Characteristics are constant and inherited. The breed is the result of human mental and creative labor. Cross - these are hybrids of breeds and lines of poultry (layers, meat).
Crossing (cross) occurs under strict and complex rules. Usually such hybrids are produced under industrial conditions under the control of livestock specialists. Having understood the terms, let's get acquainted with several breeds and crosses of turkeys.
This breed of turkeys can be divided into three groups by weight:
- light (5-9 kg),
- medium (7-15 kg),
- heavy (10-24).
Wide-breasted white is a universal breed, i.e. she carries eggs well and has a lot of tasty meat. In appearance, it is a massive bird with an oval body, extended in the chest. Keeps the torso on strong, widely spaced legs. Males and females have white plumage with a tuft of black feathers on their chests.
If the temperature suddenly drops, it's not scary. The main thing is not to increase the humidity - dampness for this breed is destructive. The diet of the bird must be combined. It is necessary to include dry and germinated grain, dry and wet mixture of grass, hay, flour and water.
In spring and summer, the ration should be enriched with greens as much as possible. They feed turkeys, as a rule, three times a day. In the tribal period - up to five times. In the morning and daytime feeding, it is desirable to give wet food, in the evening - dry.
Video: white wide-breasted turkeysAdvantages of turkeys of this breed:
- good for meat
- carry a lot of eggs
- growing fast and gaining weight
- used to breed new breeds
- strong offspring.
- afraid of dampness
- with improper feeding, they begin to eat everything, including inedible things.
Breed obtained by crossing a bronze broad chest from the North Caucasus. Despite the large number of positive qualities, it is not widespread. Breeding is practiced in the central part of Russia, in the Moscow Region and in some regions of Ukraine.
Externally, the Moscow bronze is quite a large and beautiful bird. Turkeys reach a weight of 13-14 kilograms, turkeys - 7-8. The bird is painted black with a bronze tint. On the tail and feathers there are light stripes and edging. The body is elongated, broad chest, rounded. The head seems wide too. Beak with a pink shade, curved.
Since the breed has good meat qualities, the most important thing in caring for it is feeding. If there is an opportunity, then the poults from the first days should be fed with industrial feed. They are as balanced as possible and contain everything you need to gain weight. If such feed is difficult to get, you can use feed for broilers. They are given the first few weeks, and then transferred to household mixes. The turkey farm settles itself according to the above principle.
Advantages of the Moscow Bronze:
- good meat quality
- high reproductive abilities
- Suitable for grazing.
- the carcass darkens after slaughter, losing its presentation due to this,
- love to fly, but because of the large mass can not normally rise into the air. Therefore, often finding themselves behind the fence, unable to return,
- young animals do not tolerate dampness.
Hybrid obtained by crossing the bronze wide-chest and white Dutch. Cross turned out very large. Males weigh 19-22 kilograms, females weigh up to 12 kilograms. Color have white. The head is small, with a bright beak. The males are very well developed tail.
When they straighten it, they look like big balls. A bird behaves calmly if it is among its congeners. With other birds often conflict. Therefore, these turkeys are desirable to keep away from everyone. In spring and autumn, the cross is kept outside in a specially equipped pen.
Clover, pea, alfalfa should grow on its territory. In winter, the birds are settled in a warm place. In a closed pen, the floor should be covered with sawdust. The room should always be ventilated. When constructing perches, it should be borne in mind that there can be at least two turkeys per square meter. In the summer turkeys are fed with wheat, corn, barley, oats, greens and special compound feeds. In winter, the diet changes: chestnuts, acorns, vegetables, shredded needles. For quick weight gain, you need to give vitamins and minerals.
- live in any climate
- with proper care, they practically don’t get sick,
- give a lot of meat.
- love to fight
- afraid of dampness.
Another hybrid that gives a lot of meat. He became famous for the rapid weight gain. In addition to meat, turkeys of this cross is valued for down. It is very light and soft.
Turkeys BIG 6 are painted white. They have a wide and bulging chest, legs - thick and powerful. Wingspan - large. Males are distinguished by a bright beard and large earrings, in a healthy bird they are bright red.
In order to gain weight faster, poultry farmers cross chicks from a heavy paternal line with lungs from the mother. In this case, the young males by 17 weeks are gaining 14 kilograms of live weight. Then it turns out a good yield for meat - 70%. So that the weight gain is correct, the farmers consume two kilograms of feed per kilogram of the gained weight.
