Do broiler turkeys grow well at home? Many independent farmers and enterprises are engaged in raising these birds. All of them mark the mass of positive sides of broilers together with rather standard requirements for the organization of their content. We tell what is required for breeding turkeys in personal subsidiary farming and why it is profitable.
Breed characteristics: what you need to know about broiler turkeys
Broiler turkeys are very large birds (as, however, is clear from the name). The weight of individuals often exceeds 30 kilograms in males and 15 kilograms in females. Weight indicators are directly dependent on the conditions of detention and the quality of food - the higher they are, the larger the birds. The bodies of the turkeys are massive, muscular.
Grow them, of course, mainly for meat. It differs not only special taste, but also dietary characteristics. Therefore, the demand for turkey meat is high among people who care about their shape or who are forced to observe dietary restrictions. Turkey eggs are also considered a wholesome, nutritious and tasty product.
Unlike most other domestic birds, broiler turkeys are very fast, strong and have well developed wings. Despite the fact that they belong to the order of chicken, keep them in the "chicken coop" and open cages will not work - they can easily fly away and even run away, having dispersed to 50 kilometers per hour.
A feature of all turkeys is a tendency to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the farm requires regular prevention, vaccination and courses of antibiotics for livestock, as well as compliance with all hygiene standards.
How to choose a breed of turkeys
Growing broiler turkeys at home is a very promising business, if you organize it properly. Start by choosing a breed.:
- Wide-breasted white. The most popular breed of broiler turkeys, which breeders love for massiveness and quick weight gain. For six months, males are able to gain over 26 kilograms. In addition, these are unpretentious birds that are not very mobile and grow well even in cages. Of the shortcomings can be noted only demands for food.
- Big 6. Young and promising breed of heavyweight broilers. Bred in 2007, but already loved by many farmers. They grow quickly and already at 3 months they approach a slaughter weight of 30 kilograms. In terms of breeding this is one of the most profitable breeds.
- Canadian broiler wide-breasted. As well as Big-6, it was bred using selective selection. The slaughter age is on average 1.5 months, while the birds weigh about 20 kilograms.
- Moscow bronze. Compared to previous breeds, it is lightweight, since it does not gain more than 12 kilograms (females are less than 7 kilograms).
Thus, there are several breeds of heavyweight birds, the cultivation of which for meat is very promising. Other species do not reach such sizes, their weight is limited to 8-10 kilograms. The egg production of most breeds is approximately 90 eggs per year.
Buying birds for your own livestock: sellers, prices and what is important to pay attention
The success of growing broiler turkeys largely depends on the health and characteristics of the breed of the first individuals purchased for breeding. We tell where it is best to buy chicks, what to look for when buying and how much it will cost.
Buying turkeys for livestock
For growing broiler turkeys in the subsidiary farm it is advisable to purchase already hatched chickens and adult individualsand not eggs for the incubator. So the probability of survival of the entire livestock will be higher, and the threat of losses is lower.
Birds should be bought from reliable and proven breeders, for example, in large farms or in poultry farms. Please note that turkeys for breeding are sold not only in Russia. Quite a popular option is the purchase of birds in Belarus.
The cost of broiler breeds
The price of a bird depends on its age and breed. It will be optimal to buy several adult males and females (6-9 months) and a batch of chickens (from 3 days to 1 month). The cost of one adult turkey breed wide-breasted white is 10 thousand rubles. Chickens are cheaper - from 250 rubles. Some breeders sell newly hatched chicks. Buying is inexpensive, but there is no guarantee that they will all survive and grow to the bottomhole age.
For these reasons, you should not save on the purchase of birds for livestock: too low a price may indicate poor health of individuals. But even if the chicks are healthy, it is quite difficult to provide them with proper care. Therefore, if an entrepreneur has no experience in breeding turkeys, it is better to limit the first purchase to a dozen adult males and females.
The main signs of healthy turkey poults
When buying birds, pay attention to the following signs:
- Nestlings are active, vigorous, firmly standing and eating a lot. If you put in front of them food, be sure to start eating.
- The abdomen is soft and taut. A bulging belly is a sign of a number of diseases. The umbilical cord is completely healed.
- They react to noise, respond to a knock.
- Wings should be tightly pressed against the body, not protruding.
- Fluff shiny, smooth and dry.
Conditions of broiler turkeys
There are two main options for growing broiler turkeys at home: indoors and in open enclosures. In aviaries, birds tend to grow healthier and larger, and their meat is more dietary. But to organize a house in the room is much easier. Consider both options for growing turkeys.
Keeping livestock indoors
The turkey must be equipped with a calculation of 1 square meter for 2 adult birds, otherwise the broilers will be crowded. The room must be completely protected from rodents and drafts. Even in winter, the temperature in the house should not fall below 20 degrees. Birds need a long light day (12-13 hours), so you have to equip artificial lighting.
The room must be divided into the following zones:
- walks (between feeding and roost),
- Hatching nests (in a separate quiet corner),
- isolation (for chicks or aggressive turkeys).
Arrangement of the enclosure
When organizing an open-air cage or paddock, it is necessary to remember that Broiler turkeys are powerful and powerful birds. They fly much better than all other domestic birds, and also run very fast.
The aviary should be closed with a canopy and a fence not less than 3 meters high. The canopy will not allow birds to fly away, but will also protect them from precipitation and hot sun. The ground for walking should be sown with grass. Inside the enclosure is also necessary to provide a separate place for food and drinkers.
