Dry (table) wines are obtained in the process of fermentation of natural juice without added sugar. For the preparation of dry drinks use only the first spin juices. Recipes for such a wine may differ in terms of technology, but the only ingredient in them is grapes.
The taste of such wines is very light, harmonious, soft. Drink moderately tart with pleasant sourness. The sugar content does not exceed 1% (approximately 4 g / l). There are varieties in which the sugar content is zero. Homemade dry wine has a light fruity-herbal aroma.
What are we talking about?
For the manufacture of dry wines using white and dark grapes. White wines have warm golden colors. Dry red wines are characterized by all sorts of pomegranate and ruby shades.
Semi-dry wine, which, like dry, belongs to table species, contains 3–8% sugar (4–18 g / l), and its strength is 12–14%. To get dry and semi-dry wines you can use the same recipes.
To make a dry wine at home, you need grapes, sugar content of which is not less than 15%. The best option is 20–22% of sugar and more. Sugariness is an important indicator for obtaining high-quality dry wine, as the recipe (production technology) of such a drink eliminates the addition of sugar.
The strength of domestic dry wines depends on the sweetness of the grapes: 0.6% alcohol is obtained from 1% sugar. Thus, from berries with a sugar content of 15%, you can get a wine with a strength of up to 10%.
The sweetness of the berries depends on the grape variety, season (weather conditions under which the grapes matured), region. In colder climates, berries will be less sweet.
Sour and very tart berries are not suitable for the production of dry wines, as there may be problems with the fermentation process, and the young wine will be weak and not very tasty.
Important. All utensils and tools that are used in the production of wine must be clean. The containers should be thoroughly cleaned with soda, rinsed with boiling water and dried; glass bottles and wine containers should be sterilized. For winemaking, enameled (without defects), glass, wooden dishes, as well as stainless steel containers and high-quality food-grade plastic are used.
Dry wine recipe
This recipe is suitable for white and red wines. It is worth noting that white wine can be made from dark grape varieties, while red wines require grapes with dark berries. Making the drink troublesome, but simple. To prepare a dry wine at home, you need one product:
To make a quality dry wine, use the grapes of one of the technical varieties (for example, Aligote, Sauvignon, Chardonnay). Ripe grapes for winemaking is desirable to collect in dry, warm weather.
Vinogradinki separated from the branches of the brush, carefully sorted. Immature, spoiled, rotten fruits should not get into the wine blank. Preparation of raw materials is a crucial stage, poor-quality berries and combs will give the drink an unpleasant bitter taste and a heavy sour smell. Improving the quality of a product made from a bad wine material is almost impossible.
Important. Grapes for wine preparation can not be washed. On the skin of the berries are microscopic mushrooms - wild yeast. These beneficial microorganisms are essential for fermentation. Water also washes away a significant part of wine yeast. Very dirty or dusty fruits can be wiped with a dry cotton cloth.
Prepared berries must be crushed. This can be done by hand or with the help of available tools. It is important to crush every grape, but not to damage the bones. Grape pits contain a significant amount of tannins, which can give the drink too much tartness. Therefore, many experienced winemakers are not advised to press the grapes with a press.
In this recipe, both juice and grape pulp will be used. The substances contained in the pulp and skin of the grapes will help to form a more saturated taste and aroma.
Fermentation on the pulp
Fill with a grape mass of 3/4 suitable capacity with a wide neck. Cover with cotton cloth or gauze.
At this stage, the technology for white and red dry alcoholic beverages is different, but the difference is insignificant, so the recipe is used to make two types of wine.
Dry white wine. Juice is drawn on the pulp at 20–25 ° C for no more than a day (if the berries are dark, then they insist for 3-5 hours, otherwise a pink-colored drink may turn out). Next, drain the liquid in a clean dish, squeeze the juice out of the pulp. Juice (wort) strain through cheesecloth (it must be folded in several layers). Pour the wort into a narrow-mouth fermentation vessel (suli).
Dry red wine. This drink is obtained from dark grapes by the method of fermentation on the pulp. A container with a wine billet should be left for 3-5 days in a room where the temperature is constant and is in the range from 18 to 30 ° C. Within a day, as a result of rapid fermentation, the pulp “splashes” onto the surface, forming a foamy “cap”. It should be constantly “drowned” by thoroughly mixing the contents of the container two to three times a day. If this is not done, the wort will spoil (sour).
Fermentation on the pulp is accompanied by abundant foam, the juice gradually acquires a rich ruby shade and a recognizable wine smell. The liquid should be drained, the bleached pulp should be pressed. The resulting grape must must be drained, poured into the wort.
