Japanese euonymus - an evergreen shrub native to Japan, Korea and China.
In the nineteenth century, the plant was introduced to Europe, where it became widespread as an ornamental shrub that tolerates a temperate European climate.
The scientific name of Japanese euonymus sounds like Euonymusjaponicus. That is why this shrub is sometimes called eonimus. In nature, an euonymus grows in the form of a tree up to 6 m high, as well as a shrub. In cool areas, the plant looks like a dwarf shrub.
Shrub leaves are oval, leathery. The flowers are barely noticeable, green, collected in clusters of several pieces. The fruits of Japanese euonymus look like a box with four nests.
Familiarize yourself with the appearance of the Japanese Euonymus bush on the photo below:
After the purchase
Japanese euonymus loves warmth. In cool areas, a bush requires covering in a cold period or moving to a warm place. Although up to a temperature of 10 degrees, he feels fine.
Bush requires quite frequent formation, as well as cutting weakened shoots. In nature, euonymus weakly branches and has a rare crown. With the help of trimming the plant can be turned into an original tree or a lush bush.
Bush requires abundant watering. Water is desirable to defend. Japanese euonymus strongly suffers from overdrying of the soil and dies with a strong lack of moisture. In hot weather, it is necessary to maintain the desired level of soil moisture, but at the same time not overflow.
In winter, and especially when kept cool, the shrub should be watered less often and less plentifully.
Japanese euonymus normally refers to spraying and warm soul, which is necessary for cleaning the leaves from the accumulated dust.
You can plant a plant in any universal soil mixtureby adding a little baking powder.
Make up the soil and independently of the double volume of sod, equal volumes of sand, sod, leaf and humus soil.
Japanese euonymus requires annual transplant in the spring.
This applies to young shrubs. Older bushes are replanted every three to four years.
Japanese euonymus breeds in the spring by cuttings and by dividing the bush, and during the warm period - seeds.
The seed should be stratified at + 3 degrees for three months. The procedure lasts until the peel of the seed has burst.
The seed should be cleaned from the seedlings, neutralized in the manganese solution and stratified in the calcined sand. The soil should consist of two parts of humus, four parts of leafy ground, one part of turf and sand.
When breeding by division, it is important not to damage and be extremely careful with the root system.
Cuttings cut in summer with very young shoots. The stalk is cut to a length of 5 cm. It must have an internode.
Rooted in a two-layer substrate, in the lower layer of which sand is located, and in the upper layer - a composition of sod, sand, humus and leaf soil. The rooting process lasts 2-2.5 months.
Shrub practically can't stand hot temperatures.
The optimal range is from 18 to 25 degrees.
In winter, it is better to adhere to a temperature regime of up to 12 degrees, this will help ensure a rest period for the euonymus.
In winter, during the period of maximum operation of heating devices, the plant often sheds leaves.
Japanese euonymus loves scattered but bright light. It is quite normal to hit a small number of direct rays of the sun. Bright illumination like euonymus with variegated foliage.
Diseases and pests
Japanese euonymus is susceptible to damage. spider mites, flail, aphids, mealybug. If infection is detected by these pests, chemical spraying methods should be used.
The shrub practically does not undergo fungal infection.
In extremely bright light, the ends of the leaves may curl and dry. With an excess of moisture in the soil, Japanese Euonymus loses its lower leaves and ceases to develop.
Sheds leaves shrub also with increased dryness and high temperature.
Japanese euonymus is prone to dropping foliage as a response to any change in conditions of detention or improper care. Exactly because of this reason the bush loves peace and unchanged conditions.
Japanese euonymus is widely distributed both in Japan and China, and in European countries.
Use a plant as a decor of city streets, garden sites, verandahs and rooms.
Plant little susceptible to fungal diseasebut prone to pest damage.
Do not forget that the shrub is considered a poisonous plant not only for animals, but also for humans.
Care of euonymus
Japanese euonymus does not really need constant illumination, it grows in a darkened room, especially if the foliage of the plant is green, if the leaves are motley, then this plant needs more illumination, and it is not against bright sunlight too abused), natural light is enough, if this is not done, the leaves will lose their variegated and bright color.