How to feed chicks and young broiler turkeys
Newly hatched chicks should eat for the first 20 hours. In the first week, they will eat 9 times a day, the second - 6 times, the third - smoothly switch to 4 meals. The basis of their diet: feed, bone meal, milk powder, millet or corn, chalk and fresh greens. Chicks cannot eat a lot of greenery - their gastrointestinal tract has not yet been formed. Chalk is needed as a source of calcium.
When organizing feeding it is necessary to ensure that all chicks have the same access to feed and water. Do not allow some of the individuals to be undernourished, and larger ones push aside the weak. The diet should gradually increase: from 5 g servings in the first week to 27 grams by the first month. All healthy chicks always have a good appetite. If someone refuses to eat, it is a reason to suspect a developmental disorder or illness.
Broiler Turkey Breeds
Currently there are about a dozen types of boiler turkeys. On the basis of broiler turkeys bred in North America, crosses adapted to live in local climatic conditions were bred in different regions. Broiler turkeys can have a plumage of white, blue, silver, bronze and black color. The most common types of broiler turkeys include:
- White wide-breasted,
- BIG 6,
- BIG 9,
- BYuT 8,
- Moscow white.
All existing types of broiler turkeys are divided by their weight into three groups: light, medium and heavy.
The body of broilers is massive, muscular, imposing strong beak with a red appendage. Birds run fast, developed wings allow you to fly over three-meter fences. They reach speeds of up to 50 km / h.
Farmers consider turkey broiler breeds to be selective eaters requiring specific housing conditions.
There are a number of nuances, recommendations that have a productive impact on the development of turkey poults, maintaining the health of the whole brood. Spent forces pay off in a short time, due to the high growth rate of broilers.Male turkeys
Feeding adult broiler turkeys
Adult birds eat 4 times a day. Portion size depends on age and grows from 30 to 145 grams. The basis of nutrition - feed. It contains all the nutrients needed for weight gain. Greens are useful for adults. It is important to know that broilers should not eat a lot of fiber - it is bad for weight gain.
At the request of the farmer You can add yeast, fish or bone meal, bran, vegetable meal and fat to feed. Adult birds, like chicks, peck chalk and salt. Vitamins will have a beneficial effect on the health, weight of the birds, and ultimately on the quality of the meat.
Most Popular Breeds
The most common type of broiler turkeys in the world is BIG 6. It is well known in Russia and is actively used for growing in households and farms. No less popular with Russian farmers are such breeds as the White wide-chested, Moscow bronze and Canadian wide-chested turkeys.
If you look from the side at the usual and broiler turkeys, it will be difficult to externally distinguish them by size. Despite this, the weight of broiler turkey is much more than usual. This is explained by the fact that broilers have a large muscle mass. Each breed of broiler turkeys has its own distinctive features.
Broilers can easily distinguish the female from the male in size. Turkeys are much more turkeys.
The main direction of broiler breeding is meat. The average meat yield in turkeys of this type is 80%. Many of them are excellent laying hens. The main advantage of broilers - precocity. Birds very quickly gain weight, suitable for slaughter. Fattening is done up to 3-4 months. Its further content does not make sense.
Already at 4 months in turkeys growth is sharply slowing. The large mass of the bird causes it to fall to its feet and cannot move. Such a turkey or turkey can become a victim of other individuals that begin to peck their tribesman. Each broiler turkey breed has its own productivity indicators.
On average, 3.4 kg of feed per 1 kg of live weight is spent on fattening broiler turkeys.
Main characteristics of broiler turkey meat
From broiler turkeys get white and red meat. Their consumer properties depend on the composition, which largely depends on what they feed the bird and in what conditions it is kept. Meat output in turkeys of various breeds ranges from 81 to 85%, in turkeys - from 82 to 84%. By dietary properties turkey favorably with other types of poultry meat.
The main advantage of the product is the presence of a large number of amino acids and vitamins. Vitamin A and E are most abundant in meat. Turkey has the lowest cholesterol. Important elements of the chemical composition of the product are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, iron and other elements. Turkey has a specific flavor. The physical and chemical properties of meat depend on the thickness of the muscle fibers.
For incubation, turkey eggs of the same size are selected. Until the incubation of the eggs should not be stored no more than 10 days at a temperature of not less than +12 degrees and humidity up to 80%. You need to choose eggs with a clean shell that does not have chips, cracks and growths. Before laying eggs in the incubator it is heated for 1-2 days. The eggshell is treated with a special disinfectant solution. The simplest composition is made from water and potassium permanganate.
The incubation period for turkey eggs is 28 days.. The incubation period is divided into stages, each of which has its own temperature and humidity regimes.
Conditions of broiler turkeys
Small broiler turkey poults should be kept in a specially equipped house.
- comfortable temperature conditions
- dry cell
- unlimited free access to water
- the presence of ventilated air.
The warm season is a great time to start growing broiler poults at home, providing an opportunity to walk the young in the yard. The cages are wide: turkeys require large spaces.
Grown up grown up individuals let out on a poultry yard to eat kilograms. Broiler turkeys are home-bred birds. Some breeds are actively grown by large agricultural enterprises.
External characteristics and distinctive qualities
Broiler turkeys are gigantic in size. The weight of adult males is 20–30 kg. Females grow much smaller in size: twice as lighter than males.
The main purpose of growing broiler turkeys is to produce high quality meat. Egg production is an important indicator, however, not the main one. The onset of egg laying, the mass, the number of eggs produced depends exclusively on the breed of broiler turkeys.
