Requirements for growing kiwi at home
In order for the plant to start and grow, as well as yield a crop, it is important to comply with certain requirements:
- Kiwi loves light and heat, so the pot should be placed on the windowsill on the sunny side,
- ensure that it is protected from drafts,
- the plant loves moisture, so it is recommended to spray it daily,
- make sure that the soil is also always hydrated, but it is not worth pouring the sprout.
Remember that kiwi is an exotic fruit, and for its normal development it is necessary to create as close as possible to natural conditions.
Seed preparation for planting
To extract the seeds from the fruit, you need to choose a fresh kiwi, which is well ripe
The process includes the following steps:
- the pulp of the fruit must be kneaded with a fork,
- move the resulting gruel into a gauze bag, which should be folded in 2-3 layers,
- rinse the bag until the pulp is completely removed,
- the seeds that remain in the gauze must be removed and placed on a paper sheet, the sheet is left at room temperature, so that the seeds dry properly, make sure that they are not exposed to direct sunlight.
After extracting the seeds, they begin to stratify. To do this, the planting material must be mixed with sand, placed in a lockable container and left in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment for 2-3 months.
During this period, it is important to ensure that the sand is always wet, from time to time it is necessary to ventilate the container. After the “artificial winter” is completed, planting material can be used for planting activities.
Before sowing the seeds, it is necessary to germinate them. Place a cotton pad on the saucer that is pre-moistened with hot water. On it lay the seeds in an even layer.
In order for the seeds to germinate, greenhouse conditions must be created. It is necessary to cover the plate with polyethylene, and at night it should be removed, and in the morning put it on again, adding some water to the cotton pad. In about 2 weeks the seeds will germinate - this indicates their readiness for planting in the ground.
For planting seeds should choose medium-sized pots. Ideal for Kiwi is suitable light fertile soil with low acidity. Soil can be purchased in specialized stores or cook yourself.
To do this in the same proportions you need to mix humus, sand, peat, leaf and sod land. Before embarking, the mixture must be subjected to heat treatment.
Planting germinated seeds in the ground
The process of planting includes the following steps:
- At the bottom of the stack drainage layer.
- On top of the drainage sprinkle prepared soil mixture.
- In the soil make holes, the depth of which is not more than 5 mm.
- Put the planting material into the wells, cover it with a thin layer of soil and slightly moisten it.
- The pot or container is covered with a plastic film, placed in a warm and bright room.
Every day the shelter must be removed and airing the landings, their watering.
The finer points of kiwi care
After 4 weeks, several leaves will appear on the sprout. It is during this period that the picking is carried out - the seedlings are seated in separate small pots. Kiwi has a very delicate superficial root system, so you should carefully get the seedlings from the common container.
If the roots are damaged, the plant may die.
When the kiwi is transplanted into pots, it is very important to add a little compost to the prepared soil mixture. Further feeding should be carried out from March to September every 2 weeks. Ideal for this mineral fertilizer.
Kiwi is a moisture-loving plant, and it is very important to prevent the soil from drying out.
It should always be wet, but overflow can cause the roots to rot. Choose pots that have drainage holes to drain excess water out of the ground.
Be sure to ensure that the water does not stagnate in the pan. In the hot period it is recommended to spray the plant daily.
To obtain the harvest, besides ensuring an adequate level of illumination, regular moistening and proper fertilizing, it is necessary to carry out other activities.
It is mandatory to make support. They are needed in order to climb up the vine. To improve branching, it is necessary to regularly nip plants.
Do not forget that in order to obtain the harvest, it is necessary to perform cross-pollination of male and female flowers. If it is carried out, the first fruits can be collected 6-7 years later after planting.
In the split hardened handle
To use this method, you need hardened cuttings that contain at least 3 buds. Be sure to cut diagonally the lower edge under the lowest kidney, and above the top you should leave a distance of 1 cm.
After that, planting material must be placed in water and add a growth stimulator to it (you can use the drug "Kornevin"). In a container with water, the plant should stay for at least 12 hours.
Then you need to prepare the seed boxes, at the bottom lay out a layer of drainage, on top - the prepared mixture, which includes peat and sand in equal parts.
Then the cuttings are planted in a container, they are moistened, the top is covered with glass jars and left in a dark place with good lighting.
Every day you need to remove the jar and spray the seedlings, and, if necessary, water them. After 3-4 weeks the seedlings should have a root system. From this point on, it is possible to plant in separate pots with a drainage layer and specially prepared soil.
