Camellia is a unique plant, decorative and flowering at the same time. Dense leaves with a rigid structure, painted in a saturated green color, and themselves are quite beautiful. And when on their background a lot of inflorescences of various shapes and colors are revealed, camellia becomes the main decoration of the flower collection.
It is noteworthy that it blooms only in winter, and in the summer it begins laying new flower buds.
To date, breeders bred a lot of varieties of camellia. There are among them both simple and terry varieties, and even flowers with a colorful coloring of inflorescences.
Most often at home you can find these types of plants:
- camellia japanese
- Camellia mountain.
In nature, this camellia grows in the form of a bush or a small tree (10 m in height). Its domesticated varieties are rarely above one meter and are widely used for cultivation as a Kadochnoy plant, which in the summer are brought to the garden. In greenhouse conditions, the variety can even bear fruit.
The leaves of the Japanese camellia is not more than 10 cm in length, painted in a dark green color. The edges of the sheet plate have small serrations, and she - in the form of an oval. Flowering occurs in late November and lasts until early May.
The inflorescences of the majority of representatives of this species are small, up to 4 cm in diameter, but there are also garden varieties with flowers up to 12 cm in diameter. They are located both in small groups and individually. Depending on the particular variety, the color of the inflorescences can be either monophonic or variegated. Also, there are simple and terry species.
These varieties of Japanese camellia look very nice:
- “Adolphe audusson” with semi-double red flowers with yellow stamens in the center,
- "Buttermint" with white petals,
- “Lavinia maggi” with variegated inflorescences with light red stripes traced on a white background.
Most often, the variety can be found in the gardens, but there are also room types of mountain camellias, which successfully grow in rooms provided that they have a cool temperature. The plant is a shrub in the garden, reaching 5 m in height, in the room, however, the size of camellias is usually more compact and can be easily adjusted with pruning.
Mountain camellia differs from other species in that it has fewer leaves and inflorescences. In addition, the midrib on the leaf from the underside is slightly pubescent.
The bush blooms at the end of autumn and blooms an average of 3 months. Inflorescences are most often solitary, but they can also be arranged in several pieces together. The color is dominated by white and different shades of pink.
One of the most beautiful types of mountain camellia can be considered:
- «White double "with double white flowers,
- "Enishi" with semi-double pink inflorescences.
Mountain Camellia (C.sasanqua) is a shrub plant, reaching in natural conditions in the height of four meters and has a pubescent reddish shoots. Foliage oval, brilliant, dark green coloring. Flowers pink, white and red, quite fragrant, with a diameter of 70 mm. Flowering is long, from November to January. The plant should be grown in cool enough places.
Japanese camellia (C.japonica) - shrub-type plant, or relatively tall tree, up to ten meters high. The foliage is oval, relatively long, with a shiny surface, leathery, dark green coloring. Flowering occurs in the period from December to April. The flower can be simple, semi-double and double, up to 50 mm in diameter. Known varieties, forming pink, white, red and variegated flowers. This type is suitable for cultivation in a cool room, and when grown in a greenhouse, fruit is observed. Bush form is grown in open ground conditions.
Oil Camellia (C.oleifera)The description of which is not known to many domestic flower growers is most often cultivated in the mountains of China in order to produce large oil seeds. Evergreen culture belongs to the category of tall ornamental plants, therefore its use in indoor floriculture is limited. Foliage next simple, with a leathery surface. The leaves are ovate. White flowers, bisexual, singly arranged or combined in pairs. The peak of flowering occurs in September-October.
Tea Bush, or Chinese Camellia (C.sinénsis) Many experienced flower growers are known as camellia tea. Evergreen shrub plant has a leathery type, alternately arranged, oval or elongated oval leaves. The foliage of this species is characterized by narrowing at the apex and the presence of a short stem. The upper part of the leaves is dark green. The reverse side of the foliage is painted in light green tones. The flowers are fragrant. The flowering period lasts from the last summer decade to mid-autumn, after which fruits are formed.
Tyumen breeding varieties
In the Tyumen breeding, interesting, from the point of view of ornamental floriculture, very beautiful varieties are presented, which, moreover, are unpretentious in cultivation and absolutely undemanding in their care.