Now let's talk about how to feed broiler turkeys at home. Adults are recommended to feed 4 times a day. Broilers always need open access to the feeder, otherwise there will be a shortage of mass. Preferably compliance with the diet. Inconsistent choice of hours of feeding leads to malnutrition. Attacks of hunger are accompanied by irritability, aggressive behavior of birds.Turkey poults
The key to successful breeding of healthy fed turkeys is an individual approach to the choice of methods for keeping a certain breed. There are three main types of broiler turkeys.
- Light breeds. Do not exceed 15 kg. Males weigh less than females - about 10 kg one carcass. Disease-resistant strong individuals, females have high rates of egg production. These include Norfolk, bestvilskuyu, white Dutch breed.
- Medium-sized broilers Highly productive individuals weighing 16 kg. This includes Moscow and North Caucasian turkeys.
- The largest breed. The most popular type of broilers. The weight of adult males reaches 30 kg. Females grow twice less - 12 kg. The classification refers here to the broad-chested Canadian whites, Canadian bronzes, big 6.
You will also be interested to know about:
Many farmers are free to choose among the crossed breeds of local turkeys. They are more hardy. Hybrid broilers rarely exceed a weight threshold of 10 kg.
The most highly productive and sought-after household farms are heavy breeds:
- Canadian broiler wide-breasted. The breed is bred by careful selection. Eat almost all types of feed. The diet should contain various prikormki, vitamin complexes. Weight gain is fast. A month and a half later, the chicks reach 5 kg. After another one and a half, they are ready for slaughter for meat. The egg-laying of females begins at nine months, the number of eggs laid per year reaches 200 pieces.
How to feed turkeys and broiler turkeys at home
Feeding broiler turkey poults at home must necessarily be a special feed, for example, zero. It contains all the necessary nutrients. After 14 days begins a smooth transition to a mixture for the young chicks.
Two weeks later, crushed oats and wheat are gradually added to the usual feed. Improve the work of the intestine will allow river sand, crushed shells, chalk. Sometimes you can pamper chicks with a hodgepodge of yogurt, boiled potatoes and bran. It is necessary to chop everything thoroughly before serving the turkeys - large pieces of food can clog the airways and the bird will die.
From the age of three months, the diet of broiler turkeys should consist of the following types of grain:
It is important for adults, along with small broilers, to use a lot of different greens - onions, nettles, carrot tops, beetroot, cabbage leaves. Any vegetable will do.
Features breeding and cultivation
Newly hatched turkeys are kept in a pre-warmed room. It is important to observe the temperature regime for the first 2 weeks (22–25 degrees Celsius). The health of chicks depends on maintaining a comfortable environment. Feeders should be established, excluding the occurrence of accuracy among the chicks, otherwise the weak individuals will be malnourished or they will simply be trampled.
Чистая вода является важной составляющей правильного ухода за выводком бройлеров. Подойдут вакуумные и ниппельные поилки.
The house should be ventilated. On the street content of turkeys transferred after 2 weeks. Now you know about the breeding and maintenance of broiler turkeys at home.Adult turkey with turkey poults on the farm
This breed was bred as a result of hybrid crossing. This type of poultry has a ponderous strong body, a strong and powerful beak with an red appendage. The wings are fully developed, with their help, the turkey can fly over a three-meter-high fence, and thanks to its strong legs it can run at a speed of 50 km / h.
The advantages of growing these birds include the following:
- Ecological purity of homemade meat.
- Dietary meat - an abundance of valuable trace elements and vitamins in it and, at the same time, an extremely small amount of fat.
- Great nutritional value and good taste of turkey eggs.
- When breeding for sale - quick payback: the higher price of meat due to the fact that it is considered rare.
- Wasteless breeding and product sales. In fact, everything can be sold: chicks of all ages, feathers, down, meat, eggs.
- The need for special conditions for the maintenance of the young poultry.
- High probability of mortality.
- More tangible costs when equipping the yard - a big bird requires more space.
- Separate keeping of young birds away from other poultry due to the great fearfulness of young poults and possible diseases.
- More feed and the need to control its quality.
- Because of the tendency of turkeys to obesity, an increased amount of greenery is required in their diet.
- Late sexual development - usually by nine months.
This breed was bred in the last century in North America. The body is covered with bright white feathers, the “bow” of black feathers is clearly visible on the chest. The body is large, oval. Weight can reach 25 kg. Unpretentious, well suited for growing in cells.
Rush from nine months. The laying of eggs takes several months; during the laying, about a hundred eggs are laid, 90% of them are fertilized. For food - picky, feeding they need only high quality, with the obligatory valuable additives.
Bred in the middle of the last century by crossing local bronze turkeys with bronze wide chest. Masonry - about 90 eggs, of which over 90% are fertilized. Males fatten weight up to 12 kg, females - up to 7 kg.
Turkeys of this breed were bred in Canada. Their advantages: attractive appearance, excellent quality and high level of precocity of meat. They have wide breasts and white plumage. Agile and muscular. Small head, powerful beak with bright red growth-earring.
Running speed - 45 km / h, take-off height - 2 meters. By the fifth month, males weigh 19-22 kg, females - from 9 to 12 kg. Laying - for three months, 50 eggs, the female incubates them for about four weeks.
The breed was bred in England in 2007. It is characterized by high reproducibility and great meat precocity. Dead time reaches 3 months. The weight of the male can be up to 30 kg. Usually the male weighs from 15 to 17 kg, the female - 6-7 kg. Egg fertility is about 80%.
