Food for a person from time immemorial is the main task of every day. People are interested not only in production, but also in the creation of a permanent resource of nutrition, as well as new food sources and their systematization. In ancient times, people were engaged in gathering, digging up roots, found the wild-growing fruits of various trees. We were looking for everything fit for human consumption, trying to save the excess. Gaining experience, learned to grow and plant plants from seeds. So originated agriculture.
Animal food is not the last place in the human diet. Gradually, people tamed certain species of animals and learned how to get meat and milk at home. And, of course, since the days of gathering people liked honey. But getting it was a difficult and even dangerous business. And the first option getting this valuable product was onboard honey.
Beekeeping: craft bortnik
Coastal honey collected before writing. So the exact date of birth of the forest industry is lost in the centuries. Drawings reachedon which a beekeeper from a wild tribe in the IV. BC had already tried to put forest beekeeping on stream.
Hunters, mining meat in the forest, often met nests of wild bees. In the hollows of large trees high above the ground, insects arranged their homes. This is understandable - there is always a predator who wants to enjoy a delicacy with impunity. Ancient slavs Managed to prey honey in any conditions. The miners, and they were called the borters, were known as strong and patient people with great endurance.
Bortnichestvo - the creation of artificial housing for bees for the purpose of reproduction and collection of board honey. The word "bort" means a hollow in a tree. At first, people looked for tall and hollow trees in the forest. Manually created a board for the bees, hollowing out the necessary hollow in the trunk. So beekeeping was born.
Just as with plants and animals, time passed, and the extraction of honey became civilized. Fell away the need to look in the woods rare trees. Bortniki began to make boards with their own hands. Production of the bead in such conditions took less time and effort.
Such nests are identical to natural ones. And also well protect bees from the cold in winter and from the heat in summer. Moreover, the bortnik can now choose the most productive place and install a hive there.
Bortniki began to establish commercial production of honey. They could already regulate not only the quantity of honey, but also its quality. They set the side, most often, on large trees. The weight of the hive, full of honey, and the weight of the bortnik itself could not be sustained by every tree.
The location of the height of the board was of considerable importance. The presence of animals in the forest, eager to eat medcom, forced install hives at a height of six meters above the ground. Bortnik could only be a physically healthy person. Metal tools made it possible to successfully process the wood for the board. Then this fishery and got the form that is known to us today.
The tools and fixtures used by the boaters back in the 10th century are still relevant. It can be assumed that the foundations of this profession were optimally developed and implemented precisely then.
Bortnik, strong and respected
The profession "bortnik" was deservedly considered a mysterious and privileged craft. Family inheritance. For guaranteed honey harvesting, it is necessary to install the boards in the right places. The beekeeper must know not only the location of honey trees and grasses, but also to understand them. Know the time and timing of flowering, the sequence of honey collection.
To search for such sites, it was necessary to pass long distances through forest thickets. Such masters were notable for courage and courage. They were often nicknamed “squirrels” for clever climbing trees.
People engaged in honey collection led a closed and closed life. Many of the borters, except for beekeeping, healed people. We understood herbs and their properties, used bee honey of wild bees, created various ointments and medicines. Bortniki in Russia were honorable people worthy of respect and admiration.
Bortnik beekeeper not working with his bare hands worked on his own glory. Power and dexterity is not enough for such a heavy type of activity. There were tools that were improved and improved with generations. For example, bite mask in those days, was made of horsehair. The secret of weaving was kept secret and passed from master to master from generation to generation.
Originally, the border was made on the tree itself. Climb it could have been using a leather belt. They were surrounded by a body and a tree. Sometimes they took ropes, but not often. Very rarely used stairs. Do not the same with the forest for a long, about eight meters, the stairs! The most common method turned out to be special spikes and claws for legs and arms. Clinging to a tree trunk, the bortnik gradually rose to the required height.
In the arsenal of bortnik was a special tool. Hatchet to gouge the space required size. Chisel, as an assistant to the hatchet, special scrapers and knives. All this was fastened in pockets and on leash so as not to fall.
Ready to board can stand and erode for several years. Must leave the fresh smell of wood, the bees do not like it. But well-made bort can serve for a long time, not one generation.
From this side during the season our ancestors took 10–15 kg of honey. In our time, nothing much has changed. If you increase the volume of the board, then the volume of honey will also increase.
Honey must be protected from encroachment. In the wild, there are many who want to eat sweets. One of them, the most dangerous, is the bear. It was he who broke the boards in the old days. Nothing has changed now.
You can make a simple safety device:
- Near the entrance to the board hangs a good log. To get a paw into the bee's bins, the bear must remove the hindrance. Making great efforts, it succeeds, but the log comes back. A few attempts - and the log takes off the bear on the ground.
- A platform was suspended near the entrance, making it difficult to get a paw inside. We must sit on the platform for the convenience of theft. The bear tries to crouch, but the platform does not stand up and turns over. Bear, falling from a height, no longer wants to climb up. And if you suddenly persevere, just fall again.
Completion of onboard beekeeping
Bulk cure ended in the XIX century. Industry destroyed forest tracts, reducing the space for the craft. Forest area further retreated from the dwelling of man. Installing the board became less profitable and more time consuming. Technical progress has offered people new opportunities. Such beekeeping began to lose its relevance, and the bee-board honey of wild bees disappeared from our diet.
The only place on earth where the traditions of this craft are still not forgotten is Bashkiria or Bashkortostan.