Simple and accessible about the cultivation of garden and garden plants, grapesRabbit feeding hygiene is an important link in the system of various preventive measures. The most important value is the hygiene of feeding little rabbits.
Rabbit food should be benign and dry. Sour, mildew, stained, dirty with impurities, animals should not be given in any way. Raw vegetables should be well cleaned from dirt, thoroughly washed and give the animals cut into small pieces. Frozen root vegetables can be fed to rabbits only after thawing. It is necessary to water the rabbits only with quality water.
The transition from feeding mother's milk to everyday food is very important. The transition must be smooth. Young animals are first given a light, gentle feed (potatoes, bran, milk, crushed grain). In the future, the dacha of these feeds is increased and transferred to common feeds.
Feed must be checked for contamination by foreign substances that may harm the rabbit. These are sand, nails, pieces of wire, earth, and more.
Of great concern are feeds that are improperly stored. When fed, there is a danger for rabbits, especially if toxic fungi (Fusarium aspergillosis) and other toxic microflora have formed in the feed.
Very dangerous for rabbits feed, affected by botulism. Fish or meat and bone meal can be a source of infectious diseases such as salmonellosis, colibacillosis.
Rabbit food can be dangerous for a variety of reasons. Therefore, a good owner should observe the feeding hygiene of rabbits: look very carefully at the feed before feeding, follow all the instructions for their processing and preparation, and know how to take a sample of the feed for laboratory research.
When feeding it is necessary to take care, first of all, about the nutritional value and biological value of feed, their digestibility, to feed the feed taking into account different biological periods of the rabbit's life (pregnancy, growth period, etc.).
In the system of feeding hygiene, the main thing should be the rule: to feed the rabbits nutritionally and appetizing, but also not to harm them.
Rabbit Hygiene (Wool Cleaning)
Rabbits need to be cleaned regularly. This makes it possible to clean the coat of dirt, dead hair, external parasites, etc.
For cleaning rabbits use a comb (wooden) or a stiff brush.
When moulting, it is very important to clean the rabbits, as they lick the wool during this period. This can lead to the death of the animal.
Cleaning rabbits produced from ears to tail.
The owner of the rabbits must observe personal hygiene. This is very important in the prevention of animal diseases. When servicing rabbits, the owner must have a bathrobe. Maintenance tools once a week should be disinfected. It is advisable to have a dekovrik at the entrance to the room.
After each maintenance, the rabbits must be washed and disinfected. To do this, use a solution of potassium permanganate (1: 2000).
Sanitary day in the room where the rabbits are held, spend in a dressing gown, boots, mittens.
In the case of poor health, fever should stop working with rabbits and contact a medical professional.
Owners who decide to breed rabbits, it is desirable to pass a physical examination.
Rabbit Content Hygiene
Rabbit hygiene is of great importance in the prevention of disease. Keep rabbits in clean and dry cages.
Indoors should not be drafts, in the summer - suffocation from heat.
It is recommended to contain rabbits in cages by sex and age. Males contain one by one, uterus for 2-3 heads. Young animals are kept in an open-air cage of 12-20 heads.
The rabbit does not know how to breathe through the mouth, so care should be taken to ensure that the food is not dusty. The dust gets on the mucous membrane and swells, so that the rabbit may suffocate. This circumstance should take the leading place in the system of hygiene and keeping of rabbits.
It is also important that when dealing with rabbits the smell of animal, tobacco, alcohol, odorous cologne, etc. should not come from the owner. Rabbits are very sensitive to foreign odors and respond to them immediately with stress (growth slows down, miscarriages are provoked).
Content in the open air, as practice shows, has a beneficial effect on the development of rabbits. Clean air, good feeding and maintenance make it possible to get very high productivity.
By the way, animal hygiene in the open air began to be introduced into animal husbandry in the eighties of the last century.
Today, many rabbit owners successfully breed them in the fresh air.
And one more tip: the cages for rabbits, both outdoors and indoors, should be beautiful and equipped with love. The grid should pick one type. Painting should also be attractive.
Whatever it was, but beautifully furnished rabbit housing pleases rabbits and caresses the owner's look.
The outer-cell system for keeping fur-bearing animals is the direct predecessor of the shed. In small cages, animals were actively divorced many decades ago, but even today such systems are no less popular.
Often they are used for breeding rabbits in small livestock farms or private backyards. Such designs are made of wood or metal.
External cells are of two types:
- individual - are used to keep individuals,
- group - used for the mass rearing of rabbits, in most cases provide for the resettlement of animals by gender, but sometimes males and females are kept together.
Cells often consist of several compartments. Their design includes a breeding area, a drinking bowl and a feeder for the main feed, separated by a mesh barrier, as well as a feeder for roughage - it is mounted on the outside of the cage and has a small outlet for collecting food. The entire structure is installed on a height of 1 m from the level of the soil permanently, but in some cases removable cells are provided.