It is enough for the plant to periodically clean the leaves under the shower (from dirt, dust). Additional moistening is not necessary (on hot days, you can spray it with boiled water).
Soil, transplanting and pruning
The plant is not fastidious to the composition of the soil, the best option would be the composition of: leaf and sod land, peat and sand. Plants are transplanted into large-capacity containers, young - annually, adults, 3-4 years old, 1 time in 2-4 years. Before transplanting the soil is well moistened, it is necessary to have drainage. The plant grows 15-25 cm per year. Also in the spring it is necessary to prune weak, dry shoots. To form a beautiful crown, shape the bush. Pruning stimulates the development of buds, the formation of new shoots.
In spring, during active growth and in summer, the flower must be fed 1-2 times per month, with complex mineral fertilizers for ornamental deciduous plants.
Related video: Japanese euonymus. From A to Z
Like many plants, Japanese spruce can be susceptible to such pests as: mealybug, aphid, shieldweed, spider mite. At the first signs, such as: yellowing, twisting, foliage, lethargy, the appearance of spider web, deformation of the leaf, immediately resort to processing plants with specialized chemical means, according to the instructions attached to them.
If you own this beautiful plant, you can truly become an artist, create something individual, your own unique masterpiece, give shape and appearance to a shrub, take care of it and get emotional and visual satisfaction from it.
Japanese euonymus: growing and care in room conditionsRod Eoskletov includes more than 200 species of beautiful evergreen shrubs and small trees. In nature, the euonymus can reach 5 meters. But at home, usually, the plant is pruned and has a more modest size.
Japanese euonymus - the most common type of euonymus for home cultivation. The leaves of this plant are smooth, leathery and oblong with notches along the edge of the leaf. Types of Japanese Euonymus differ in the size of leaves and their color. Euonymus looks the most attractive golden with yellow-green leaves and euonymus silver with white and green leaves. There are eosklety with green foliage, which also does not spoil the beauty of this plant. The flowers of Japanese Euonymus are greenish-white, the fruits are red, but in room conditions the euonymus practically does not bloom.
In addition to its attractive appearance, Japanese spindle tree is a useful plant for the house. It reduces the amount of germs in the air by 50%.
Care for euonymus at home
Japanese euonymus is the least demanding to care among Euonymus. The variegated forms of this plant need a sufficient amount of sunlight, they may even tolerate direct sunlight for some time, but the midday sun is still undesirable for them. The variegated beretlets do not like shady places very much - from this they lose their variegated color and turn green. But the usual green euonymus feels great in the shade. They do not need an abundance of light. Any form of Japanese Euonymus can be taken out to fresh air - on the balcony or in the garden.
The plant is very sensitive to high temperatures. Therefore, it is better to put it in a cool place where the temperature will be no higher than +23 degrees. To prevent foliage from falling off in winter, the euonymus needs a temperature of about +12 degrees.
Watering for euonymus in the summer period is extremely important - water it abundantly, especially if the plant is in a bright warm place. Between irrigation the land should not dry out much. Often the leaves of euonymus wither from insufficient watering. In the autumn, watering is gradually reduced, in winter it is rarely watered and only with water at room temperature. In winter, overflow should not be allowed, especially when the plant is in a place where the temperature is low. Overflow in this case can lead to decay of the root system. Top dressing is carried out from spring to autumn with mineral fertilizers once a month.
When caring for euonymus at home, do not forget about spraying. It is especially important to spray the plant in the summer and when the plant is in a dry room. Water for this procedure should be clean, since salts and impurities can remain on the leathery leaves of the plant. Euonymus also likes washing with a warm shower. It is most important to carry out shower procedures after the plant is brought into the room in order to wash off the dust and possible pests.
It is advisable to carry out transplantation of young Euonymus once a year, adult plants are transplanted as needed or once in 2-3 years. The soil for Euonymus should be light with a fairly large supply of nutrients. Thus, a mixture of 2 parts of sod land, 3 parts of leafy ground, 1 part of peat and 1 part of coarse sand is best suited. At the bottom it is necessary to fill a sufficient amount of drainage.