Further, the production of red and white wine is the same.
The wort should occupy only 2/3 volume in the fermentation vessel. One third of the empty space is required for the accumulation of wine (carbon dioxide) gas and foam, which will be formed during rapid fermentation.
A special water seal is installed on the vessel with the wort, which prevents the liquid from contacting the air, but allows the wine gas that is intensively formed during fermentation to freely exit.
The hydraulic lock must be installed correctly, it must seal the bottle tightly and reliably protect the contents from contact with air.
The shutter can be made independently. There are very simple and reliable options, for example, at home you can use a conventional surgical glove. It should be well fixed on the neck (this can be done with scotch tape), and in one of the fingers make a hole with a needle for the exit of the wine gas.
A container with fermenting wort should be placed in a room with stable temperature conditions (fermentation should take place at 17–28 ° C). Direct sunlight should not fall on the fermentation tank; it can be covered with a thick cloth.
The period of active fermentation depends on the quality of the wine preparation and fermentation conditions; it can take from 20 to 60 days.
During fermentation, the liquid gradually brightens, a dense sediment accumulates at the bottom. The completion of the fermentation process is indicated by the absence of bubbles in the water seal or a deflated rubber glove.
Important. Do not miss the end of fermentation, so as not to overdo the wort on the draft. This can adversely affect the quality of the drink.
With the sediment young wine should be promptly poured into clean dishes. This operation must be done with great caution. This can be done with the help of a thin hose. Capacities should be installed at a different level. Fill the vessel with young homemade wine to the very top and close tightly (air should not get into the container).
Wine can be put on maturation in a large bottle, in a sulie and even in wine bottles.
The taste of young dry wine is quite sharp. In order to balance the flavor bouquet and maximize the best qualities of the drink (taste / aroma / color), the wine is sent to mature in a cool room (kept at 6–16 ° C).
For ripening white dry wine, you need at least 30 days, red dry drinks last for at least two months, but experienced winemakers recommend keeping the red wines before drinking for longer (up to six months). Over time, their taste and aroma only improves.
Wine ripening requires constant monitoring, since sludge formation may continue at the bottom of the tank. In the red drink, this process is more intense. As it accumulates, the bottle opens, the wine is carefully poured from the sediment into a clean container. If the wine ripened in a large container, then after the cessation of sedimentation, it can be bottled, placed horizontally where it is dry and cool (wine cellar, basement, refrigerator), for storage. With proper storage conditions, the shelf life of such a drink is from 3 to 5 years (red wine is stored longer).
Semi dry wine
To obtain a semi-dry wine, you can use dry wine recipes with subsequent forced stopping of fermentation, so that not all the sugar ferments in the wort. That is, for the preparation of a natural semi-dry drink, a recipe with a single ingredient without added sugar is also used. During fermentation, it is stopped by heating the wort or cooling it, thereby preserving a certain part of the grape sugar, which makes the drink more refined, pleasant and fragrant.
There are recipes for semi-dry wines, in which the amount of sugar in the original product is increased by the gradual addition of beet sugar.
The above recipe allows you to get home-made dry natural wine of high quality. This tasty and healthy product, when consumed in small quantities (no more than 150–200 ml per day), improves well-being, mood, and has a positive effect on health. For example, homemade white wine is indicated for the prevention of cancer, red wine regulates pressure.
Dry wine at home: general cooking principles
Wine is a product of sugar processing into yeast.
Dry wine differs from other categories of wines by its minimum sugar content. In the drink, which is made from fruits with high sugar content, no additional sugar is required.
The most popular material for winemaking is grapes. Its berries contain a large amount of juice and natural yeast on the surface.
It can also be used to prepare the turnip, apple, cherry, dogrose, gooseberry, currant and other berries.
Wine is made from fully ripened fruit. Unripe berries contribute to the souring of the drink - over-ripe ones will give a bitter taste.
Gathering wine raw materials in dry weather (before collecting for several days should not be raining). This is an important point, as the rain washes vegetable yeast from the berries. It is necessary to have time to harvest and before the first frost, to save the yeast from death.
Berries or fruits should be bruised immediately, but not washed. Remove twigs, leaves, rotten and dried fruit. Selected raw materials to overtake on juice.
Dry wine at home from grapes
Grapes, torn to make wine, can not be stored for more than one and a half days, otherwise it will begin to sour. Berries do not wash. There are two options for making wine from grape juice. Both are equally acceptable.
