When keeping poultry it is necessary to frequently change the substrate. Otherwise, favorable conditions are created for the development of pathogenic microorganisms. Because of them, birds start to hurt. A chicken coop with bacteria helps solve this problem and also has many other advantages.
Positive and negative properties
Usually straw, sawdust, peat moss, soybean meal, etc. are used as a substrate. But chicken feces in organic matter start to ferment and rot, the smell of ammonia appears. Now there are Biologics, which include useful bacteria for litter in the chicken coop. Together with oxygen, they ferment the waste products of birds.
Deep laying for chickens to fix problems. Advantages of use:
- Simplification of cleaning the room - there is no need to frequently change the substrate and look for methods of its processing. After a while it turns into compost suitable for its intended use. Change it once every 2-3 years.
- Eliminating unpleasant odors and dryness - the advantages of such a stand. Microorganisms recycle ammonia.
- Prevention of diseases of the joints, respiratory organs - beneficial bacteria fill all free space, preventing the development of pathogenic microorganisms.
- The source of heat - litter for the coop with bacteria during fermentation retains a temperature of 38 ° C, which does not depend on the time of year. This feature allows you not to equip additional heating even in cold weather, which reduces the cost of maintaining birds. Their paws will always be on the warm floor.
The disadvantages of using fermentation bedding for chickens include its high cost compared to a self-made substrate. But the price justifies itself, given that the litter serves for a long time.
Options for high-quality bacterial substrates are many. Eco litter from different manufacturers is different price. Different is the form of release - granules, powder, liquid solution. Most popular brands:
- BioGerm is a German product. It is produced in the form of beige-colored granules. In addition to enzymes and microorganisms, it contains fragrance. Consumption - 30-40 g of bacteria for litter in the chicken coop per 1 m². That's enough for a few years. Before using the litter for chickens watered with water, after some time, the action is repeated.
- Net Plast is a Chinese product. The composition includes bifidobacteria and synthetic enzymes. It has similarities with the previous substance. The difference lies in the temperature, which reaches 25 ° C. Use of the product Netto Plast does not provide for watering. The advantage of the drug is low price compared to other similar substances. Consumption - 100 g per 1 m². It can be used for 3 years.
- Baikal is a domestic product, so it has a low price. First used as a fertilizer for plants. The advantage of the drug Baikal is its availability. The enzymatic litter based on it is suitable for laying hens and broiler chickens.
- Bioside is a product of the Russian manufacturer. Operation time - 3 years. Does not require water for mixing, but it will have to regularly loosen. Such a litter for the coop ensures heating of the flooring to 18-20 ° C.
- Biofarm - produced in Ukraine. Mixed with organic. Requires digging every 5-6 days. The litter in the coop warms up to 20 ° C. The effectiveness of the deep substrate is maintained up to 3 years.
Most fermentation litter manufacturers are located in China. Domestic drugs are not inferior to them in quality. If the question arises, what brand to choose, you should focus on your means and preferences.
Rules of application
The principle of keeping chickens on deep bedding includes the pre-cleaning and disinfection of the chicken coop. More often, manipulations are carried out when changing livestock or before preparing for cold weather.
The room is treated with slaked lime. It is also worth ensuring good ventilation, because condensation appears when bacteria produce heat, especially during the cold season. The optimal humidity for a chicken coop is 60%.
It is best to sheathe a room with plastic material.
On a clean floor lay a layer thickness of 40 cm, including sawdust, straw, sunflower husk. They need to be used for a long time, then organic will be compacted. Preparations are added to the prepared substrate following the instructions supplied. Then mix thoroughly for uniform distribution of substances. For work do not use protective equipment - substances are not toxic. Produce watering if it is required for the selected type of bacteria for litter in the coop. If necessary, the manipulation is repeated. Water should not contain chlorine.
Microorganisms begin their work only with positive temperatures. Organic matter should also be warm.
Chickens run into the room after a few days. Bio substrate change every 2-3 years.
To use bacteria for litter in the hen house to be effective, it is necessary to follow a number of recommendations. Otherwise, the microorganisms will die. To extend the life of the substrate perform the following rules:
- Do not loosen the top layer. It takes 5-7 days to start the fermentation process.