In split green shank
For the implementation of this method is to use the green cuttings, harvesting which is performed during the summer pruning. They must necessarily be 2-3 buds.
The lower cut is carried out at an angle of 45 degrees, and the upper cut is performed 1 cm above the uppermost bud, exactly. Then the cuttings should be placed in a container with water (4-5 cm), cover with paper and leave for 24 hours.
The simplest method of budding (grafting) is budding in the butt, as it can be done both in spring and in summer, provided that the air temperature is above +10 ° C. First of all, you need to pick a plant stock. Below the budding area of 40 cm, it is necessary to remove all leaves and shoots.
With a graft, only a few fresh shoots should be cut, and it is important that they already have buds on them. On the stock at an angle of 45 degrees, it is necessary to make a cut, whose length is 6-7 mm, after which a second cut is made 3 mm higher.
It must be led down so that it connects with the first. The graft is worth the same procedure on the graft, only the kidney should be located in the middle of the shield. The flap with the kidney should be placed in a cut on the stock and wound with a polyethylene ribbon.
Why does the plant die
The main reasons for the death of a plant include:
- insufficient moisture or over-irrigation,
- bad light,
- lack of useful elements in the soil,
- defeat plants fungal diseases and pests.
The most common diseases include:
- spider mite
- to remove all affected foliage and areas of the stem,
- get the plant out of the tank, flush the root system and remove its rotten parts,
- perform a Kiwi transplant in clean soil,
- spray the plant and irrigate the soil with a fungicide solution.
When pests appear on kiwi:
- pruning of withered and dried leaves,
- All parts are washed with a soap solution,
- spraying is carried out with a special extract, which contains garlic, onion, tobacco or wormwood,
- in the absence of effectiveness from spraying infusion, resort to the use of insecticides.
Growing kiwi at home is a very long process, and if you set a goal for yourself to get a harvest, then you have to spend a considerable amount of time on this. But you can brag of independently grown exotic fruit.
Basic requirements for growing
So, the process of growing is simple, but you have to show accuracy, care and patience.
How to grow kiwi
You can grow Kiwi:
- adventitious buds of the roots.
All methods have their own nuances, advantages and disadvantages, which we will explore later. However, there are a number of general rules that relate to the cultivation of kiwi.
Kiwi is a distant relative of grapes, and therefore it uses a similar cultivation technology. The described culture is warm and light-requiring, therefore it should be located in a well-lit place (preferably without drafts). It should be remembered that the direct rays of the sun can lead to burns of foliage, therefore, the light should fall from the side. An even better option is artificial lighting directed vertically.
In the process of development, the pots should be periodically scrolled clockwise (every two weeks by 10-15 °). This will provide the plants with a straight silhouette, and the crown will be thick and uniform.
Note! There are many varieties of kiwi, but, which is typical, almost all of them are suitable for growing at home.
It should also be remembered that kiwi is a dioecious culture, in connection with which one male and at least two or three female plants are required for normal fruiting. If kiwi is grown from seed, then about 80 percent of the seedlings are males, so there should be as many of them as possible.
Now consider the workflow itself.
Kiwi - growing at home
It is better to start growing kiwi in early spring, since then the highest germination of seeds is observed. This is a very important point, so do not tighten with the sowing. Also consider the fact that, by its nature, kiwi grows in regions with long and warm summer, therefore the conditions for the plant should be as comfortable as possible.
Traditionally, the process begins with the preparation of all necessary.
If you really want to grow kiwi at home, make sure you have enough free space.
Stage one. We prepare everything you need
To grow vines you must prepare:
- one ripe kiwi fruit,
- neutral or slightly acidic soil intended for citrus crops (can be purchased at any specialty store),
"Store" soil can be replaced with a hand-prepared soil mixture consisting of peat, sand and black soil (in equal proportions). By the way, when you swoop shoots in pots, this soil mixture is also well suited, only peat in it should be less.
Stage Two. Preparing seeds
Cut the fruit in two
Take a ripe fruit and cut it in half. You can eat one part, and take about 20 grains from the other. Clean the grain from the pulp (otherwise they will bend in the ground), but do it carefully, do not damage the shell. To simplify the procedure, you can throw the seeds into the water, mix them well and leave for some time to settle. Repeat the procedure two or three times - this minimizes the risk that the seeds will bend.
After that, spread the seeds on a napkin and dry for four hours.
Picking kiwi seeds
Stage Three. We sprout seeds
Step one. Place a piece of cotton wool in the saucer and pour boiling water over it. There should be enough water so that cotton wool is soaked with it, but the saucer should not be poured.