The Ural, highly decorative, winter-hardy camellia "Empress", especially popular with domestic amateur flower growers. Almost all varieties of this breeding are classified as gardening, therefore, because of their botanical characteristics and characteristics, they are completely unsuitable for cultivation in conditions of indoor floriculture.
Use camellia to create bonsai
Really experienced amateur flower growers often make bonsai from room camellia. Considering the appearance and size of the foliage of this ornamental culture, it is recommended to adhere to the minimum height of the above-ground part of 50 cm. If necessary, the haircut and thinning of the branches should be done, which will improve the visual perception of the branch structure. The formation technique is not too complicated and is quite accessible even to inexperienced flower growers:
- camellia can react to pruning and wire formation rather unexpectedly, dropping all flower buds, so it is recommended to use the vertical style option,
- The foliage of camellia is quite large, so the optimum height of the ornamental tree should not be less than 40-45 cm,
- annual branches must be carefully fixed in position with wire,
- it is impossible to carry out too tight fit of the wire clamp to the cortex of the room cameo,
- it is advisable to fix older and heavier shoots with special tension devices,
- new, young branches that have reached a length of 15 cm are required to be shortened in accordance with the stage of cultural development and the planned size of the tree being formed, but most often the shortening is made on one or three leaves,
- the formation is recommended to be carried out in the spring period, and all places of sections are necessarily processed by special disinfecting compositions.
It is important to note that small-leaved varieties and hybrid forms should be used to form bonsai. Cornish Snow and Cornish Spring are best suited for such requirements.
The favorite flower of Coco Chanel camellia has long become an immortal symbol of the brand, a true embodiment of tenderness and severity. Romantic beauty and nobility of origin made camellia a source of a huge number of myths, legends and traditions associated with this ornamental perennial plant.
How camellia blooms (video)
Camellia will have to be watered regularly so that the soil is constantly slightly damp, but not swampy. Watering continues further in winter at positive temperatures.
In May-July, mineral supplements are applied monthly, designed specifically for camellia (full dose) or rhododendron (half dose).
In autumn, the soil near the trunk is mulched with fallen leaves and crushed bark, and then covered with spruce leaves. If in the winter frosts happen rarely, then additional shelter is not needed. In more northern regions, the base of the trunk is covered with non-woven material. At night, the crown with flowers is also covered with lutrasil.
Camellia garden: planting, reproduction, care, varieties
Camellia garden (in Latin correctly spelled camellia, not kamelia) is very diverse, there are many species and varieties of this plant. Some of them are even used practically - for the production of essential oils and as an additive to tea. And yet mainly this lush flower we know as decorative. In the garden most often grown the following types:
- Japanese shrub. The leaves of Japanese camellia are dark green, the flowers are very large, they are not located in inflorescences, but one by one, the shades are the most varied - they are luxurious red, pink and white, there are variegated camellias, there are terry flowers.
- Oilseed. This variety of camellia is the tallest tree, that is, it grows in the form of an evergreen tree. It can reach 8-10 meters in height. Begins to bloom in September and October.
- Mountain (miyagi). This garden variety is a bush, but the bushes are large, tall, up to 5 meters. The flowers are not double, but still beautiful, about 5 cm in diameter. This species is good because it blooms very abundantly, the flowering period is from November to January.
- Balsam. Very often one type of balsam is considered to be camellia, this variety is called “camellia”. In fact, despite the resemblance, the plants are completely different, although both bloom magnificently.
Since camellia is not a frost-resistant flower, comes from Japan, and the climate in Russia is harsh, we often practice growing this plant in large tubs. This is done in order to carry camellia into the room with the onset of cold weather and thus save it from frost.
Among other things, planting in tubs or containers allows you to better maintain the optimal composition of the soil. In addition, any garden at different times is illuminated in different ways, so that the plant can be transferred from time to time to get more sunlight. Indeed, in the case of camellia just need a long light day, at least 13 hours. In the shade buds do not develop, therefore, camellia does not bloom.