- Adhere to the recommendations on the density of the settlement of the chicken coop. With an insufficient amount of litter bacteria die from hunger, with a large - do not have time to process it. If there are a lot of birds, they heavily tamp the litter in the hen house. This blocks the access of oxygen.
- They monitor the moisture content of the substrate, especially in summer. Dry organic violates the process of vital activity of microorganisms.
- Provide access to oxygen. Then the bacteria in the chicken litter will ferment. To do this, nastyl regularly loosened using a shovel or pitchfork.
- Do not allow fasting bacteria. If necessary, they are given additional feeding - 1 tbsp. l microorganisms are mixed with 1 kg of sugar, insist. Bring in the form of a solution after loosening.
- Warm the room in the cold season.
- Do not allow avian pest control agents to enter the fermented substrate, because they are toxic.
Often deep litter for the coop used in the winter. At the level of 1 m from the floor install a thermometer to monitor the temperature in the room. With a decrease in the indicators, cattle manure is used. It contains many nutrients that are good for bacteria. Manure digged with sawdust.
If the temperature is nearing zero, the chicken coop is immediately heated. For a deep substrate, the following solution will be useful:
- 2-3 kg of manure,
- 30 grams of fresh bran,
- 2-3 art. l bacteria,
Bacteria suffer from cold. So that the temperature of the room is not greatly reduced, the surface of the litter can be treated with manure solution.
The resulting liquid is kept for several days in a warm room. During this time, microorganisms are activated. Then the litter in the chicken coop is watered evenly.
If, after winter, the bacterial backing is removed, another season is required for the next season. In this case, the cost of maintaining chickens increased.
The use of warm fermentation litter - important rules
Bacterial-based litter makes life easier for poultry farmers, but when using them, the following rules and recommendations should be kept in mind:
- Before placing the insulation layer, the house should be cleaned and treated with quick lime,
- In winter, condensation will inevitably form in the coop. To remove excess moisture you need a good ventilation system.
- It is necessary regularly (at intervals of 3-5 days) to dig up or loosen the litter to facilitate the access of oxygen to the lower layers,
- Every 2-3 years (depending on the manufacturer) requires full replacement of litter
Warm coop litter - what are bacteria for?
During the keeping of animals and birds in pens on the floor a large amount of manure and litter accumulates. Manure emits ammonia into the air, which is a poisonous gas. A high concentration of gas causes a sharp decrease in weight gain and a deterioration in the health of animals.
To reduce the negative effect in the premises had to install powerful ventilation. The rate of exchange of air was at least 10 times per hour. During the winter period, as a result of ventilation, the temperature dropped, an additional powerful heating was required. All this increased the cost per unit of agricultural production.
Exhaust ventilation in the hen house
Another problem of livestock farms is the difficulty with manure harvesting. Cleaning in premises for cattle should be done at least twice a day, for other species daily. This is an additional loss of financial assets that adversely affect the cost of production.
Cleaning the hen house
What is the effect of bacteria?
- Ammonia is cleaned, indoor air cleanliness is significantly improved.
- Ventilation is only required to maintain the humidity parameters in the recommended values; for this, a small amount of electrical energy is used.
- Depending on the breed of livestock or poultry, the litter is cleaned seasonally or monthly.
- The complete absence of unpleasant odors allows you to store fertilizer in close proximity to residential premises.
- Fertilizers can be realized without additional preparation.
Fermentation litter bacteria are completely safe for people and animals, do not cause allergic reactions, do not pollute the environment.
Fermentation chicken litter
What litter for chickens to choose?
As can be seen from the comparative table, there are no real differences between different brands, they all work according to the same principle and contain identical bacteria. When choosing it is recommended to be guided by the price, integrity and availability of manufacturers.
Recommended conditions for litter
To ensure the effective operation of bacteria, it is necessary to strictly observe the rules prescribed by manufacturers.
- The triggering of bacteria is possible only at positive temperatures. It is better to do it in the warm seasons. Before the winter start, the temperature in the rooms needs to be raised; on the floor, the indicators cannot fall below zero. In addition, the litter should be warm, for this it should be kept for several days in heated rooms. The thickness of the sawdust for heating should not exceed 10-15 cm, otherwise it will take a long time to warm up.