Young animals need to be fed according to the schedule with special feed. In the first days of life, it is recommended to feed the poults with wheat mixed with crushed eggs and greens. It helps to establish the digestive process. From the third day of life, crushed carrots are introduced into the diet. Then add fish meal, clabber, cottage cheese. In adults, corn, wheat, and barley should be present in the diet. Be sure to have a drinker with fresh water.
It is possible to grow turkey poults BIG-6 at home on a floor with straw flooring. For the first weeks of life in the room should be a temperature of 30 degrees. Then it is gradually lowered to 22 degrees. For good growth, young animals need a light day at 12 o'clock.
- gain weight fast
- carry eggs well
- The survival rate of chicks is high.
- complex and demanding care.
Representatives of this hybrid in appearance resemble decorative turkeys. Their bodies are convex, their legs are strong. The plumage is white, with a red beak and a bright beard on it. The neck is elongated.
BJT-8 and BIG-6 together with BJT-9 are in the same line, so in appearance they are very similar. In BYuT-8, medium-sized birds, in BYuT-9 - a little more, and BIG-6 - giant.
BJT-8 - very whimsical turkeys. It is impossible to mate males and females at home, as they have a very large difference in weight (about 27 and 10 kg, respectively) and there is a chance that the male will crush or pull his partner with spurs in the heat of passion.
Because of this, insemination takes place artificially on special farms. The young stock is purchased from them for further cultivation at home. Poults in the first 2 months should constantly maintain temperature and low humidity.
Without this, they will not be able to survive. The optimum temperature for good growth of young stock is 36 degrees. They should be raised in special enclosures with insulated walls. The floor is covered with sawdust of pine trees. In the room where there are enclosures, we need good heating and ventilation.
Green onions should be present in the diet, and feed should be divided into two groups: protein (flour, fish, bread) and cereals (corn, wheat). On a balanced combination of these products should build a diet. This will help you gain mass faster.
- tasty and tender meat,
- high yield of meat.
- very demanding to care,
- self-fertilization is impossible.
Characteristic of cross-country Big-6
Turkey broilers of this cross can reach a weight of 40 kg. But this is a record weight and in adulthood, when the meat is already becoming harsh. Also, keep a broiler bird for too long - just torture it.
Turkeys are usually quickly slaughtered, because their content after six months becomes unprofitable, so with turkeys such facts are unknown. With broiler roosters, there have been cases when they tried to leave them “for later”. As a result, the cock was so heavy that it could not move any more and only crawled on the floor. As a result, his own relatives - the chickens pecked his belly and peck out his guts. So if a bird is bred for fast weight gain and the same fast slaughter, you should not feel sorry for it.
White plumage in broilers is preferable, since in this case there are no dark points unpleasant to the eye on the skin of the carcass.
It is unlikely that it will succeed to plant this cross, because, first, the second generation cross will split into parent forms. Secondly, on sale usually only males. And most often the males are sterile, so they can not even hybridize with homegrown turkeys.
Two other crosses, bred by the same company, are marked as Big-8 and Big-9. Outwardly, there is no difference between them.
Crosses are created by crossing "light" turkeys and "heavy" turkeys. These crosses are slaughtered in 3-4 months.
In addition to British crosses for breeding in Russia, the Moscow bronze, white wide-breasted and Canadian wide-breasted are also recommended at private farmsteads.
Canadian wide-breasted turkey
It was derived by selection in Canada, which is reflected in the name of the breed. Turkeys of this breed grow very quickly. Already a month and a half turkey poults weigh 5 kg. By the time of slaughter, 3 months after they leave the egg, they weigh already 9 kg. Breed of this type is very convenient to sell on orders with whole carcasses. Someone needs a small carcass and a turkey can be slaughtered as early as six weeks, someone needs a bigger one and such buyers can sell a three-month-old turkey.
The breed was not selected for this breed, therefore Canadian wide-breasted have a wild turkey color, that is, a black feather with a bronze tint. According to the photo, the Canadian wide-chested one is almost impossible to distinguish from the Moscow bronze one and from ordinary turkeys of non-broiler breed.
Canadian wide-breasted turkeys are distinguished by early ripeness, starting to lay eggs as early as 9 months.
Canadian wide-breasted is a heat-loving breed, therefore it is not suitable for cultivation in the northern regions of Russia.
Called bronze, this breed of turkeys actually has black plumage. All the "bronze" in its color - a bronze sheen of a feather.
Moscow bronze turkeys are much smaller than meat crosses and weigh 11-13 kg, turkeys - 6-7 kg. Poults at four months of age have time to gain 4 kg.
