The grape variety Zest is attractive, first of all, for its original appearance and delicious taste. However, in the cultivation and care of it is very difficult.
To get the first harvest you need to spend a lot of effort and time. Beginner gardeners to grow this variety on the site is quite difficult. But if you wish - it is quite possible.
What type does it belong to?
Grapes Raisin is an early ripe table grape of red grapes. Its distinctive features are strongly elongated shape and dark red color of the berries. The variety is not frost resistant and is grown only in the southern regions or in greenhouses.
Crimson, Gala and Zabava also belong to early-season table varieties.
Grapes Zest: variety description
Raisin - a tall variety. Vine ripens well over almost the entire length. When pruning in autumn, you should leave no more than 40-45 buds on a bush. Vine is better to prune 10-11 buds.
Isabella, Witches Fingers and Black Delight are also distinguished by their tall bushes.
Flowers are female and require pollination. Pollinators must grow close by: any early grape variety with a male type of flower. Polished Zest is good enough.
Small clusters, weighing up to 500 grams, medium loose, not prone to pea. On one shoot you need to leave only one bunch.
Photo grapes "Raisin":
The variety Zest at the Ukrainian Grape Institute “Magarach” is relatively recent. It was obtained by crossing Chaush and Cardinal varieties, and has the second name XVII-241.
The highlight of this variety is named by chance. Its berries have an amazing property: if you do not remove them from the bush for a long time, then they do not overripe, do not rot, but wither and turn into raisins right on the vine.
This variety has been zoned in Moldova, Ukraine and in the south of Russia. It is recommended to grow only in a warm climate and with a mandatory shelter for the winter.
Zest can not boast of high yield and winter hardiness. Can withstand a drop in t to -12-18С. This variety begins to yield late, 3-4 years after planting, and only with proper care.
Before sheltering for the winter at the bush, it is desirable to leave the maximum number of shoots. Over time, the plant will gain enough strength and begin to bear fruit.
The first few years the harvest will be quite small, about 2-3 kg per bush. Over time, it can increase to 7-8 kg. It is important to competently care for this variety and in time to carry out preventive treatment against diseases and pests.
If you are looking for a high-yielding variety, pay attention to the Gift of the Magarach, the Anniversary of the Kherson Summer Resident and the Memory of Dombkovska.
Diseases and pests
Another feature of the Raisin is its susceptibility to disease. She is often amazed:
Can be attacked by pests:
- grape mite,
- spider mite,
Mildew This variety is one of the first to be affected.
If the infection has occurred, then the affected shoots and leaves are removed and sprayed with fungicides. This is the most common and dangerous disease for grapes. It can completely destroy not only the harvest, but the entire vineyard.
Bacterial cancer manifested in places of damage to the vine or shoots in the form of a large bubble-like growth. It occurs from an infection brought into the wound. Over time, all the shoots above this growth simply die off, which can lead to the death of the plant.
At the initial stage of the disease, the growth can be cut off and the wound treated with a special preparation. If the disease is already running, you will have to completely remove and burn the bush. Planting grapes on this site is possible only after 3 years.
Gray rot also found on Zest often. It affects the inflorescences and berries. In the fight against it is good to use spraying soda solution. The affected berries immediately destroy.
Oidium appears on this grade at least mildew. In this case, timely treatment of the vineyard with a powder or with an aqueous solution of sulfur will help. It can be carried out both for treatment and for the prevention of oidium.
Anthracnose appears as dark spots on the leaves. Over time, the spots appear on the shoots and berries and, growing, can destroy the whole bush. To avoid this unpleasant disease, it is necessary to fertilize the vineyard regularly, process the leaves with a solution of manganese or Bordeaux mixture and moisturize the soil in time.
Escoriosis or black spotting manifests itself as black spots on the shoots and leaves. It is also quite a dangerous disease that can destroy the vineyard. All affected parts of the bush are removed, and then they are treated with special preparations.
Pests do a zest no less harm than disease. Grape and spider mites are easy to detect at an early stage, due to the appearance of tubercles and dark points on the leaves. To fight used treatment acaricidal drugs. As a prevention, you can use spraying infusions of dandelion or garlic.
Phylloxera occurs less frequently. When the root phylloxera appears, treatment will not help. The whole bush is cut down and burned. Sheet phylloxera can be disposed of by treating the vineyard with certain preparations.
The grape variety Zest has not only exceptional taste, but also very beautiful in appearance. However, in order to fully enjoy all the virtues of this variety, you need to put a lot of effort.
Among the beautiful varieties should pay attention to Romeo, Chocolate or Tayfi.