Sawdust for bedding
Sawdust with a length of up to 3 cm is considered optimal
Bacteria are scattered in a uniform layer on the prepared litter, after spilling should be mixed. If the bedding layer is large, then the operation is recommended in two stages. The first layer of bacteria falls apart at half the thickness of the sawdust, then a second layer of sawdust is added and sprinkled again with bacteria. Material consumption per square meter remains unchanged, you need to mix each sprinkled layer of litter separately.
How to run litter
Its effectiveness and duration of use largely depend on the correct start of the litter. If the chicken coop is cold, then you need to further warm the walls around the perimeter. In private households, forced heating of the room is rarely used, it is expensive. The shed is heated by heat produced by cattle and pigs. If it contains only chickens, then it is very difficult to maintain the recommended thermal regime for bacteria. And the litter itself will not be able to heat the room due to the small amount of litter.
BioSide Fermentation Mat
Step 1. Clean the floor of dirt, dry and, if necessary, warm it.
Step 2. Scatter in a uniform layer over the surface of sawdust. The thickness of the fresh non-trampled layer is within 30 cm. In the future, they will be compacted to the thickness recommended by the manufacturers.
Step 3. Spread the powder evenly over the surface of the sawdust. You can work without personal respiratory protection, the bacteria are completely harmless to the human body.
Step 4. Spray the litter with clean water with a shower head. It is strictly forbidden to use tap water containing bleach. Even after settling all the chlorine does not come out and has a negative effect on bacteria.
Step 5. Mix thoroughly with moistened sawdust with a shovel. Make every effort to obtain an even distribution of bacteria and moisture throughout the litter volume.
Step 6. After 5–6 days, check the litter temperature. If it has risen - the bacteria began to work, birds can be launched into the pens.
In the future, you need to monitor the condition of microorganisms and take measures to maintain them.
How to maintain litter
Improper maintenance of the litter can not only reduce the effectiveness of the bacteria, but also completely stop their reproduction. For long-term effective work of bacteria, the following measures should be performed.
- Give time to start the bacteria. There is no need to hurry to loosen the top layer; it takes about 5-7 days to complete the fermentation start cycle.
- It is important to maintain bird population rates per square meter of litter. If there are few birds, then the amount of litter decreases, the bacteria go hungry, in some cases they can die. To maintain their viability, you have to add litter. If there are many birds, the bacteria cannot effectively process the excess litter and also die. In addition, a large number of birds very densely tamps the litter, as a result, the access of air stops. If you do not do frequent digging, the bacteria can die.
It is important to maintain bird population rates per square meter of litter.
As you can understand, the real care of bacteria is significantly different from the promises of advertising. But this is not all the nuances that farmers should know.
Main misconceptions about litter
Fermentation bedding for all animal species
No need to believe advertising that once launched litter will work for three years without additional effort. As practice shows, it is impossible to create ideal conditions for the work of bacteria, after about a month there are visible signs of deterioration in the work of microorganisms. To restore the initial parameters of the bedding every month after turning it is necessary to add fresh bacteria, the application rate is reduced by half compared to the first launch.
On a barn about 70 m 2 in size it is necessary to add bacteria every month in the amount of 2–2.5 thousand rubles For the year to maintain the litter in good condition will additionally require more than 25 thousand rubles. Each owner must calculate that it is more profitable for him: to clean manure using the traditional method or to use fermentation bedding. For subsidiary farms located in the city, the storage of ordinary manure on the street is prohibited by decrees of local governments. In such cases, the use of fermentation litter is the only legitimate method of gardening.
Practical advice. In the summer, keeping animals and birds on the bedding becomes uncomfortable due to too high a heating temperature. In order to improve the conditions, it is necessary to provide places without bedding, they will rest on them in case of too high temperature.
For pigs and cattle to make fermentation litter is recommended only in the latrine, this will eliminate the need for scattering of manure throughout the corral. But there is a problem of too much organic waste, bacteria do not like excess food. In addition, the moisture of the litter is critically increased in the latrines, it must be constantly cleaned and some fresh sawdust added.