1. Stretch berries with your hands, trying not to miss a single thing. Do all the work in gloves, as the juice is very staining. Grapes can not be pressed by the press or use household appliances to get juice - you can damage the bones, which will give bitterness to the wine. It is not recommended to use metal grinders to prevent oxidation. If necessary, it is better to use wooden tolkushkoy. The resulting mass is placed in a container and cover with a thick layer of gauze. In the very first days, the juice will begin to sour, and the pulp will be at the top of the cap. At this stage, you need to stir the pulp several times a day to prevent souring. The next step is to separate the juice from the pulp. Small portions of it are passed through cheesecloth or cloth, and poured into prepared dishes. There is still enough juice in the pulp. Therefore, it is not thrown away, but poured with warm water, again squeezed and filtered. The diluted concentrate is poured to the bulk.
2. The second option is easier. The juice is squeezed out immediately, and placed in a vessel for fermentation without berries (pulp). This method is used to produce white wine.
Ideal option fermentation tanks - glass bottle. Dishes should be clean and dry.
Size is determined by the number of grapes. For small volumes, 5–10 liter glass jars can be used.
It should be noted that the tank should be filled with wort only on ¾. The remaining quarter will take foam and carbon dioxide.
On the bottle of juice be sure to fix the water seal. He will not give the guilt to sour, and through it will be removed carbon dioxide produced during fermentation.
As a water seal fit medical glove. They put it on the neck and are wrapped with tape for reliability. To exit the gas with a needle, a hole is punctured on one of the fingers. While the wine is fermenting the glove remains inflated.
A good odor trap is obtained from a medical device for intravenous infusion (drip). One end of the pipeline is placed in a bottle, the other is passed through a cork or cap and dipped in a jar of water. Place the connection with the cork / lid plastered with clay or putty. Suitable for sealing and flour, diluted in water. Bubbles in the bank will inform that the process is proceeding normally.
Homemade wine ferments from one and a half to three months.
The temperature most suitable for fermentation is 16–25 ° C. Wine is not recommended to subject to temperature changes. When it decreases, yeast stops working, and when it rises, it dies.
If a few days later the wine stopped fermenting (the glove was blown off, bubbles did not stand out), then the yeast could not cope with the work or died. To resume fermentation, throw a handful of raisins into the bottle (do not wash).
After all the sugar has been processed and the fermentation is completed accordingly, the yeast falls loose sediment to the bottom of the bottle. Wine can not be perederzhivat on the draft for more than two weeks - it will spoil its taste.
Before you drain the wine, put the container on the chair and allow the liquid to settle. Then a narrow rubber hose is immersed in the bottle. Its end should not reach the draft. Through the other end of the hose, the mouth draws air in to start the movement of the fluid.
Over the entire period of maturation, the wine is removed from the sediment several times. This in turn fills it with oxygen.
Not all raw materials contain the necessary amount of yeast. For proper fermentation is added yeast sourdough. It is easy to cook at home. For this fit grapes, raspberries, raisins. A glass of unwashed berries is poured with 1.5 cups of warm water, half a glass of sugar is added and allowed to stand for souring for several days in a warm room. Is added a glass of leaven with a calculation for 10 liters of juice.
Dry wine at home from apples
Apples are excellent raw materials for the production of dry wine at home. To do this, it is best to take the winter or autumn varieties of fruit. Due to the increased acidity, it requires the addition of sugar, but not more than a glass per liter of juice. Apples also do not recommend washing. The core is extracted from the fruit - this will help avoid bitterness. It is better to use freshly picked apples, because after hardening, they lose their juiciness, becoming friable. Fruits are passed through a juicer and the resulting juice or puree is placed in a fermentation tank for several days.
When the liquid is fermented, it is necessary to remove the apple pulp formed at the top and install a water seal that will prevent souring. Further fermentation lasts up to one and a half months. After that, the wine is filtered, poured into containers and placed in storage in a dark place.
Dry thorny wine at home
Wine from the turn can be prepared with or without the addition of yeast.
Without the addition of yeast, the wine of thorns is prepared according to the following recipe:
• a glass of sugar for 1 liter of wort.
The turnip berries are kneaded, poured with warm water, sugar is added and placed in a warm room for fermentation. Three days later, the juice is separated from the pulp and a water trap is placed on the container. At the stage of quiet fermentation, the wine is poured several times from the sediment.
• 2 kg of granulated sugar
According to this recipe, sugar syrup is prepared, and the turn is boiled in water until the moment when the peel breaks on the berries. Everything cools to room temperature and is mixed in a fermentation tank with the addition of yeast sourdough. Further technology is no different from making other fruit dry wines at home.
Dry wine at home gooseberry
The taste of gooseberry drink is not inferior to grape wine. Prepare it from ripe berries. In order not to lose the flavor, picked berries do not store more than a day.