They are distinguished by a convex body, strong legs, red with a "beard" beak and arched neck. Feathers - completely white. By 18 weeks of age, males have a live weight of 15 kg. During the day, the live weight increases by 110 g. The adult male has a live weight from 28 to 30 kg, the female - 14 kg.
Requirements for the room
The room (cage) for grown turkeys must be selected or equipped according to the calculation: no more than two broilers per square meter. The temperature should not fall below 20 ° C. Light day should be 12-13 hours or more. If necessary, daylight hours can be extended with additional lighting lamps.
How should be equipped turkey
Its arrangement should meet the following basic requirements:
- Reliability of construction, preventing the penetration of any animals, especially snakes and all sorts of rodents.
- Zoning turkey - it will not allow disorientation in birds, and also prevent collisions between males and thereby save livestock.
The main areas should be:
- Plot feeding. It is equipped with containers for different types of feed - loose, dry, wet. The container size is at least a quarter of a meter per individual. Drinking bowls can be placed in different places or in a line, the flow of clean water - constantly. The floor is covered with a litter capable of absorbing moisture that needs to be changed or laid fresh on top, this is done to avoid the spread of infections.
- Roosting They are made of thick, with rounded ends, crossmembers. Usually equipped, starting from 70-80 cm from the floor surface in the form of gradually rising ledges, located in a semicircle or circle. Calculating the number of perches - 45 turkeys on one. Arranged in the most shady place without any lighting. Below is a deep bedding or tray, periodically cleaned.
- Walking It is located between the sleeping place and feeding place. It will not be superfluous to decompose a heap of limestone around the perimeter, as well as chalk, to equip ash baths. In this place during inclement weather the greatest activity of turkeys will occur.
- Nests Installed in a quiet and not passable corner. Four to five females equipped with one place. Made in the form of a house with a pitched roof, always with a hole a little higher than the level of the nest and the size of the turkey. Smooth straw is used as bedding.
- Sections for broilers of different ages. For the first time, the young or the most aggressive males are placed there.
The mode of walking in the fresh air is very useful for broiler turkeys. However, due to the peculiarities of these birds, the place for their presence in the air should be appropriately equipped:
- The site should be spacious (the more - the better).
- High (not less than three meters) fencing.
- Canopy As protection from the sun and rain, with a low fence - a barrier when trying to escape a bird.
- It is desirable that the land was planted with grass grasses (single or perennial) - this will enrich the turkey diet with proteins and fresh greens.
- During the warm season, the equipment requires feeding troughs, and necessarily drinkers.
Video: turkey paddock
How to feed broiler turkeys at home
Feeding is an extremely important issue, because, first of all, the set of live weight by birds depends on it. In young and adult individuals, the diet is somewhat different. Consider this.
Its feeding begins no later than 20 hours from the moment of birth. It should be noted that the closeness and long anxiety of young stock due to starvation are unacceptable. During the first week, it is fed nine times a day. In the second - five or six times.
From the third seven-day feeding, they produce three to four times. Starting with the fourth, the young growth is transferred to the feeding mode of adult birds. Feed the chicks with specialized feed in recommended doses, or self-prepared mixtures. The following is the daily diet (in grams):
Where to begin?
A successful farm for breeding turkeys will, of course, be only if the farmer initially succeeds in acquiring good healthy young animals. Of course, the chicks can be bred independently, in an incubator. However, experts still advise beginners in organizing a farm to purchase at the poultry farm not eggs, but youngsters. In this case, it is better not to buy daily turkey poults, but to raise new ones - two weeks or monthly. Such chicks are already warm enough and are immune to many diseases. And, therefore, the attack in the herd will not be too big.
The best breeds of broiler turkeys
Buying chicks, you should pay attention not only to their age. Successful organized farm will only be subject to the correct choice of breed of turkeys. Breeding of this bird in our country and abroad is carried out quite actively. There are a lot of broiler breeds of turkeys. At the same time, the most popular among farmers today are:
B yly wide-breasted.
White broiler turkeys B IG can reach a weight of 22-25 kg. At the same time they gain muscle mass rather quickly. Such bird reaches slaughter weight already at the age of 90 days. Plumage from BIG pure white. Only on the chest there is a small black spot.
The wagon was bred by our country breeders. Because this bird is very well adapted to the climatic conditions of Russia. By the time of slaughter such hybrids can reach a weight of 18 kg.
Crosses X idon were bred in the Netherlands. The weight of a broiler turkey e that breed can reach up to 20 kg. Such a hybrid body mass gains quickly. But he has one major drawback. In young stock, unfortunately, there is usually a very big lunge.
White wide-breasted turkey reaches a weight of 20-25 kg. The advantages of this breed include primarily the high taste of meat. The disadvantage of this cross is the whimsical content and the propensity to disease.
Building a house
How should broiler turkeys be kept on the farm? Cultivation at home of this bird is, by the way, only in the most suitable and convenient room for it. The shed in any case must exactly meet all the necessary requirements. In the turkey bass it is mandatory to provide:
Naturally, among other things, the house should be properly equipped. It should be equipped with perches, nests, feeders and drinkers. It is recommended to make the floor in the turkey brook solid. Above ground level, it should be raised by about 20-25 centimeters. A thick bed of straw should be placed on top of the floor. Feeders for turkeys should be mounted on the wall at the level of the back of a bird. This will prevent the scattering and trampling of feed, and, therefore, save the farmer from unnecessary costs. Drinkers in the shed are usually placed at the level of the turkeys' neck.
The windows in the house are placed in such a way that during the day the floors in it will be covered over the whole area. Ventilation in the turkey complement the valve. This allows you to avoid overcooling birds in the winter time. Broiler turkey, in comparison with the usual one, according to the majority of farmers, is a rather tender animal and does not have very good health.