Clean crib with fermentation bedding
Fermentation litter for pigs
Features care for litter for ducks, geese and broilers
These birds do not loosen the litter, but, on the contrary, strongly tamp the upper layer. This feature adds work to maintain favorable conditions for the development of bacteria. The upper crust needs to be loosened at least once every two or three days. It is easier to work with forks, a hard crust should be broken. If the bed is very dry, then you need to moisten it a little. If the birds are kept in the pen only at night, then the amount of litter is insufficient for the development of bacteria. Manure will have to add, and this is an additional cost of manual labor.
Irremovable litter Biofarm
Professional answers to your questions
Before you make a final decision on the use of fermentation litter, you should be familiar with the most frequently asked questions of farmers.
How can bacteria be reanimated quickly and efficiently?
Жизнедеятельность бактерий зависит от нескольких параметров микроклимата, но чаще всего они страдают от понижения температуры. Always keep indoor thermometers at a distance of about 1 m from the floor and monitor their readings.
- If the temperature has just begun to fall, then it is enough to add additional manure to the litter and dig it up. It is recommended to add cattle manure to poultry houses, it has more nutrients for bacteria.
Excavated sawdust with manure addition
Should bacteria be used for litter pigs?
Manufacturers' advertising guarantees high efficiency of using fermentation litter for pigs. What does practice show? Pigs are the cleanest animals, they always get dirty in one place. In order to provide feed for bacteria, it is necessary to scatter manure daily throughout the cage. In addition to increasing manual labor, there is another undesirable effect - pigs will become dirty. And all these problems you will have for your own money.
It is important that the litter does not get wet.
How to apply litter on large poultry complexes?
Practical advice - no way. Why? The sizes of bird complexes start from 50 × 20 m, the minimum area is 1000 m 2. Now you need to figure out how much time and people you need for periodic manual digging of the litter. Where is the cost reduction? And while still have to constantly monitor the condition of the bacteria and take measures for their resuscitation. If the removal of ordinary bird droppings is fully automated, then there is no equipment for digging the litter. In addition, the constant harassment of birds becomes stressful for them, and this negatively affects the productivity indicators.
What are the features of the use of fermentation litter for cattle?
There is no definite answer. Let's start with the fact that animal technicians do not recommend keeping cattle on soft bedding - the joints are deformed. If it is not critical for pigs, then for cows that retain for years, the condition of the leg joints is a very important factor. The second caution - wet and warm bedding causes various hoof diseases.
Cattle are kept mostly on a leash, loose housing itself is not justified for various reasons. Tethered content means that manure and urine fall only on a limited stretch of litter, to save the vital activity of bacteria, they must be constantly scattered throughout the pen. This is a useless work from all points of view. An additional minus is a large amount of urine; special drainage is required to remove the excess. Much easier and cheaper to clean manure in the traditional way.
What is the quality of organic fertilizer deep bedding?
One of the advertised benefits of fermentation litter is the complete absence of a sharp unpleasant odor. It smells like ammonia - the most valuable fertilizer for all crops. Bacteria use gas for food and almost completely remove it from fertilizer. As a result, according to all indicators it is much inferior to the humus prepared in the traditional way. This fertilizer can be used on heavy clay soils to improve the structure of the earth, but you should not expect a large increase in yield from it.
Used litter as fertilizer
Trying to use fermentation litter is recommended for small farms, preferably only for birds. And then you need to be prepared for the daily work of caring for litter and maintaining the viability of bacteria. You should not hope that the "miracle remedy" for several years will completely relieve from the daily manual labor.
It is better to use fermentation deep litter only in winter time, a small additional heating of the room has a beneficial effect on the bird. Another plus is that in winter there are difficulties with frequent manure removal, and the bedding can be cleaned only in the warm season, these problems are solved. But this means that it is unrealistic to use the same litter for three years in a row, each season requires the launch of a new one. As a result, real costs far exceed the planned ones.
Many private owners of household farms, after a short use of deep fermentation litter, return to traditional methods of manure removal: they dig up a hole in the site for storing litter and manure. At the same time, it prepares high-quality compost used for planting crops.
Technology for super efficient livestock
with the use of the biological product "Biohlev"