For cooking you will need:
• 1 part gooseberry,
• a glass of sugar per 1 liter of juice,
Crush berries and put in a container. Water is added to increase juice yield. Syrup is made from sugar and water. He is allowed to cool to room temperature and poured berries. The neck of the container should be tied with gauze. Важно соблюдать температурный режим в 16–20°C и периодично перемешивать сусло, чтобы оно не закисло. Когда начнётся процесс брожения, сок отфильтровать и перелить в другую ёмкость с гидрозатвором. Мезгу залить водой и отжать. Получившийся сок, смешать с первым отжимом.
Вместо воды можно добавить сок яблок кислых сортов или смородины.
Если брожение началось неактивно, в сусло добавляется дрожжевая закваска.
A vessel with wine is put on further fermentation in a dark place. After about three weeks, the wine is removed from the sediment and poured into containers for storage and further maturation, which will last up to six months.
Cherry dry wine at home
Unlike grapes, which contain a balanced amount of sugar and yeast, there is very little sugar in cherry berries. Therefore, the preparation of a wine drink will not do without adding it to increase the strength. Sometimes you have to add water to reduce acidity.
To prepare the ingredients are taken in the following ratio:
• a glass of sugar for 1 liter of wort.
Before you get the juice from the cherry, it is recommended to remove the bones, giving the wine bitterness. The subsequent stages are the same as in the preparation of wine from grapes.
If there is no special device for determining the level of sugar - hydrometer, then they rely only on their own taste. But as mentioned above, to get a dry wine per liter is added no more than a glass of sugar.
Dry wine at home black / white currant
There is little juice and sugar in currants, but a lot of yeast. Therefore, for the preparation of even dry wine, the addition of sugar and water is necessary.
• 1 part of currant,
• A glass of sugar per liter of juice.
Currant knead thoroughly and pour cooked sugar syrup and leave for several days to ferment. Then separated from the pulp and add, if necessary, a portion of the syrup. Further quiet fermentation takes place under the water seal. Wine several times removed from the sediment.
The best option would be a mixture of currants with gooseberries or currants and cherries. For the preparation of white wine need white currant. The drink is prepared according to the principle described above.
Dry rosehip wine at home
To prepare the wine from the hips used both fresh and dry berries of the plant.
The composition of the recipe:
• 1 part rose hips,
• a glass of sugar per kilogram of wild rose,
• a glass of raspberry or raisin sourdough.
Berry knead, pour boiled sugar syrup. Raspberries or raisins are added for active fermentation. After that filter and put under the water seal until the end of fermentation.
Sea buckthorn dry wine at home
Sea buckthorn juice is not easy to get. For this, the berries are ground in a blender or crushed with a press and poured with water. Then squeeze through gauze. This procedure is performed several times.
If the yeast from the surface of the berries will not cope, sugar and yeast sourdough are added to the juice. On the surface will form a yellow foam, which will need to be removed several times a day. And the capacity with wine is wiggled several times a day, as if disturbing.
After the end of fermentation (about a month), the wine is filtered with gauze, poured into a container and left in a dark place for 3 months until fully ripe.
The process of making dry wine
How to make a dry wine at home to make it tasty and delicious? For this you need to make a few simple steps.
- At the very beginning of work it is necessary to wash and dry (wipe) the container in which our harvest will be well, in order to avoid unnecessary odors that may affect the aroma and taste of the wine.
- The next point is to get the wort (juice with the cake), for this grape berries we knead well with our hands, but very carefully so as not to damage the bones.
- After these manipulations, we cover the lid and leave the product alone for 5-6 days in a warm place. After a couple of days, the mixture begins to ferment, and a strong foam rises to the top - it means that the time is a lot to mix. Stir the mixture every day.
- When the fermentation process has come to an end, we filter the resulting wine drink through gauze or a piece of loose tissue, it is also necessary to squeeze the cake.
- Pour this liquid into a convenient container, filling not more than 75% of the capacity and covering it with a water seal, leave it alone in a room with t + 20 ° С (not higher).
- As soon as the fermentation process is completed, it is necessary to pour the liquid obtained into bottles, while ensuring that the precipitate does not agitate.
- Dry wine, made with his own hands, will ripen for almost a month, so it stabilizes and gets the final strength.
Features of dry wine
Dry wine is different from other types of fact that the fermentation process takes place without the addition of sugar. This wine usually has a pronounced taste and contains less alcohol.