However, direct sunlight to the plant is also harmful. If the camellia is planted on the south side, it will have to be shaded from the sun. It would be ideal to plant a bush or tree on the east or west side of the garden. The North, of course, is not suitable due to low light.
And it is also very important to remember that if you decide to plant a plant in open ground, it is better to choose a winter-hardy variety. Today there are quite a few of these varieties, you must contact the nursery and consult.
As for the temperature, which is comfortable for this delicate plant, in summer it should be about 23 ° C, when buds form - 18-20 ° C, and in winter - 8-10 ° C.
Every garden flower lover knows that it is very important to plant a plant correctly. With respect to camellia, this is doubly relevant, because she has very delicate and fragile roots. So it is necessary to replant a bush or tree as rarely as possible. In addition, in no case should not allow the roots to freeze. And it is forbidden to bury the growth point too much into the soil, to fill up the earth located between the roots and the trunk. This can lead to rapid death of the plant.
But if it is optimal to pick up the soil mixture, take care of the drainage system, give Camellia a lot of air and light, she will certainly thank for its lush flowering.
The content of camellias, as mentioned above, is troublesome. Young plants are recommended to be transplanted annually to a new place, and adults who are already blooming every year once every couple of years. It is best to do this very late in autumn or in winter, when camellia is resting. And in no case - during the period of active growth, that is, in April and from July to mid-November. Errors are fraught with the death of the plant.
Care should also include pinching the shoots during the transplant. This will lead to abundant branching. In addition, in order to stimulate the appearance of new buds in the sinuses, it is possible to prune the plant in the fall.
The secret of success in growing garden camellias is in good soil moisture and drainage. But the composition of the soil is very important. Best of all, if the soil is acidic, it means that it should have in its composition:
- perlite or vermiculite
- sand or crushed bark
Due to this, the roots, on the one hand, get a good and uniform moisture, and on the other hand, the moisture does not stagnate, therefore, the soil is saturated with oxygen.
It is impossible to do without fertilizers when growing camellias in the garden, the plant needs good nutrition. It is not necessary to buy funds specifically for camellias, all those that are intended for plants in acidic soil will do. Most often they include:
If there is little or no magnesium or calcium, it is not scary, because these elements are abundant in ordinary tap water that will be watered by the plant.
It is necessary to water camellia in summer a lot, but evenly so that the water does not stagnate in the soil. It is best to carry out watering, making sure that the top layer of soil has dried up. In winter, it is necessary to water with caution, because in cold weather the earth can sour. But watering is not enough - it is also dangerous, the plant can dry up, lose leaves.
Water for irrigation should be soft, it is better to defend it for several days. If the flower grows in a tub, it is better to put it in a pan with water. If in the soil - spray regularly, but during flowering very carefully, so that the drops do not fall on the flowers.
Camellia can be propagated in two ways:
- With the help of seeds. To do this, take only the necessary fresh seeds and sow them in a seedling box filled with suitable soil. Everything, as usual - to moisten the soil, cover the top of the box with a transparent film or glass and wait. When sprouts appear on two true leaves, you need to pick them, planting in pots one by one. This method is bad in that the varietal properties of the obtained camellias are not preserved.
- Vegetative. In this case, the characteristics of the variety are preserved. It is necessary in July or January to cut cuttings from the tops of camellia that have not yet stiffened. The size of each is about 7 cm; there should be 3-5 leaflets or buds on the cuttings. Then planting material rooted in a substrate of turf, sand, peat and leaf soil. Rooting will take approximately 50 days. Then the camellia should be watered heavily, applied, and a year later transplanted into a large container.
The following causes usually lead to illnesses of garden camellias and even to their death:
- unsuitable soil
- the direct rays of the suns that fall on the plant
- too much constant heat
- low air humidity
- waterlogging of land in which camellia grows
From excessive watering, or, conversely, the great dryness of camellia can lose foliage. The sun can cause burns that look like brownish spots on leaflets. When a lot of moisture in the soil, roots rot, it leads to wilting and leaf fall.
In addition, camellia with poor care can destroy pests - either aphid or spider mite. They fight with aphids by applying a solution of soapy water to the plant. Ticks are washed off with special oil emulsions.