Japanese euonymus lends itself well to pruning and shaping. For more rapid and intensive growth of the plant, pruning should be carried out in the spring. Usually, when cutting the top of a branch, two or four young shoots appear from the point of the cut. In this way, plant crown density can be achieved. With the right approach to pruning, you can create a variety of plant shapes: balls, cones and other interesting shapes.
Reproduction of euonymus at home
The simplest breeding of Japanese spruce is reproduction by cuttings. Cherensate the plant in spring and summer. You can take as the middle cuttings, and the apical, as long as they are not stiff. Rooted usually in the soil or in water with stimulants of root formation, for example, by root. Euonymus rooted for quite a long time - about two months.
In addition to systematic watering, spraying and diffused light, nothing more is needed to care for the handle.
Pest and euonymus diseases
The most common pests of the euonymus are the spider mite, aphid, shieldweed. Treatment is carried out with insecticides. For prophylaxis against pests, the euonymus is washed with foam from laundry soap, the plant is left for an hour, and then thoroughly washed under a warm shower. It is important that after this leave the euonymus in the bathroom for a few hours.
The Japanese spruce variety is a shrub, an evergreen with dense fleshy leaves. Their color varies depending on the variety.
May be bright green without blotches, with white or yellowish stains or edging around the edge of the sheet.
At home, euonymus japonicus grows to a meter in height, and develops throughout the year with proper care, dying out for a period of rest in winter. Usually in late June and early July, blooms. Inflorescences are lush, umbrella-like, consisting of small flowers of greenish-yellow, white and red shades. In September, there are fruit-boxes.
Psevdolavr. Evergreen compact bush, with a lot of strong, erect stems. The leaves are wide, oval, with a rough yellowish border on the edge or interspersed with white and yellow, the main shade of the sheet is rich green, glossy.
Flowers are most often white. The plant is capricious to the conditions of detention, afraid of temperature changes. Dwarf euonymus. Plant with small, narrow, elongated in length up to 4 cm leaves. The leaf plate is bright on top, juicy-green, on the underside is gray-green, pale.
The edges of the leaves are slightly wrapped down. Blooms with small red flowers, usually collected in inflorescences in the form of an umbrella, less often - single. Euonymus Japanese microfilus - This is a decorative shrub with a variegated foliage. Yellow spots of irregular shape are scattered around on a green background. It blossoms with white loose inflorescences, when blossoming, becomes covered with bright boxes of fruits.
During flowering is covered with green-yellow small, but lush inflorescences, fruiting bright orange or pinkish boxes.
What to look for when buying
The first rule of purchase: It is necessary to acquire planting material in a nursery or flower shop, when buying from hands or on the market there is a chance to purchase low-quality seedlings or just a similar plant.
The second rule: it is preferable to take a plant with closed roots - this will allow you not to hurry with a transplant, give the plant time to adapt to the conditions of the room where it will be kept. When buying with an open root system, you need to immediately start planting. Rule Three: inspect the shrub, stalks and leaves should look healthy, free from stains, dryness and damage. If the roots are open, they should not be dry and soft.
Care and conditions for growing in the house
At home, the euonymus needs proper care, sudden changes in temperature or drafts, dry air or, on the contrary, excessive humidity will cause the plant to drop foliage.
It is better to keep home shrubs on or near the windowsill of the southern windows, the plant develops well with good lighting.
For varieties of variegated shades, direct light is better suited, an euonymus with a uniform color feels fine and with ambient lighting. Do not forget that direct sunlight can burn the foliage.
In winter, you need to take care of additional lighting, to preserve the decorative foliage lighting should be at least 12 hours a day.
In the summer season you need to provide the bush with a slightly increased air humidity; decorative fountains or a pallet with a wet filling will do just fine.
Spray the leaves and the air around, the fleshy leaves of euonymus absorb moisture well. In winter, when the room is cold, spraying is not necessary.
The procedure of pruning plant tolerates without whims. The shape of the crown can be given any, if desired. For the formation of the tree should be cut side shoots, exposing the lower part of the central trunk.
Pinching shoots will provide an incentive for the growth of new branches and will form a dense and lush crown plant.