The fermentation of the wort depends on the sugar content of the juice. Thus, the sugar content of berries in 1% gives an alcohol yield of 0.6%, that is, from berries that have a sugar content of 15%, a wine with a strength of about 10% is obtained.
At the factories, the sugar content is checked with special devices — arithmometers, but at home they are rarely found, so making homemade dry wine is somewhat complicated. To determine the sugar content will have to focus on their own taste: the berries must be sweet and impatient.
Before you make the wine necessarily carry out the selection of berries. Only ripe berries are suitable for dry wine, they need to be picked manually, as you have to separate all the twigs and reject green and overripe berries. Otherwise, the wine will turn sour or tart.
Wine must be obtained if you adhere to some restrictions in the selection of berries:
- Do not use rotten, green and overripe berries.
- You can not crush grape seeds (do not use the press, juicers).
- You can not use metal tolkushki or home devices for the selection of juice.
- You can not take the berries that are plucked from the bush more than 36 hours before.
- You can not pick berries immediately after the rain. Before picking berries must be dry weather for at least 3 days.
- You can not wash the grapes.
Required tools, fixtures and packaging
Making homemade dry wine from grapes, they use the same devices as for other varieties of wine. Enameled container for fermentation of juice, gauze in several layers for its extraction and glass container with a narrow neck for fermentation will be required. Then you need containers for storing young wine.
Council It is not recommended to take metal containers or accessories, they will oxidize and will give an unpleasant taste to the final product.
Of devices needed:
- An odor trap, which can be bought in a store or made from a thin tube and a conventional lid, but the easiest way to obtain an odor trap is to use a medical sterile glove.
- Large cut gauze for pressing the cake.
- Nylon caps for young wine.
- Wax and bottle peels.
Before you start the production of dry wine, you need to think about where the fermentation process will take place. In factories, there are special premises for this - fermentation houses, in which a constant temperature of + 19-24 is maintained. They do not have access to wine in direct sunlight. At home, it can be a kitchen or a warm pantry. But the glass container in the kitchen will need to cover the top with a thick cloth to prevent sunlight from entering the wort.
White wine technology
Dry wine from grape juice is divided into red and white. The technology of their preparation has minor differences.
So, for a dry white wine from grapes at home will need only one product - it is grapes. But at the same time the absence of a large number of ingredients is filled with the bustle of work.Making wine at home is not so difficult.
Consider everything in stages:
1st stage is the preparation of berries
So, for white wine it is preferable to collect white grape varieties, however, dark ones are also suitable.
Before you prepare a dry wine, you will need to carefully select the grapes.
Starting to collect and prepare berries, all the prohibitions described above are necessarily taken into account.
Picked and picked berries need to knead. It is best to do it with your hands, in extreme cases you can use a wooden tolkushku. Knead each berry, but the bones must remain whole.
Dry wine can also be obtained from grape juice, but when using pulp (peel and pulp), the drink gets a richer taste and aroma.
Stage 2 Fermentation
Then, the mixture is folded into a container so that at least ¼ of the volume remains free, cover with two layers of gauze and send for fermentation in a warm place (+ 24–26).
Here for the white wine is important exposure time:
- If these are dark berries, then they insist 3-4 hours, but they begin to drain out no earlier than foam appears (the fermentation process begins).
- If whites - then a day - two (24–48 hours).
During this time, in the mass of pulp and juice, the fermentation process should begin, which will be evidenced by rising foam. Squeezing juice can not be before this moment.
The special qualities of the drink
Dry wines are among the most useful and natural spirits. For their production use only natural juices of fresh fruits and berries.
Dry wine is a moderately strong alcoholic drink, which is created as a result of natural fermentation. In the manufacture of dry wine sugar is excluded.
reference! This wine contains vitamins (C, PP and vitamins of group B), trace elements, useful acids, antioxidants and tannins.
In moderation, dry wine has a beneficial effect on health. In France, Italy, Spain and some other countries, young wine was regularly consumed at lunch and dinner.
This tradition was also in Tsarist Russia. According to statistics, it is in France, the lowest percentage of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Properly made drink without preservatives and dyes has several advantages:
- Increases immunity.
- Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Strengthens the walls of blood vessels.
- Increases appetite.
- Slows down cell aging.
- Accelerates metabolism.
- It nourishes the body with vitamins and trace elements.
- Improves sleep.
- Reduces blood pressure.
- Helps the body absorb iron from food.
What can be done at home?
There is a popular belief that it is impossible to make a good dry wine at home. This is not true.
Observing a particular technology and adhering to a proven recipe, you can get an excellent drink, which is not inferior in quality to foreign wines.