The raisin grape is a red table look. Ripens early enough. Berry culture is considered to be a hybrid of the Chaush and Cardinal varieties. The “zest” by the Ukrainian specialists at the institute of viticulture called “Magarach” was derived. The variety got its name because of its special qualities. Berry Clusters this culture hangs on shrubs for a long time, and it doesn’t spoil at all, even when overripe. As a result of the impact of natural factors in time, the uncollected harvest of these grapes turns into raisins.
Mature variety shrubs are considered tall. Despite the fact that the vine mostly matures along its entire length, pruning of grapes is carried out in the autumn season by about 11 buds. In order to pollinate the female inflorescences of the species, it is necessary to plant other grape varieties in close proximity, in which flowers are of a male type.
Zoned view of Ukraine, in the southern regions of Russia, in Moldova. Grow a variety only in warm climates, subject to mandatory shelter of shrubs for the winter.
Qualitative characteristics of bunches of grapes "highlight"
One of the main advantages that is worth noting in the description of this variety is the beautiful appearance of the grapes (photo). Clusters of the species are quite large., weighty, weighing from 400 to 600 g. The density is average. Each berry weighs from 10 to 14 grams. The form is elongated. Berries grow even, one size. The color of the grapes - it is dark, rich burgundy, pink shades. The degree of filling the grapes with berries is considered average. The variety is early ripe, the berries ripen for about 110 days.
The skin of grapes is dense, but chews well, and the pulp is similar in taste to marmalade. When the grapes are fully ripe, the "highlight", as can be seen in many photos, gets a finger-like shape 5 cm long. The "highlight" taste is quite sweet. Juice from this grape variety characterized by low acidity, medium sugar content (not more than 18%).
Description of the advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Grape "grapes"besides extraordinary taste and juicy berries, it has a number of significant varietal advantages. These include:
- Excellent presentation of the harvest in the form of large clusters.
- Weight of ripe grape brushes.
- Good long transportation.
- The presence in the berries of a large amount of vitamins, organic acids.
- With proper care there is a high probability of increasing the yield of the variety.
The disadvantages of this variety are associated with the capriciousness of the grapes. Planting shrubs should be carried out only in high-quality soil, and in the process of growing - regularly feed potassium nutrients. Cultivation on poor soils leads to short stature of shrubs, the presence of foliage of very small size. The grapes have a rather weak immunity, therefore regular prevention of fungal diseases is necessary.
It is worth noting that summer residents will be able to harvest the first significant crop only in the second or even third year after planting. It is necessary to remember about the overgrowth of a variety of grapevine, to conduct regular pruning to obtain a better crop.
How to plant grapes "highlight" on the dacha
According to experienced growers, the variety is considered to be very thermophilic, crops also need a lot of light. Place for landing they are chosen from the south side, at a distance of about half a meter from the walls and various buildings, so that the root system grows well and does not suffer damage. Soil for excellent growth of shrubs should be such that at a depth of 30-40 cm there is a fertile layer. Planting begin only under the condition that the soil warms up to at least 10 degrees Celsius.
Pits for shrubs do the size of 60 cm. The plots are prepared in the fall. At the bottom of the pits fall out broken brick crumb thickness up to 20 cm, add a mixture of fertile soil and sand, gravel with compost, fertilizer. Since the grapes are vigorous, provide a distance between crops of at least two meters. For an ordinary landing dig a trench, the depth and width of which make 60 cm.
Lime (approximately 0.8 kg), simple superphosphate (1 kg each), and wood ash (2 kg each) are added per meter of the excavated trench. Along the edges of the dimples lay scraps of pipeswhich length makes 0,5 m. Through such self-made wells watering is conveniently carried out, various top dressing.
Highlight grapes are very responsive to phosphate and potash nutrients. This feeding is done every three years, you must add 0.5 kg of substances per 1 square. meter.
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied annually, these supplements are made in early spring, also carried out immediately in the period after the grapes have faded. Usually add a few grams nutrient per 1 square. meter.
The best nutrient is considered to be the raisin variety manure. Bring it once every three years at 7 kg per 1 square. meter. Favorable time for such feeding is read autumn.
Recommendations for quality care for the variety
In order to get a good harvest from such a whimsical variety as the "highlight", you need to follow a number of tips based on feedback from professionals and amateur gardeners:
- After planting grape crops, a support must be put, with the help of which the vine will grow properly and will develop perfectly. In the first year, pruning of grapes is not carried out, it is necessary that the planting is well rooted, wintered.
- The variety is demanding to the quality of the soil, so regular feeding of crops is a must. The soil around the plants must be mulched.
- It takes into account the type of flowers during planting. Next to the grapes, the early ripe type of grapes, which has the male type of pollinator flowers, should grow.
- For a stable crop, the optimal load on a grape bush should be from 40 to 45 holes.