Rejuvenating pruning involves the removal of old branches that grow thickly or drowning the growth of young twigs. If there are weak or damaged stems, they should be removed, as well as too long shoots.
When and how to transfer
Euonymus Japanese room easier to adapt after transplanting in adulthood. It is advisable not to touch the bush, which is not three years old. In the future, the procedure is necessary as it grows, every three to four years.
The soil is prepared from a mixture of peat, sand and sod land in equal parts. It is advisable to select a pot that is not deep, but larger in diameter, since the root system of the euonymus is superficial. It is better if the container is made of natural material, for example, from ceramics.
- Perform decontamination of the pot, drainage material and soil (pour boiling water over the pot, ignite the soil and drain).
- Lay a drainage layer about three centimeters, on top of a hill of soil.
- Carefully remove the plant from the old pot, try to save a clod of earth.
- Inspect the root processes, remove damaged or soft roots.
- On a moistened hill of soil in a new pot, place the bush and gradually fill it with a new mixture of soil.
To land evenly settled without leaving a hollow space, the pot should be shaken. At the end of the procedure, pour the pot and leave in partial shade, and when the bush takes root, move to the lighted place.
Type Japanese: description and main varieties
Under natural conditions, Japanese spruce can often be found mainly in the mixed or deciduous forests of Korea, China and Japan. The plant is a decorative evergreen shrub or tree that can reach 4-8 m in height.
Flowers are collected in umbrella inflorescences of 30 pieces.The colors are dominated by a combination of yellow and green. Flowering usually begins with the arrival of autumn and ends in mid-October.
The leaves of the shrub are quite dense, leathery, have a pointed shape and a beautiful dark green color with a bright border. The branches grow in a rapidly vertical direction (at a small angle of deflection from the trunk).
Japanese euonymus calmly suffers a lack of sunlight, respectively, will grow well in the shade, is not afraid of urban conditions (gas pollution and other "tests"). By the way, he is able to clean the air from germs by 50%.
Attention! Euonymus is a peculiar plant: it needs quality, and, most importantly, regular care, because if we neglect it, it will simply stop in its development. The increase in growth will occur only in the period of early spring.
The Japanese Euonymus is represented by several species, the most popular among them are the following (introductory photos are attached):
- Psevdolavr. On the territory of Russia is grown exclusively as a home plant. The variety is considered to be quite sensitive to temperature changes: at a temperature below +5 degrees, the plant will die.
- Dwarf. This evergreen shrub reaches no more than 1 m in height. Their edges are pointed, the color of the outer side is bright green, the lower one is gray.
- Microfillus Variegated variety. Reaches in height no more than 0,5 m. Leaves are painted in two colors: yellow and green. Flowers have a delicate white shade. After the end of the flowering period, very beautiful seed pods are formed on the plant.
Planting a plant
Euonymus is not particularly picky about the composition of the soil; therefore, a classical mixture of peat, turf, leaf soil and humus is quite suitable for its planting (the ratio of all components should be the same, only turf 2 times more than the others).
Planting a young tree is carried out exclusively in wet soil. At first, it is desirable to provide young high-quality bottom heated bushes. It is also important to maintain optimal soil moisture and periodically spray the leaves.
Subtleties of care
As mentioned earlier, the Euonymus needs constant and high-quality care, which will allow achieving luxurious flowering. So, care for euonymus is represented by a complex of the following procedures:
- Temperature and light conditions. Euonymus does not need long-term and bright illumination: a small amount of shadow will be sufficient for it. But this does not apply to varieties that have a bright color of leaves. Such plants should provide sufficient light. The optimum temperature regime is about +25 degrees in summer and no less than +12 degrees in winter. If the temperature is not followed, the euonymus will die.
- Humidity level The plant does not need much moisture, but from time to time it is desirable to clean its leaves under the stream of the soul. Water should be warm or room temperature.
- Watering. It is necessary to water a tree often, but moderately. Remember a simple rule: the soil should not completely dry out in the period between waterings. In the autumn, the number of waterings should be reduced, and in winter - to minimize. To moisten the soil, use exclusively separated water.