Step two. Cover the saucer with a piece of film and place it in the most lighted area of your house.
Step three. Every evening, remove the film, and return the next morning, pouring a small amount of water (wool should be wet all the time).
Step Four. About a week later, when the first sprouts appear (in the form of thin white roots), you should plant the seeds in the soil.
Stage Four. Repot seeds into soil
As for the soil, it should be as specified in one of the preceding paragraphs. Pour it into prepared containers or pots (the bottom should be pre-covered with expanded clay drainage layer) and make small holes on the surface (the depth should not exceed one centimeter). Place the seeds in the wells, lightly sprinkle with soil, but do not tamp.
Cover the container with film or glass and place in a warm place. As an option - you can put them in a mini-greenhouse. In the future, daily water the land. It should not dry up, otherwise the sprouts simply die. When watering, you can use a spray bottle, or you can place the pots in a pan and pour water there.
Note! When the first shoots are formed, proceed to schooling for fresh air. To do this, daily remove the glass / film, with time increasing the ventilation period.
Stage Five. Do a pick
About four weeks after planting the seeds, when there are several true leaves on the seedlings, perform a pick, i.e. transplant the plants into individual pots. The soil at this stage, as noted earlier, should contain a smaller amount of peat, while soddy soil can be used more. Act with this very carefully, because the root system of lianas is extremely delicate and located on the surface, which means that it is easy to damage.
Kiwi after diving
Why do you need a transplant? The fact is that this plant has rather wide leaves, which, as they develop, will shade each other.
Sprouts with large leaves
How to grow kiwi at home
Stage Six. Further care
To ensure conditions as close to natural as possible, you must adhere to a number of rules. Consider these rules in more detail.
Growing kiwi seed
Table. Key requirements
Note! In the summer, add an additional complex type mineral fertilizer. Do this about once every seven to ten days.
Features of vegetative propagation of kiwi
Saplings of this culture are grown using the same technology as described above. The only difference is that the sowing of seeds should be done in January. Two years later, a kiwi of one sort or another is grafted onto a sapling, which by then will grow and mature.
Saplings before planting in the soil
Inoculation can be done in the same ways that are used for other plants, in particular, it is:
- split by a green handle
- a similar process, but with lignified cuttings.
Then the liana can be planted in open soil. If the kiwi is grown indoors, as in our case, then you should take care of the capacity of sufficient depth (the roots should have plenty of room for further growth).
You can also grow seedlings from rooted cuttings. The disadvantage of this method is considered low germination in indoor growing - there are either few plants or no plants at all. As for further care, it is the same as when grown by seeds. When the cutting / sapling enters a period of active growth, it will no longer be afraid of the low temperature and will be able to easily adapt to any conditions.
Kiwi seedling planted in the ground
How to get a big harvest?
Lianu need to be properly placed. She needs a lot of space, so it is better to grow it on a warmed balcony. Also organize a support, on which the plant will rise, or make of it a beautiful and original framing of the balcony. The length of one liana, by the way, can reach seven meters.
Note! For fruits should take care of pollination. Under natural conditions, insects do this, but in our case, you have to do everything yourself.
If there are too many male lianas, you can plant “eyes” on them from female ones, which will allow to get the fruits. Ideally, the male plant should fall on five or six female, and if the proportions are wrong, then it is better to inoculate. “Eyes” take root well, thanks to which the harvest will noticeably increase.
Video - Graft Kiwi
Also periodically inspect the leaves of kiwi, and at once for two reasons.
- This will allow time to detect the fungus and clean the leaves.
- Liana can "catch" various pests from neighboring plants, so in addition to the inspection, try to place the Kiwi as far as possible from them.
With the onset of autumn, cut off the old shoots: it is recommended to remove those branches that have already been bearing fruit. Так освободится место для новых побегов, да и сама лиана не постареет и будет плодоносить в течение многих лет.
If the vine grows on the balcony, in the winter you will have to additionally protect it from frost. To do this, remove the shoots after the scapular and wrap them. When spring comes, they will more intensively give young shoots.
And finally, another useful tip. Cats for some reason love branches and foliage of kiwi, so if you have such a pet, then take care of protecting the plant - you can, for example, enclose it with a net. Otherwise, the kiwi may die.