- As a preventive measure, it is recommended to spray bushes with blue vitriol solution three times a season, use fungicidal preparations for treatment.
- In winter, the bushes cover, while leaving the maximum allowable number of shoots.
Prevention of grape diseases "highlight"
- To prevent defeat grapes mildew, bushes are treated 3 times per season Bordeaux liquid. As a preventive measure, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied, and the soil around the crops is mulched. With already affected shoots and leaves, the damaged areas are removed and then sprayed with fungicides.
- Spraying soda solution well help cope with gray mold. Sulfur powder or a solution of this substance shrubs treated for the prevention of oidium. Regular watering, foliage treatment with manganese solution or Bordeaux mixture, fertilization is recommended as anthracnose prophylaxis - the formation of spots on vines.
- Lesion prevention spider mite is considered the use of sprays garlic or dandelion infusions.
Reviews of professional winegrowers and gardeners-beginners gardeners
On our garden plot "highlight" well caught on. With a double spraying (often simply does not work because of employment) is not sick. The growth power of shrubs is very high. Weight brushes - from 500 to 600 g. Yield, of course, lower when compared with other varieties, but this is offset by the taste and high cost of varietal berries "raisins". In addition, the bushes are still young, so with proper care, we will try to increase the degree of fruiting.
Without the variety "highlight" it is difficult to imagine your own vineyard. By taste and appearance - this is a common favorite. When you take the crop to the market, the grapes are bought up instantly.
The variety is beautiful. The impression was that the bush should be given more space, at least 3.5 meters on the trellis, and maybe more, and then there will be a good harvest.
At the very beginning of the cultivation of grapes "zest" does not give a big harvest. To improve it, you need proper care, prevention of disease. Since the variety is not frost-resistant, it is better to cover shrubs for the winter period, leaving the maximum number of shoots on the vine.
For novice gardeners and gardeners worth noting that seedlings varieties "highlight" will bear fruit only about the third year after planting. And only with proper care, shrubs in a few more years will bear much more fruit.
The grapes "raisin" is considered very useful, especially in the treatment of bronchial asthma, cardiovascular system, fatigue or headache. But do not eat berries with diabetes, obesity, impaired kidney function, ulcers.
"Raisin" is very thermophilic, it is often grown in greenhouses. Painstaking care and a small for the first time yield of the variety is compensated by appetizing clusters in appearance and great taste.
Instability to disease will soon cease to be a serious shortcoming and alarming winegrowers. Today, many modern and effective fungicides are produced (Topaz, Scor, Ridomil, Arceride, HOM, etc.), and old ones, for example, Bordeaux liquid (1% for leaves), also help well. The raisin hurts only those growers who forget to carry out preventive treatments. Usually, any grapes are sprayed twice: on the blossomed leaves and again in 10-14 days.
Bordeaux mixture - an old and effective drug for a whole complex of fungal diseases
It is unlikely that after a qualitative spraying of a proven fungicide, there will appear signs of disease on the bushes, but if this has happened, then treat it a third time before flowering or immediately after it. Sick pour and shoots cut and burn. The owners of the Raisin tell that in dry years this variety can not be processed at all, it does not get sick.
I recommend using only proven fungicides and strictly follow the instructions. Today in the shops you can find a lot of new drugs with unfamiliar names. But for such a delicate grape as Zest, I would not buy them and use them. Itself I process the site with all known means which I have already named in the article.
Often you have to meet reviews that the grapes are processed, but the disease remained, ready to say goodbye to this variety. Typically, these people are at a dead end when they are asked: what and how they processed. There are no answers, or they are unintelligible, it can be understood that the gardener does not even see the difference between a fungicide and an insecticide.
In the autumn, when the leaves are dry, be sure to remove the vines from the trellis and lay it on the ground. To protect against frost, cover with reeds, hay, spruce branches or other breathing materials. Many gardeners cover grapes with sacking, and sprinkle them on top of them. And in order to prevent moisture from getting inside the shelter, the shoots are not rotted and not co-erect, build from above a similarity of a tunnel or a hut made of film, roofing material, slate, etc.
Harvesting and Harvesting
The highlight - table grapes, will replenish your diet with vitamins and trace elements contained in fresh berries. Nutritional value of this variety: 16–18% of sugars and 4–5 g / dm³ of organic acids.
Zest - a table grape variety, created for fresh consumption
Grapes can be stored fresh in the attic or in the basement at a temperature not exceeding +4 ⁰C, as well as freeze and dry. However, there are seeds inside the fruit, so for the preparation of raisins it is better to choose other varieties. If you grow a highlight for the market or plan to transport and store it, cut the clusters, trying not to damage the wax on the berries.