Dry wine is made not only from grapes. Today there are a huge number of recipes homemade wines. An alcoholic beverage can be made from any grape, apple, pear, peach, plum, black fruit, white, black and red currant, gooseberry, strawberry, cherry, raspberry, oranges, grapefruit, watermelon and melon. Of course, this is not a complete list of possible components.
Important! If you are just starting to make wine, you may have to experiment before you get the recipe for your unique drink. However, starting the choice of components of wine, it is important to understand what kind of taste you would like to achieve.
What fruits can you make dry wine from:
- Wine with an intense aroma and a persistent finish can be made from gooseberry variety "bun" or "prune".
- Bright to taste drink turns out black currant. In addition, it is valued for its ease of preparation.
- Gentle and sweeter wine is obtained from cherry, pear, peach, watermelon and melon.
- To create a tart drink with an intense aftertaste choose chokeberry or citrus fruits.
Not so important what ingredients you choose. The principle of insisting homemade wine is the same.
The main thing is that the berries and fruits are ripe and of the best quality.
reference! You need to choose a non-acidic juicy berries, so that the fermentation process goes right. Choosing the right juice is one of the most important steps in making homemade wine.
Harvest in warm, dry weather. For insisting dry wine, no extra is used - enough wild yeast, which is collected on the skins of berries. Therefore, it is not necessary to wash the harvested grapes. It is enough just to sort out and remove the unripe and spoiled fruit.
- Put the berries in a deep bowl. Stir them with your hands or wood mortar.
- Cover the container with a lid and store in a warm dark place for five to six days. Fermentation must pass during this period. Stir the mixture regularly. With proper fermentation, foam is visible on the surface.
- After completion of the active fermentation stage, strain the juice through cotton or linen fabric. Pulp press.
- Try the resulting juice. If it is too sour, add water. It is important not to overdo it with water - it interferes with fermentation.
- Pour juice into bottle. Do not pour it to the brim, the bottle must be filled with the mixture by about three quarters. Cork a water seal or pull a rubber glove over the neck. Place the bottle in a place with a constant temperature of 17-27 degrees. Fermentation lasts approximately 30-60 days. The disappearance of bubbles from the surface and the deflated glove will tell you about the end of fermentation. The wine will lighten, and the sediment will fall to the bottom.
- Now you can pour the wine into simple glass bottles and put in a cool place for ripening. In order not to stir up the sediment, it is best to use a thin tube, setting the bottle at different heights.
Important! White grape wine matures about a month, but red is best kept in the basement for 2-3 months.
The technology for making homemade white wine from white grapes is described in the video:
Homemade dry wine
For the manufacture of dry wines used only grapes - sugar is not added. Even if such a need arises, its content in the final product does not exceed 0.3%.
Another difference from the dessert lines: in addition to low sugar content, the berries should also be slightly more acidic.
With the observance of “home technology”, a drink with a maximum alcohol content of 11-12% is obtained Its taste favorably differs from dessert types by its delicate aroma and delicate taste. In addition, this product is easier absorbed by the body. Amateur winemakers are not too fond of dry types of drink, considering them difficult to obtain. Although this technology does not hide any special tricks, as you can see for yourself.
Selection of grapes
Dry white wine produced by processing ripe grapes of light varieties. Note that their sugar content is 15-22%.
Of exceptional importance is the ripeness of the berries. The fact is that immature fruits contain little sugar, and the fermentation of the wort will have to be stimulated by quite large amounts of sugar. The process will go faster, but in the end, the drink runs the risk of losing its taste. That is, the dry wine will turn into something like a dessert.
What varieties fit
The drink is recommended to prepare from the lines, which are characterized by a light aroma, coupled with impatient taste. These requirements are best met by such varieties as:
But in our area the most massive is White Muscat, and most of the amateurs work with it. True, its strong pleasant aroma requires special attention during processing.
The berries themselves must be whole. Mold, mechanical damage and signs of disease are excluded. The same applies to the "mesh" in the form of thin hardened veins on the skin.
It happens that on the grapes are visible thick layers of web: such raw materials are also not suitable.
Experienced winemakers pay attention to the size of the fruit - abnormally large, as for a particular variety of berries lay aside. They may be over-ripe or too watery.
Suitable clusters are collected in dry sunny weather. Sorting is also carried out here - the diseased and damaged berries are separated. It is better to do it right away: having collected a large amount of raw materials, it is not surprising that such fruits are undesirable for the future.
Please note - after collecting the berries do not wash (so as not to wash off the natural yeast). The remaining dust particles are still neutralized during processing.
If it is rainy outside, it is better to refrain from collecting: drops will wash away the natural substances that help the grapes during fermentation from the skin. Crafty and drizzle - it can start the process of decay.