Turkey feeding rules
The diet of broiler birds, of course, should be as balanced and high-calorie as possible. Only in this case will the turkeys gain weight quickly. 70% of the diet of the bird should be food containing a large amount of protein. This may be, for example, cereals or legumes. Especially turkeys are often given oats and buckwheat. Mandatory feed this bird and cake. It is believed that wheat germ is very useful for such agricultural animals.
The mineral and vitamin balance with the body of a bird such as broiler turkey, farmers usually support with meat and bone meal and fish oil. Of course, you should feed the livestock and green fodder. In summer, the birds are given cut grass, tops of carrots and radishes, lettuce and cabbage. In winter, turkeys should get silage and spruce needles.
What rules must be followed when keeping turkeys without fail
In order for the bird to feel as comfortable as possible in the barn and not to hurt, the homeowner should take care of the following conditions:
nests in the shed should be placed in dark places,
perches are set at a height of about 70 cm from the floor level,
in the house should be installed pots with ash,
troughs and feeders should be cleaned regularly,
Broilers should be kept separate from any other agricultural poultry.
Before the barn for turkeys, it is advisable to take a walk. But letting a bird out on the street for the whole day is, of course, not worth it. Otherwise, turkeys will not gain proper weight.
Broiler turkeys: growing at home
Due to the unpretentiousness of the conditions of detention, calm character and excellent taste indicators of high-quality dietary meat, representatives of the breed are highly valued by many farmers and novice poultry farmers. For this reason, the cultivation of broiler turkeys at home is becoming popular.
Meat of such animals It stands out with special tenderness and juiciness. In this case, any significant differences in terms of appearance are practically absent.
General characteristics of broiler turkeys
Bird possess massive body with well-developed muscles and a strong beak. The presence of strong wings allows you to reach an incredible speed of up to 50 kilometers per hour, because of which they fly over large three-meter fences without any difficulties. Experienced farmers refute the view that animals do not need special care and observance of some of the subtleties of the content. In particular, they are right, since broiler turkeys need to be fed with special food, and the conditions in which they live must comply with the established requirements.
There are lots of small moments and tips that can improve the productivity of growing broiler turkeys at home. If we take into account these nuances, the expended forces and funds will quickly pay off in a multiple amount. It is important to understand that the growth of these birds is much faster than in the case of other breeds.
Arrangement of turkey
Broiler turkeys - unpretentious creations. However, they need a stable temperature inside the house. The optimum temperature should not fall below 20 degrees Celsius. Otherwise, it will lead to the development of numerous bird diseases and a decrease in the productivity of individuals. To avoid such consequences, it is important to lay hay, sawdust or straw on the floor.
Like many other poultry, turkey broilers are very much afraid of drafts and high humidity. Therefore, during the construction phase, it is necessary to isolate the room where they will live from any such impacts. In addition, it is important to provide the birds with a steady flow of fresh air, which is solved by arranging a good ventilation system.
In the absence of normal lighting or growing during the winter, when daylight is very short, in the turkey can be put extra lamps. Such a decision will have a positive effect on the growth rate of the livestock.
Due to their large size, broiler turkeys need a vast personal space. If another bird hits it, a fight is inevitable. For this reason, farmers believe that there should be no more than 5 turkeys per 40 turkeys. With aviary content per broiler male there should be two females. Choosing the size of the upcoming construction, you need to take into account the main criterion: for one broiler - one square meter.
To prevent the development of many infectious diseases when growing birds at home, the house should be cleaned regularly from animal waste products and hygiene should be maintained. Before the upcoming settlement, the turkey-hen is pre-treated with disinfectants, namely hot water with caustic soda. The litter changes every few days.
Arranging a place for walking broiler turkeys at home
In addition to intensive nutrition, turkeys broilers need to give good physical exertion. Otherwise, they will quickly become fat, and instead of good meat you will have to get pounds of fat. To prevent such consequences, it is important to take care of the place for walking birds. As a rule, it is attached to a turkey hen, pre-sowing with perennial grass. In such a territory, turkeys will spend all their free time and receive additional vitamins from vegetable food. In addition, the site can be sown with peas, oats and other annual greens with a high content of vitamins and minerals. Such simple steps will reduce feed costs.
It is important to note the fact that the walking of broilers can occur not only in summer and spring, but also in winter, however, only in those cases when there is no frost and strong wind outside. When walking in a cold time, the place of walking is tightly covered with straw. It is also covered with a canopy from the rain and aggressive sunlight. The territory is closed by a high fence, through which birds cannot fly and escape.
If in winter the birds hardly go outside, they can be lured in a very simple way: it is enough to scatter a few zhmeny grain in the place of walking, and hang dry grass or hay on the fences.
Arrangement of perches
At night, broiler turkeys are on the so-called perches. In order for the rest of the birds to be comfortable and productive, such structures must be properly equipped. It is best to place them in the back of the turkey-hen, following the principle of the amphitheater: each regular row is 50 centimeters higher than the previous one. The bottom row set at a height of not less than 80 centimeters from the ground. One bird should be from 45 centimeters perch length.
As crossbars should be used thick enough poles, которые смогут выдержать внушительный вес взрослых индюков. Концы бревен нужно закруглить, а сами жерди очистить от любых заноз или трещин, которые могут нанести вред поголовью.
Чтобы упростить процедуру уборки помещения, под насестами устанавливают выдвижные поддоны.
