nature, it grows on wet meadows, marshy soils. Flowers solitary, red-brown with a checkerboard pattern. Hazel gum is very popular in gardening. This species of hazel grouse has several varieties with different colors: white, pink, red, red-violet, etc.
Ryabchik Mikhailovsky (Fritillaria michailovskyi Fomin). Low plant 10-20 cm. Flowers have a length of 20-30 cm and a clear two-tone color. The lower part of the flower is dark red-violet, the upper part of the flower is bright yellow. In nature it grows in Armenia and Turkey. It blooms early, blooms profusely and continuously.
Grouse related (Fritillaria affinis (Schult. & Schult.f.) Sealy). In nature, it grows on the Pacific coast of North America.
Grouse Dagana (Fritillaria dagana Turcz.). Endemic of the mountainous regions of southern Siberia. It grows in cedar taiga. Listed in the Red Book of Russia.
Such an interesting and original flower as a hazel grouse was often depicted by artists on its canvases. Grouse has always been loved and popular: 100, and 300, and 400 years ago.
The Paris Museum Orsay exhibits a picture of Vincent van Gogh "Fritters in a copper vase." 1887
Jan Bruegel the Elder "Bouquet". 1603 year. Old Pinakothek, Munich.
The Swiss artist Francois-Emile Barrot (1899-1934) painted the grouse in the painting "Still Life with Flowers for Books", 1930