After this, the first stage of work begins, namely the separation of berries from the ridges. The fruits themselves are torn off and placed in a suitable container (pot, bucket or large bowl). Separating berries from crests. This procedure requires a lot of time and care - the remnants of the "legs" should not get into the workpiece.
The crest in the wort provokes oxidation: the juice darkens and acquires bitterness. The output is no longer dry, but an ordinary dessert wine, so make sure that you get into the container.
How to crush berries
Many people associate this stage with shots from the cinema, in which farmers climb into a huge vat and crush their grapes with their feet. It looks spectacular, but not too practical, especially if it happens indoors.
At home, there are several ways:
- manual processing. Thoroughly washing hands and wearing rubber gloves, proceed to the process. Crush slowly, keeping hands close to the bottom of the tank under the wort. Despite its simplicity, the method is effective for working with small volumes of raw materials (up to 15 kg),
- mechanical. A simple press is used - wooden millstones with a handle are connected to a tray. В него засыпают плоды, а продукт отжима выходит через специальное отверстие. Просто и надежно, к тому же, брызги летят не столь активно,
- популярна и давка электромиксером. Все просто: на дрель ставят миксер под шпаклевку (естественно, чистый) и давят виноград, чередуя плавные проходы вниз и круговые движения от центра емкости до бортов.At the same time keep small or medium speed drill.
All of these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. With the manual method, everything is clear: the quality of the pulp is achieved by careful processing.
The press speeds things up, but many avoid it, it is reasonable to notice that in case of an error in the effort, this device damages the bone (and this is a violation of technology).
In turn, the mixer requires a fair amount of exposure when working with large volumes - hands get rather tired.
Fresh wort is checked for the absence of whole berries. If they show up, they are crushed by their hands. Further work is carried out according to this algorithm:
- The wort is placed in a container with a wide neck. (ideally an enamelled bucket or pan) and insist day at a temperature of + 18 ... + 22. Tara is covered with a wide gauze. At this stage, many do it easier, pouring the wort in a tightly closed container.
- After this period, the juice is separated from the pulp by expressing. To do this, take a dense gauze.
- The resulting liquid is drained into a bottle with a wide neck. (the pulp is left in a separate container - later even 50% of the juice will come down from its mass).
- After this, the containers are tightly closed with a hydraulic lock.. They are used in the active fermentation phase, and when the process becomes less turbulent, ordinary gloves are worn on the neck. To prevent the ingress of oxygen inside, cover the lid with scotch tape.
- Billets put in a warm place. Active fermentation takes 30-35 days.
After waiting for the set interval, fermented wine is removed from the sediment. This is done by gently overflowing the juice.
If there is a lot of pulp left, a flexible transparent tube is taken - one edge is placed in the juice, breaking a layer of fermented berries, and the second is taken out to a clean container.
As they empty, the first bottle (it stands higher all the time) is gently tilted. Then be sure to check the juice to taste. This is a kind of moment of truth: if the sample indicates increased acidity, then the grapes are not quite suitable for making a white dry drink.
But this is no reason to despair - you can get out of the situation in two ways:
- radical (adding 150 grams of sugar to 3 liters of wine). Although the drink produced in this way is no longer considered “pure” dry wine,
- using inverted sugar. For 1 kg of sugar take 0.5 liters of water. The mixture is heated to 90 degrees, and then 3-4 g of citric acid are added. All this is boiled for an hour, and after cooling it is added to the juice in small portions (do not forget to taste it).
After adjusting the taste, the containers are covered with a glove or an improvised water gate (the same tube is inserted into the cork, the other end of which is placed in a 1-liter jar of water - this is how excess air flows) Tara sent for ripening. Suitable locations are the cellar (where it will take a month at + 12 ... + 15 a month) or a corner with + 16 ... + 18, in which the process may take a day or two less.
Do not forget to inspect the wine and once every 1.5-2 weeks to remove the sediment by regular draining into a clean container. At the same time, taste is checked. Toward the end of the month comes another important point that deserves a separate description.
Tartar is an acid that crystallizes and deposits on the bottom and walls of the container. Such fermentation products resemble sugar particles or fine broken glass. It is harmless and does not affect the taste. Novice winemakers often fear it, but in vain - this indicates the quality of the drink.
To intensify the loss of tartar, containers with wine are sent to the basement, previously wearing a glove on the neck. After 20-30 days the final precipitate will form. Of course, during this time you will have to periodically inspect the drink, assessing its color. Tartar in the form of sediment After making sure that the crystals fell out completely and new layers did not follow, you can make the final removal of the sediment and start pouring the wine.