Arrangement of the nest for growing broiler turkeys at home
Many novice poultry farmers often wonder: Do broiler turkeys carry eggs at home? Of course, bear. But when females grow to reproductive age and the egg production period begins, farmers simply slaughter them for meat. In this regard, the breeding of broilers for collecting eggs - the procedure is unprofitable. In spite of this, correctly equipped nests should be placed in each house, in which chicks will be raised.
Nest set in a dry, cozy and warm place of the house, where there are no hints of drafts or high humidity. As a litter, farmers use straw or dry hay. To avoid the development of harmful microorganisms in wet litter, it is regularly changed. Try to avoid getting wet straw and monitor its condition.
The size of the nest is determined by the size of an adult turkey and five broiler turkeys. The optimal performance is 60x60 centimeters. A roof-ramp is installed above the nest so that other turkeys do not want to sit in it.
The choice of the type of nest must be approached after taking into account the following features:
- house size: the more free space, the more tiers can be used for nests. When space is limited, the sockets are not installed in a longline manner,
- the number of layers. It makes no sense to put up a large number of nests, if there are no adult turkey-laying turkeys,
- financial ability. You can buy ready-made nests in the appropriate store, or make them yourself at home,
Another important condition for keeping broiler turkeys is the arrangement of feeders and drinkers. Birds should have full access to food and water. Otherwise, their condition will be under threat.
When choosing feeders for home broilers, consider the following rules:
- The design of the feeder should remain safe. This is necessary so that during the meal the bird does not hurt,
- If broiler turkeys are grown in turkey poultry, it is better to use rubber or silicone containers. This is due to the fact that in chicks the beak is very soft, and when exposed to a hard edge or bottom, it can simply be damaged,
- If you are going to feed poultry dairy products, in any case do not use galvanized containers. Otherwise, there is a risk of chemical poisoning,
- Feeders are placed in such a way that each adult individual will get at least 40 centimeters of free space. If it is not enough, broilers will arrange aggressive fights that can lead to a deplorable outcome,
- The type of tank is determined by the type of feed. For example, it is better to place dry food in bunker designs, top-dressing products - in sectional ones, and hay and grass - in mesh ones,
- The feeder needs to be strengthened with additional fixing elements so that heavy birds do not turn them over with their impressive weight,
Like other types of poultry, and animals in general, broiler turkeys need stable access to the water source. At the same time, this breed has a much higher fluid requirement than other birds. For this reason, in the place of their residence must be properly equipped drinking bowls with clean and fresh water.
The best option for drinking is considered to be a nipple system in which water will not stagnate, and the bird will receive as much water as it needs. But when growing broiler turkeys, the method is ineffective, because it will be difficult for them to get to the water because of its size. For small individuals it is better to use vacuum drinkers.
As in the previous case with a feeder, at a watering place a turkey must have at least four centimeters of personal space.
If you make a drinker from improvised at home, constantly monitor its condition, and, both external and internal. It is important to ensure that such an important place is clean, as well as to prevent the possibility of a drop in capacity or the pouring of liquid.
Features care for broilers
Among the main requirements in terms of broiler turkeys, the following should be highlighted:
- temperature readings should not fall below 20 degrees Celsius,
- nutrition must be balanced
- the turkey needs the right lighting
- the probability of penetration of drafts and increased humidity must be eliminated,
- the bird must have full access to the place of walking,
- problems with the lack of personal space should not be
- As a preventive measure for infectious diseases, it is possible to equip additional lighting and heat in the turkey barn,
Increase in livestock: features of breeding turkeys
Constantly buying chicks, and especially adult birds is very expensive. Therefore, it is necessary to achieve natural reproduction within its own population. Turkeys are not rushing as well as, for example, chickens, so a beginner farmer needs to prepare for some difficulties.
The turkeys carry up to 150 eggs per year, while at the same time per month they can hatch no more than 17 chicks. To accelerate the growth of livestock, you can use the incubator: put eggs in it 2 weeks after laying. For high-quality selection of eggs before incubation, it is necessary to use a catcher: check the number of yolks inside (there should be only one).
Features care for chicks
Newly hatched chicks require very thorough care. In particular, during the first 14 days they need constant lighting (24 hours a day), which from 15 days can be reduced by 30 minutes daily. The temperature should also be higher than that at which adult birds are kept - 30-34 degrees will be the best solution.
Little turkey poults, like other chicks, Do not tolerate dampness and drafts. Insulate them from any source of moisture and cold. Before settling chicks in a common house or aviary, disinfection of all surfaces and objects is necessary.
The most dangerous diseases for turkeys and their prevention
The greatest danger to poultry farming are diseases. The fact is that all infections spread almost instantly between individuals and are capable of killing all livestock, and the aviary and the aviary to make unsuitable for the maintenance of new birds.
The first signs to pay attention to are lethargy, problems with movement and lack of appetite. Sick birds hide in the corners, their feathers ruffle and lose their luster, and their eyes tumble. Among the most common diseases should be called:
- Pulloz or avian salmonellosis. This infectious disease is dangerous for all poultry meat breeds. Most often it affects chickens. The main symptom is digestive upset. There is no cure for this disease. All sick individuals are killed, and their place of residence is disinfected.
- Sinusitis affects birds, the conditions of which are violated. Disease provokes dampness and drafts. Sick individuals have difficulty breathing, wheezing and coughing. It is treated with antibiotics, the most effective of which is terramycin.
- Newcastle disease. Severe infectious disease that damages the nervous system and respiratory system. The first and surest sign - paralysis of the legs. There are also many sources of infection: from sick individuals to ticks and rodents. The treatment is considered inappropriate, all sick birds are killed.