- Feeding. In spring and summer, it is necessary to feed the euonymus with high-quality complex fertilizers (for deciduous plants) with a frequency of about 1-2 times per month.
- Trimming and transplanting. It is desirable to replant the euonymus preferably annually or as needed (usually 1 time in 2-3 years). The soil for transplantation should be necessarily light and very nutritious. In spring, the plant should be cut: the shape of the apex is usually adjusted. Thus, you can create a bush of incredible shapes.
- Fight against diseases and pests. Euonymus is rarely sick, so any changes in its appearance often indicate non-compliance with the conditions for growing ornamental shrubs (frequent watering, lack of light or its excess, etc.).
That's all the subtleties that you need to know about growing Japanese spruce in the home, so that your efforts yield their “fruits”. Good luck!
Description and biological featuresJapanese euonymus is an evergreen shrub. The leaves of the plant are dense, their color can be varied and depends on the variety: the leaves can be solid green and bright, and may have white or yellowish stains. In the shade, the foliage acquires a blue-green color, and in the bright sun - pink-green.
At home, the euonymus grows to a height of 1 meter. The plant begins to bloom in June - July, and in winter it begins a period of rest.
The inflorescences of Euonymus are magnificent, have the shape of umbrellas. Each consists of small flowers of various colors - white, red, greenish-yellow. In early autumn, the plant forms a fruit-box.
These fruits are dangerous to human health and life. Eating them even in small quantities causes stomach upset, heart palpitations and weakness. When eating more than 30−35 fruits may be fatal. If small children or animals live in the house, it is better to remove the plant higher.
Selection of planting materialTo avoid misunderstandings, it is better to buy seedlings in specialized nurseries or stores.
It is better to choose a plant with closed roots. In this case, the gardener will have the opportunity to allow the plant to adapt to new conditions and not to rush to transplant. If the seedlings open roots, it must immediately be placed in the ground.
When buying planting material, you need to inspect it and evaluate the quality. Leaves should have a fresh healthy look. On the shoot and roots should not be damaged, dry areas, rot. To choose the seedlings of euonymus need to be responsible. Otherwise, there is a risk to buy low-quality material or even another plant that looks like a Japanese eucalyptus.
Planting and care in the gardenThis culture is not too pretentious to the place of planting, so you can grow it in an open lit area or in the shade. However, the plant will best feel in places with a "lace" shadow.
The soil in the area where eosklet grows should be regularly moistened. Under drought conditions, the leaves will begin to dry and curl. However, with an excess of moisture the roots will be soaked and the plant will die. It is advisable to choose a neutral or alkaline soil mixed with sand.
It is possible to plant shrubs in open ground during the whole warm season. Mandatory requirement - cool weather and well-moistened soil.
The sequence of actions when landing in open ground is as follows:
- In the soil is a recess, the diameter of which is twice the size of the roots of the seedling.
- At the bottom of the pit lay a layer of drainage. This may be a pebble, broken brick or expanded clay.
- On top of the drainage layer is humus or compost.
- A small shrub is planted in the pit. The soil near the root is slightly compacted.
In the early days, the plant needs regular watering.
You can make homes dwarf shrubs or grow bonsai. If we talk about such a plant as Japanese spindle tree, care at home will not cause much difficulty:
- Landing will require a container. A drainage layer is laid at the bottom. Top layer of soil is poured, which consists of 3 parts of turf, 2 parts of peat and 1 part of river sand.
- When growing at home, the plant will need bright light. The best thing to put the container on the south window sill. If the plant has motley leaves, it is better to place it where direct sunlight falls. However, care must be taken that the plant does not receive sunburn. For varieties with monotonous green leaves more dull diffused lighting is more suitable.
- In winter, Japanese euonymus will need an additional source of lighting. The length of daylight for the shrub should be at least 12 hours.
- It is necessary to water the euonymus as the soil dries - the plant is very moisture-loving. However, care must be taken to avoid stagnation in the roots. In summer and spring, the plant needs more frequent watering, and in winter it can be reduced. Before irrigation, water should be allowed to settle. Melt or rain water is also suitable. In extreme heat, you can spray the leaves of the bush from the spray gun or rinse under the shower. In winter, it is enough to wipe the leaves with a damp cloth.