Such constructions are quite effective, as they protect animals from all kinds of adverse environmental factors. Strong walls protect animals from excessive drafts and wind, while achieving good ventilation and a natural moisture regime, which is important enough to maintain the general health of animals.
The temperature in the outer cells in the cold season is 2–3 ° C higher than in the open air, and 2–3 ° C lower in the summer. This helps to maintain optimal microclimate indicators at almost any time of the year, as well as to protect animals from direct sunlight. The cages also provide the animals with a natural day length, which helps to adjust to their mode and rabbit host.
Caring for this design requires daily:
- Each animal must be provided with an optimal amount of feed and drinking water.
- You also need to daily eliminate feces and all sorts of food residues.
- In winter, the cells are warmed with hay or straw, so animals are often kept on the street all year round. In the conditions of the northern climate, the structures are transferred to heated premises.
- Before okolom conduct mandatory sterilization of the cell with a 4% formalin solution or 3% solution of blue vitriol. During this, the animals are transplanted into temporary premises.
Despite its simplicity, the outer-cell system makes it possible for animals to provide individual care. In this case, it is possible to carry out thorough breeding work, as well as to obtain high-quality animal products. That is why such constructions are often used on large farms for breeding breeds.
Closed rabbitries are the most optimal designs for active breeding of fur-bearing animals. Only they give the opportunity to fully protect the animal from adverse environmental conditions. Such constructions are made of metal or reinforced concrete. Indoors animals can be kept both in individual cages, and in small groups behind the fence. Such constructions are used mainly by large-scale farms for mass breeding of rabbits, but sometimes they can also be seen in private rabbit breeders.
Indoors it is possible to create ideal conditions for the growth and reproduction of rabbits. First of all, these are average daily temperatures of about + 12–18 ° C and relative humidity of about 60–70%, as well as the absence of drafts, sudden changes in temperature and direct solar radiation.
Indoor lighting is often artificial, so for rabbits an optimal daylight mode is created (8–10 hours). Enclosed spaces are often equipped with artificial heating, ventilation, individual water and feed supply systems, as well as drainage for faeces. In the absence of their care of the premises is carried out manually. For this:
- It should be at least 1 time a day to fill the feeders, as well as to replace drinking water.
- During the off-season, indoor humidity control is required using air vents or an automatic system.
- The removal of feces is carried out daily. For this purpose, a shovel and a special scraper carry out a thorough cleaning of manure drains. If the system does not provide sewage, feces should be removed 2 times a day, morning and evening.
- Before the appearance of young stock the premises are disinfected. For this, the rabbitrel is thoroughly cleaned of any excrement and other residues, and then treated with 4% formalin solution or 3% copper sulfate solution. Whenever possible, non-combustible objects of the room, as well as walls and the floor are burned with a direct flame.
Equipment and inventory
For the care of rabbits often used a standard set of equipment and inventory, so you can buy it in almost any hardware store. The main thing is to pay attention to its quality, since poor-quality products can cause injuries to the animal and quite serious losses.
The cage is often made of wood, plywood or metal, or a combination of these materials. The most optimal are metal structures made of a durable steel frame and metal mesh.
They are more resistant to a variety of aggressive substances and high humidity than wood. If they are not available, cells made of a wooden frame lined with metal mesh can be used. They take care of the cage every day, but in the absence of free time, the number of cleanings is reduced to 1 in 2–3 days. During cleaning for the convenience of animals transplanted into temporary houses. At this time, feces, old litter and other contaminants are removed from the cell. General cleaning is carried out 1 time per month. First, the cleaning is carried out mechanically, using brushes, scrapers and small blades or spatulas. After that, its outer and inner parts are washed with soapy water.
Before the appearance of young stock, the cage is disinfected with the above solutions, and also burned, if possible. During infectious diseases, the cell is disinfected unplanned: during the active development of the disease and after complete convalescence of the animals.
On the market there are many varieties of feeders for rabbits, among them there are both universal and specific models. Most often in the cells equip 2 types of containers for food, nursery and cup type. Bowl feeders have the form of a small deep vessel in which grain or succulent food is poured.
Most often, such models are made of metal or plastic. Predatory feeders are mounted outside the cage near the specially equipped opening, they poured dry grass or hay. Such feeders are made of wood or thin sheet metal.
The most preferred when the content of rabbits are considered universal tanks for feed. These are so-called flutes or bunker models. In their form, they resemble a gutter and are made of thin sheet metal. Such feeders are suitable for any kind of feed. Feeders require minimal maintenance. Most farmers clean them every time they change feed, but for convenience, this procedure can be done 2-3 times a week. Clean the feeders from the remnants with special brushes and spatulas, after which they are thoroughly rinsed under running water. Once a month, feed containers are subjected to general cleaning and sterilization (along with the entire cage).