How to disaccustom a cat to go on flowers? You can help ordinary toothpicks
Seedlings in a cage
Important harvest conditions
Fans of houseplants can decorate the window sill in the house not only with the usual ornamental crops, but also with fruiting exotic: citrus, vines, etc. One of the kinds of tropical plants that you can try to grow on the windowsill is kiwi. Its second name is Chinese gooseberry, it is a thermophilic vine, which can create quite suitable conditions for growth. How to grow kiwi seeds from your own hands?
Sprouting kiwi seeds at home
To obtain planting material, you must:
- Take a half of ripe kiwi fruit, from it you need to extract about 20 seeds. They must be completely freed from the pulp, otherwise the seeds in the ground may begin to rot.
- For washing the seeds are placed in gauze and washed with running water. Rinse preferably several times to remove the pulp as much as possible.
- Clean seeds spread on a saucer and dried for several hours.
- Next, you need to germinate them, for this you need to do the following:
- A cotton wool is placed in the saucer, which needs to be moistened with hot water; At the same time there should not be much water, it should only saturate the cotton wool well.
The saucer must be placed in a sunny room and covered with foil to create a mini-greenhouse, protected from drafts. At night, the film is removed, and in the morning it is necessary to moisten the cotton wool again and return the film to its place. The first seedlings of kiwi seeds will give about a week.
As many thin white roots will appear, the plants need to be transplanted into the ground.
The best soil mixture will be peat, humus, sand and turf in equal proportions. Seeds should be placed in small separate pots, they are put on the surface of the soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of earth. It does not need tamping, otherwise the plant will be difficult to break through to the surface. Soil needs to be sprayed every day so that it is constantly hydrated. Additional protection against drying can be provided by placing a mini-greenhouse made of a trimmed plastic bottle above the pots of earth.
Growing Kiwi: Basic Rules
Re-transplanting into larger containers is carried out when the plant has several pairs of true leaves, and the soil should contain less peat and more sod land. When growing young plants, it is important to create conditions for them as close to natural as possible, then it will be possible to achieve healthy rapid growth.
Basic requirements for Kiwi:
- It is not allowed to overdry earthen coma, so you need to ensure uniform watering. In order not to damage the plants and to ensure constant moistening of the entire surface of the earth, it is better to use a sprinkler rather than a regular watering can. You can calculate in advance the exact number of times the sprayer is pressed so that the amount of water is the same with each watering.
- Kiwi requires a long daylight, so the pots need to be placed on the southern window sills. If natural lighting is not enough daylight can be extended with a fluorescent lamp. Winter lighting is best located in the horizontal direction.
- Organic compounds are used as supplements: biohumus will be required, or compost can be used. Normally, organic top dressing should be carried out once a year if nutrient soil is used for planting. In order for the plant to constantly receive nutrients, a trench can be dug around the grown sprout, after which fertilizer is laid in it. During watering, they will gradually flow to the roots, ensuring healthy growth.
- In addition, in summer, the plant is provided with complex mineral fertilizer: it will be necessary to feed approximately once a week or once every 10 days.
- In order for the vine to be strong, it is necessary to pinch the tip periodically: this stimulates the appearance of lateral processes.
- Kiwi has wide leaves, so each plant requires a separate pot so that they do not cover each other's sunlight. Sprouts stretch rather quickly, usually re-transplanting is carried out within 4 weeks after the first leaves appear.
Planting sprouts and growing kiwi
In the soil, a depression of 2 mm is made and one germinated seed is placed there. Loose soil is lightly sprinkled on top. In order not to spray a pot with kiwi every day, you can cover it with a wrap. When the first green shoots appear, the film will need to be removed. Grown kiwis, having 2 leaves, need to be transplanted into a larger pot.
For the proper development of the plant should always moisten the soil. To do this, use a spray, because with it the moisture will be uniform. You also need to put the kiwi on the sunny windowsill, since it is a light-loving plant. If the plant is planted in a less sunny time of the year, then you can use artificial light with a lamp of day consecration.
For the best growth of a vine sapling you need to lure. Fit biohumuswhich you can water the plant.
Landing in open ground
Kiwi is female and male. Therefore, they need to plant next. One male plant can have up to 6 female. When growing kiwi with seeds, 70% of seedlings are male.
When the vine will have more than 5 leaves, then it can be planted on the street. For this, a territory is suitable where it will be possible to put poles and crossbars in order for the kiwi to grow.
For the winter grown vines must be hidden from frost. To do this, you can bend as much as possible to the ground, cover with polyethylene and put leaves on top (50 cm is enough). In the spring, when night frosts are not predicted, the young liana needs to be reached and placed in the right direction. As soon as the tree reaches maturity, it will begin to delight with its fruits.