Spill and plugging
The volume and type of container for the finished drink does not matter. These can be bottles or bottles of different sizes. Although there is a slight nuance regarding the material. For a young wine that is poured into bottles, light glass is preferable. Plastic, which is now popular, is also quite good, but here everything depends on the quality - the bottle that was just bought may slightly hinder the taste of the drink (the factory compounds used in the manufacture of containers do not always disappear). The plug is filled with a conventional screw cap (in the case of a bottle) or with the use of oak plugs that are suitable for the diameter.
What to do if the wine is cloudy: ways to lighten
The original color of fresh wine is no different noble. But it is fixable - in such cases resort to the help of clarification.
Any winemaker will say that the natural method is preferable. The procedure is long: the bottle insists in the basement up to 2 years before the drink gets a spectacular color.
Despite this duration, it is recommended to use this method - this way even the most turbid liquid is transformed. There are other, more radical and speedy methods. It is about the use of various additives.
Bentonite (also purified clay) - strong absorbent. In hardware stores sold as fine powder. The technology of clarification is as follows:
- Dry bentonite is poured with cold water (1:10) and settled for 12 hours. To work with 1 liter of wine take 3 grams of clay.
- During this time, the powder will turn into lime. It is diluted by adding some water.
- The mixture is poured into the wine bottle in a thin stream.
- The closed container is set aside for 5-7 days, after which the drink is drained from the sediment. That's it, it's ready to eat.
Video: how bentonite clarifies wine
Egg whites also do a good job.:
- Half of the protein in a mixture with a small amount of water is whipped into a foam.
- The solution is added to the wine.
- Shaking the container thoroughly, put a water seal and send it to the basement for 2-3 weeks.
- After 2-3 weeks should be drained from the sediment (this is how the products of protein division are filtered).
Video: Egg Protein Bleaching Wine
This dose (1/2 protein) is designed to handle 10-15 liters of wine. A 50 liter will require whole egg whites.
A more neutral method in which the harm to the drink is minimal.. The scheme of action per 10 liters:
- Gelatin (up to 2 g) is pre-soaked in cold water. The proportion depends on the color - for a very dark wine they take 1:10, while a lighter one will suffice 1: 5. The time of settling - 3 hours.
- Then add the same amount, but with the participation of boiling water. After mixing, you get a warm solution without lumps.
- Taking the "intermediate" container with wine, the workpiece is poured into it in thin streams, constantly stirring.
- Then the wine is poured into the container, in which it will be lightened. Under a dense stopper and in the basement it will take 14-20 days.
- In the final, everything merges with the sediment.
Video: gelatin clarification of wine Those who have not done such manipulations at the very beginning are advised to take several bottles - add 1 g of gelatin to one, 1.5 to the other, and 2. to the third. This is necessary to determine what taste the most suitable.
Rules for storing homemade wine
The ideal location for storing wine stocks is a dry cellar with moderate humidity and stable temperature. If we talk about specific conditions, here they are:
- temperature in + 10 ... + 12 without long drops,
- humidity of the order of 60-70%, not more
- constant air circulation between the bottles,
- white wine tara put in a secluded place (away from the boxes of vegetables and shelves with preservation). This is the prevention of possible occurrence of mold, which periodically appears on products,
- for white wine it is important to minimize exposure to ultraviolet radiation (and electric lighting too).
In such conditions, the drink can be stored for up to 5 years.
In the apartment, the wine is well preserved in the so-called under-window refrigerators - recesses in the wall. In the houses of the new layout there is no such option, and the container is usually placed in a nook from the sun corner of the balcony. Some buy special ovens.
The main thing is to create a maximum peace of guilt. You should not needlessly move and shake it. If these rules are followed, the shelf life is 2-3 years.
Rules for drinking white dry wine
This wine not only complements the menu, but also benefits the body (of course, subject to reasonable reception). The permissible daily intake of white dry for an adult is 150 g. This type of wine is an exquisite addition to meat and fish dishes. Its aroma is especially well combined with:
- meat balls
- low-fat schnitzel and roast beef,
- squids, mussels and oysters,
- light salads with seafood.
Drinking dry wines is also associated with some gastronomic taboos. So, white is incompatible with fatty fish, pork and any dishes with a lot of hot spices. The same applies to citrus fruits - lemons or slices of oranges will kill the taste of wine.
Now you know what raw materials make white dry wine at home, and what is the technology of its production. Hopefully, knowledge of these subtleties will help to get a truly tasty and healthy product. Successes in this difficult, but creative business!