- Avitaminosis. The most "uncomplicated" disease, the cause of which is in the wrong diet and lack of any nutrients or microelements. Avitaminosis provokes problems with growth and weight gain, as well as softening of bones.
Disease prevention: how to maintain a healthy population
Any bird disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, novice poultry farmers should remember a series of the following rules:
- Chicks and adults are contraindicated damp and cold. Birds love the heat.
- It is necessary to conduct preventive courses of antibiotics.
- Constantly monitor the condition of all birds. If you suspect a disease - isolate the individual from the rest of the population.
- Buy high-quality feed, add complex vitamins, herbs, chalk and salt to your diet.
- The cause of many diseases - low level of hygiene. Keep the turkey and aviary clean, regularly disinfect all surfaces and objects that birds come into contact with.
Broiler turkeys are birds that are well suited for breeding on private farms. They are a little more capricious than ordinary chickens, but they grow much larger, and turkey meat is more useful for proper nutrition.
Organize their content on the forces even novice poultry farmers. The main disadvantage is the high cost of purchasing the first individuals for livestock. One adult broiler costs an average of 10 thousand rubles, and for breeding you need to buy 6-10 birds at once.
What is broiler
Any broiler bird is a breed bred by breeding or cross breeding, the purpose of breeding of which is to obtain an increased amount of meat with an ode of carcass.
Broiler turkeys are gradually replacing the previously popular traditional breeds on the market, because one bird can produce up to 25 kg of meat.
In most cases, meat orientation during turkey breeding leads to a decrease in egg production. But the bird does not completely lose the ability to continue the race, therefore reproduction of the herd is quite possible.
Advantages and disadvantages of broiler turkey breeding
The decision to establish a flock of broiler turkeys is taken after careful weighing all the pros and cons, after finding out the merits of the birds and the difficulties that can be encountered in the process of growing.
The obvious advantages include the following aspects:
- large output of meat products of excellent taste from one carcass,
- dietary quality of meat - turkey better than any other poultry meat, as well as beef and pork, contains an increased amount of amino acids (protein sources), is well absorbed, raises hemoglobin level (helps to eliminate anemia) and is recommended for use by children, adults and the elderly,
- the opportunity to get a new product - a large turkey egg, highly valued by nutritionists and simply tasty.
Turkeys - beautiful birds
Typical obstacles to the poultry farmer are:
- more significant costs in arranging the poultry yard - a large bird requires more space than for chickens and ducks,
- a significant amount of feed (cost increase) and the need to carefully monitor its quality,
- a relatively long growing period - up to six months,
- late puberty - usually to 9 months of age.
From the experience of breeders of turkey herds, it is clear that difficulties often arise only in the first stages of the development of a new business and are completely surmountable. Costs soon pay off, care work becomes habitual and is no longer perceived as a test.
Important! Before getting chicks, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the theoretical aspects of poultry rearing, calculate the cash and labor costs, prepare the material base - familiarize yourself with the breeds and choose the right one, build and equip the breeder.
Varieties of meat breeds of turkeys on the market, allow you to choose the breed or the cross for any, even rather cramped conditions.
Turkeys are divided into 3 weight categories:
- lungs - a slaughter weight of about 10 kg, recruited by males in 16 to 20 weeks,
- moderate - at the time of slaughter gain up to 16 kg, the cultivation lasts up to 22 - 24 weeks,
- heavy males gaining weight quickly go on sale to the table already from 16 weeks (from 18 kg), to reach the limit values (26 kg) it is possible to grow up to 28 weeks, further maintenance undermines the health of the bird due to the fragility of the bones and becomes unprofitable.
Important! Breed is a stable group capable of transmitting its traits to offspring. Cross is the result of complex inter- and intraspecific crossing along the lines, the result of hybridization in the first generation, the chicks of which do not inherit the parental traits.
The most popular turkey species are:
- Cross BIG 6 - the hardest turkeys, which grow no longer than 4 months. It is preferable to choose a bird of this cross with a white feather, because in colored turkeys, the skin after plucking is not smoothly white, but spotty. Females of the cross-country are capable of egg production, fertilization of eggs is about 80%, and hatching, smaller chicks hatch.
Heavy cross Big-6
Canadian wide-breasted broilers
White wide-breasted turkeys on the run
Moscow Bronze Breed
It all starts with an egg
It all starts with an egg. In the presence of an incubator, this is the best option for obtaining a herd base. But with the establishment of a small number of turkeys often acquire daily or grown (up to a month) chicks. Source material is obtained from large specialized enterprises or from frequent breeders.
Eggs are labeled on one side to avoid incubation errors.
When planning a purchase you need to consider several factors:
- reputation of the seller in the market,
- The environment in which parent pairs are raised is important to ensure that the turkeys grow in optimal conditions.
- location and distance from the future habitat of chicks - transportation time should be reduced to a minimum.
Important! The choice of manufacturer - one of the fundamental points, it should be taken seriously. The best offers are from private owners who offer products in specialized forums, and not in paid advertising.
Nestling: habitat and feeding
After hatching, the chicks are placed under the lamp and kept there until the feather dries and the bird rises to its feet. Then they are transferred to a limited space (most often it is a cardboard box), where the temperature is maintained at 25 ° C, with a sufficient area (approximately 15 cm² per head) and provide 14-hour lighting per day.
In these conditions, the chicks spend the entire first week.
Important! At this time, it is necessary to maintain cleanliness in the habitat: at least once a day, they do the cleaning by moving the living creatures to another container.