- Top dressing can be done once a week after watering. You can buy in the store fertilizer for deciduous ornamental shrubs. During the rest period, the plant is fed to stop.
- In the summer it will be very useful to take the room eosklet to the balcony or to the garden. In this case, the bush should not be in the drafts. The optimum temperature for summer time will be from +18 to 23 ° C. In strong heat, the air in the room can be slightly humidified. For this purpose, a wet sand pan, a wide basin of water or a decorative fountain is well suited.
- In winter, a period of rest. At this time, the plant will be comfortable at a temperature of + 10−15 degrees. You can place the container on a cool glazed balcony or veranda. It is not recommended to leave a pot with a plant near heating appliances.
Pruning and transplanting plants
Up to about 4 years old, the shrub needs to be replanted annually into a new pot. Older shrubs need only one transplant in 2−3 years.
To rejuvenate the shrub and form a crown, it must be cut and pinned regularly. It is best to cut the plant in the spring, it will accelerate its growth. When pruning the top of the shoot, several young twigs grow from this point. Be sure to remove damaged leaves and shoots, as well as old branches. Crown can be given a variety of forms - spherical, conical, etc. To make a tree, cut side shoots and release the lower part of the trunk. To obtain a beautiful, dense crown, pinch the tips of the shoots.
Euonymus in landscape designThis ornamental shrub can be grown not only in a house or apartment. With it, you can create a curb or a hedge, and you can combine several varieties of this shrub and create a beautiful landscape composition.
As a background for brighter plants, varieties of euonymus with green monophonic foliage are used. In addition, garden figures can be cut out of an older tree. Creeping varieties will help decorate alpine hills and areas near the stone walls.
Caring for euonymus on the garden plot is timely watering and fertilizing. It is very important to ensure that the soil does not dry out, but at the same time avoid stagnant moisture in the roots.
In spring, nitrogen-rich fertilizing is applied to the soil. In summer you can fertilize the soil with mineral mixtures with potassium and magnesium. In the autumn it will be useful to feed the shrub with lime or ash, this is done under the digging.
So that the bushes of euonymus do not grow in breadth and remain compact, gently pinch the tips of the shoots. If this is not done, the bushes will take root with branches close to the ground. As a result, the plant will look loose and shapeless.
Young plants are sheltered for the winter; it is not required for mature shrubs. You can grind the soil for the winter with peat, leaves or dead sawdust.
If you properly care for shrubs, it grows rapidly and intensively. During the season one can observe several growth waves, which are replaced by periods of rest.
Diseases of room euonymus
Most often, houseplants are susceptible to infection with spider mites, mealy worms, aphids and shields. Signs of infection are changes in the appearance of the bushes:
- The appearance on the leaves and stalks of brown or yellowish spots.
- Change the shape of the leaf plates.
- Twisting and dropping foliage.
- With the defeat of the scarlet on the leaves are white bumps.
- A spider mite forms a thin spider web on a bush.
Remove from the bush aphids or shield can be using a sponge and soapy water. Then the plant is treated with the drug Biotlin. At the end of treatment, the plant is rinsed under the shower.
The mealybug is removed from the plant manually, after which it is possible to carry out the treatment with Phytoverm or Confilor.
A common disease of euonymus is root rot. External manifestations of this disease can be sluggish and soft stems or leaves. To save the plant, it is necessary to completely replace the soil, remove the damaged areas of the roots, sprinkling the cut sites with crushed coal. Capacity and drainage should also be treated for preventive purposes.
Another common fungal disease is shoot rot. To get rid of the misfortune, you need to cut off the diseased shoots and process the wounds with crushed charcoal, as well as fungicidal agent. If the plant is totally affected, it will not be possible to save it. In this case, the bush is destroyed completely, so as not to infect neighboring plants. Mealy dew looks like a whitish coating on the surface of leaves and stems. The provoking factor of the disease is high humidity or stagnant air. Cope with the problem will help the drug Fitosporin-M.
With the preventive purpose it is recommended to treat the bush with fungicides in the season of prolonged rains and cold.