A turkey per year carries up to 100 eggs. The advantage of this breed is the high fertility of eggs and hatchability of poults more than 80%. The official survival rate of 70-75%, but a lot depends on the content of turkey poults.
White wide-breasted turkey
It is easy to see that visually in the photo a white wide-breasted turkey, bred in America, is no different from the British meat crosses, which it is one of the parent breeds. True, the picture shows turkeys, as it is not profitable to grow turkeys for meat production. At the same time, they gain weight two times smaller than the males.
In the USSR, white wide-breasted was introduced in the 70s of the last century and on its basis heavy, light and medium crosses were obtained.
Turkey grows with white wide-chest to 100 days. After that, it can be sent to the face.
When it is diluted, it is necessary to maintain a certain temperature, humidity and lighting conditions. Particularly afraid of white wide-breasted dampness and cold. In this case, turkeys of this breed get a cold.
White turkey sweatshirt begins to sweep at 9 months. In the year she can more than a hundred eggs with a fertility of 90%. But only 75% of the fertilized eggs are hatched in the incubator.
Given that the breed is used for a wide variety of crosses, turkeys of this breed also have a large variety of sizes. The lightest turkey weighs 9 kg, the turkey is two times less. Sexual dimorphism is observed in all groups, so there is no need to dwell on turkeys.
The average turkey type weighs 18-17 kg, heavy to 25.
Features of the content and feeding of broiler turkeys
It should be noted that against the background of the crowded content of broiler turkeys, not only a change in their behavior is noted, but also the extinction of the incubation instinct.
To include normal natural instincts for each individual must have at least 20 m². With the crowded content of the bird, not only does the incubation instinct fade away, but all mental activity is disturbed, which is clearly seen in the video.
Content turkeys. Farm Volojanin:
Types of rocks
Virtually all turkeys are ideal for further breeding. Popular breeds of turkeys photos and name, full catalog:
- The North Caucasian bronze breed of turkeys is recommended for acquisition by novice farmers with no experience. Individuals lay eggs at 10-11 months after birth. The period of egg production lasts from 6 to 7 months. One bird in this time period blows up to 85 eggs, which is quite good,
- North Caucasian white artificially bred by scientists. These turkeys are especially attractive because they have white plumage, which improves the presentation. North Caucasian turkeys are characterized by increased fertility,
- Moscow white differ by fecundity and developed body. By its external features it resembles a previous breed,
- Moscow bronze is characterized by increased egg production and impressive physique. The bird is easy to care for and maintain, so you can get rid of unnecessary work.
Existing species of broiler turkey breeds with photos and descriptions are given below in the material.
This species has a large size. Breeding turkey broilers is practiced by many novice farmers, because this activity provides its positive points. This is a profitable occupation, justifying the costs with interest. The bird is quite unpretentious in the care and has a calm disposition.
The broiler body is very massive. The turkey has enhanced strength, muscular body and strong beak. These individuals are able to develop impressive speed and overcome the 3-meter obstacles. However, broiler turkeys are demanding care and maintenance.
There are some recommendations and nuances concerning the content of big turkeys, due to which you can influence the further growth and development of poults. Observing these conditions, the weight of males can reach 30 kilograms.
White wide breasted
To increase the rate of egg production and growth, individuals should be well looked after and create comfortable conditions. White-breasted turkeys need proper feeding and care:
- wet and dried mash,
- germinated and dried cereals,
- fresh greens, cabbage and so on.
Young animals are fed with pre-grated grits and eggs - it is important to ensure a healthy and full diet. Water can be replaced by milk. It is important that the milk is fresh. If the farm has its own cow, this is the best way out.
Already from one month of age, the masters are fed to grown up individuals, which consist of greens and moist cereals. Knead on the water.
For the manufacture of mash is suitable nettle, cabbage leaves. Bags are available for purchase in specialized outlets. Adults also eat mash.
Cultivation of a white wide-chested turkey does not cause difficulties, even for beginning farmers. It is easy to care for this species of turkeys, they endure most diseases.
Unpretentious breed of turkeys
Such species include white wide-breasted, not requiring special care and specific content. Individuals are rapidly gaining weight and do not need additional walking.
Do not forget that the main attention, in addition to feeding, should be paid to the watering of birds. They absorb a lot of fluids throughout the day. Ideally, install nipple drinkers that will supply the turkeys with enough liquid.
Most would agree that breeding a bird is a profitable occupation. However, before the purchase should take into account that there are different types of turkeys that need specific care. Before giving preference to one or another species of bird, it is worthwhile to thoroughly study the features and additional points.