Drinkers for rabbits are vacuum and nipple. Vacuum containers are small open pan containers with a tank immersed in them. After the rabbit drinks water, there is a pressure difference between the tank and the tank, due to which the cup is refilled with water. Nipple are a sealed reservoir from which the tube with the nipple at the end departs. After pressing the nipple, the tube opens and water flows out slowly. A nipple drinker is preferable, since such containers are more hygienic.
Care of the drinker is not difficult:
- Water is changed daily in it - it helps to avoid the development of pathogenic bacteria in the tank.
- After removing the dirty water, the drinker must be rinsed under clean running water to avoid gastrointestinal upset in rabbits.
- 1–2 times a month, the drinker is cleaned with soap solutions and disinfected with the above means.
Nest boxes in the rabbit are set 3-5 days before the estimated date of birth of the offspring. They are made of plywood or polished wooden planks, the flooring of straw is laid on the bottom of the box. Often the breeding box does not require special attention, since the rabbit is able to provide her offspring with the necessary care. The only nest care measure is to replace the dirty litter periodically (once a week). After the cubs become independent (5–8 weeks after birth), the nest box is dismantled.
Feed preparation facilities
Preliminary preparation of feed is carried out with the help of various secateurs. With their help, it is possible to grind any food, including various root crops and herbs. They represent a conveyor on which rotating elements with knives are mounted.
When the conveyor moves under the influence of knives, the feed is crushed and then released into the storage tank. Today there are automatic and mechanical models. Mechanical are more often used by small farms, since at low cost they allow to get high-quality ground feed. Automatic pruners of various capacities are used on large or medium-sized farms. Such devices are much more expensive than mechanical ones, however, they can very quickly provide a large number of rabbits with crushed feed.
The most common care for such devices is to clean the remnants of food every day. Automatic models are regularly checked for serviceability, at least 1 time per month. Periodically, the secateurs are disinfected (1 time per month) in order to avoid the development of infectious ailments in the rabbit.
In most cases, all sorts of rabbit breeds do not require the care of their coat. These animals are sensitive to their appearance and are able to care for their own cleanliness and the condition of the upper integument. Therefore, these animals are bathed in exceptional cases, after excessive contamination. Use for this purpose specially developed shampoos for animals. If necessary, also combing rabbits. Do this with brushes and hairbrushes for the fur of fur animals, and only in the case of excessively active molting.
The norms of the content at the age and rearing of the young
Around a rabbit lasts for 10-25 minutes. At this time, she needs to provide conditions for the successful completion of the process. First of all, it is comfort, peace, the absence of sharp smells and loud sounds, as well as gloomy, diffused light. Immediately after birth, the offspring must be checked for all sorts of pathologies and viability. For this rabbit is lured out of the nest and moved to a separate cage. The rabbit should also be examined, especially after the first birth, which are often difficult for the young to carry. Further examination of the newborn young is carried out daily, this will help save the weak cubs from death.
The optimal condition for the successful development of a baby rabbit is an average temperature of about + 38 ° C. Зачастую тепла матери достаточно для обеспечения потомства необходимым микроклиматом, но если роды проходят в зимнее время, крольчатник следует обязательно оснастить дополнительным источником тепла либо установить в клетке инфракрасный обогреватель.
Newborn offspring is highly susceptible to stress, so the nest box with the cage should be installed in a quiet and protected from excessive noise and sharp odors place. For the first 14–20 days, the rabbit is exclusively involved in raising the offspring, so she must provide an enhanced vitamin diet. Approximately at 2 weeks her lactation decreases, therefore at this moment the young growth tries adult food for the first time: for this, the cage is settled with a separate feeder for small rabbits. Their first food is finely chopped vegetables, fruits and greens.
20–25 days after birth, rabbits are ready for consumption of dry and concentrated feed, which should also be provided with a feeding trough. Approximately 1–1.5 months after birth, the rabbit ends in lactation - from this moment the rabbits become adults, so they are separated into separate cages. In the future, young animals are cared for as well as mature individuals.
Personal hygiene at work
The main recommendations for personal hygiene when working in the rabbit:
- personnel are allowed to work with animals without any infectious diseases transmitted from person to animal,
- All work should be carried out in special equipment, including a clean, replaceable top coat (robe), as well as clean rubber boots and work gloves,
- before working with animals to use the perfume is prohibited,
- workers are not allowed to animals with alcoholic or narcotic intoxication,
- it is forbidden to smoke, drink and eat during the rabbit farm
- after work, hands, as well as open areas of the body should be thoroughly cleaned with soapy water,
- If among animals there are individuals with infectious diseases, hands and exposed areas of the body must be disinfected with 70% ethyl alcohol or 3% potassium permanganate solution.
Proper and careful observance of the rules for the care of rabbits is the main condition for the safe rearing of these animals, as well as obtaining high-quality animal products. To do this, acquire the necessary inventory and control the microclimate and general hygienic conditions in the rabbit. Only in this case, rabbit breeding will become not only successful, but also a fairly profitable type of activity.