From the second week in the warm season it is very useful to bring the poults out to the street. It is advisable to fence the place walking on the grass, and not just put the box in the fresh air. The time spent in the sun increases gradually.
First week of life
Feed the poults begin no later than 20 hours from birth. Do not allow crowding and prolonged anxiety provoked by hunger.
Feeding in the first week is the main concern of the poultry farmer. It is carried out 9 times a day. From the 2nd week, the procedure will be repeated 5–6 times, and from the 3rd week - 3–4. From the 4th week, the chicks are transferred to the feeding mode of an adult bird.
Feeding poults from bunker trough
It is very convenient for chicks to use specialized feed for the first weeks of life and give it in accordance with the recommended standards. In the absence of the opportunity to purchase industrially released feed, chicks are provided with self-prepared mixtures. The diet of the smallest chicks per day (in grams) is shown in the table - the numbers are shown in maximum figures achieved by a gradual increase by the end of the period.
In the organization of feeding chicks, it is important to gradually introduce new products with a gradual increase in the number literally by day.
The grain is crushed: for the first week, a caliber caliber of 1.5 - 2 mm, until the end of the 3rd week - 3 mm, then gradually transferred to whole grains (from 5 mm).
Dry and wet food give separately - in different feeders. In this case, wet food should be of a consistency when it does not stick to hands. You can moisten the feed not only with the juice of plants, but also with fermented milk products (yogurt) or skim milk (whey). This increases the intake of protein in the body of the bird, which contributes to the development of meat mass.
Important! Clean drinking water should always be available to chicks and adult turkeys.
Content of adult birds
By the end of the first month of life, the youngsters are transferred to a turkey-hen. In modern poultry farming, two types of housing are considered acceptable for raising chicks:
Best Walking Lawn
When it comes to a smaller bird, broilers are more often grown in cages, where they spend their short lives. This method of content is convenient and economical. But for growing turkeys more suitable content in a specially equipped room with free-standing platform. This is due to the longer periods of growth and gaining optimal weight.
Arrangement of premises
A well-organized turkey hen must meet several important requirements for the proper development of the bird. The fundamental ones include:
- the strength of the structure and the prevention of the entry of animals, in particular, rodents and snakes, into
- sufficient area - large broiler turkeys are placed one by 1 m², cramped living conditions can provoke conflicts, traumatization, damage to equipment, diseases, cases of bird outburst,
- деление пространства индюшатника на зоны – этот прием предотвращает дезориентацию птицы, исключает стычки между самцами, сохраняет поголовье,
- indoor temperature at 20 ° C all year round - unlike chickens and ducks, turkeys - heat-loving birds, a drastic change in the thermal regime towards a decrease weakens the immune system, retards the development of turkeys,
- sufficient lighting (up to 14 hours a day) in any season - with a lack of natural light penetrating through the window openings it is necessary to provide the possibility of lighting up with the help of electricity,
- the presence of a walking yard adjacent to the turkey bog - from early spring to late autumn (and to the accustomed bird and in winter) walks of different duration are recommended for the harmonious development of the young and adult birds.
Turkey build of durable, heat-retaining material
Some points require more detailed consideration.
The main areas recommended for arrangement in the turkey barn are:
- Plot feeding birds. Here are placed containers for dry, bulk and wet feed. The dimensions of the bins are set on the basis of 25 cm per head. Drinking bowls are located in several places or in the line; they provide a constant supply of clean water - it is convenient to use nipple tanks. The “dining room” is located in the brightest place of the turkey-heel, not far from the window and the front door. A hygroscopic litter is arranged on the floor, which is often changed or added to the upper layer in order to avoid the development of pathogens.
Bird in the turkey
Birds love to take healing ash baths
Turkey in the nest
Important! Isolator for diseased birds is better to arrange outside the turkey hens. This will prevent the spread of the disease.
When the cell content for each type of prepared cage with a mesh floor, equipped with a retractable tray, feeder and drinker, and placed on racks inside the room. The minimum cell size is 60 * 60 cm.
Broiler in a cage
When keeping broiler turkeys outside the cage, it is very useful to include walks in the fresh air into the day mode. The area adjacent to the bison should be properly equipped:
- the fence is high - turkeys are able to fly over three-meter fences,
- a place for walking is given a spacious (the more, the better), because in open space, the bird is capable of active movements, directed to the run (most often in circles),
- A canopy is installed over the territory - protection from precipitation and scorching sun, and if the fence is not too high, then to prevent “shoots”,
- It is useful to sow the soil with perennial or annual fodder grasses - with their help you can enrich the diet with fresh greens and proteins - the living creatures that live in the earth are well absorbed and serve as a source of protein,
- with a long stay on the street in the warm season, you can organize feeders here and in any case, drinkers are necessary.
The presence of the enclosure near the turkey - a mandatory requirement
Feeding broiler turkeys
Adult birds are fed 3-4 times a day. High-quality mixes with a high content of protein, a sufficient amount of carbohydrates and with slightly reduced foods containing fluorine and calcium are included in the diet. In these conditions walks are of great importance, since active heavy bird experiencing increased stress on the bones and joints. And in the open air, even in dim sunlight, vitamin D is produced in the body, contributing to the complete absorption of calcium. Therefore, the bones remain strong and healthy, but without an excess of bone mass, as if artificially increasing the level of calcium in the feed.
Turkeys on the walk
For birds contained in cages, the amount of calcium is not so important - they do not make active movements. Receipt of nutrients provides specialized feed or self-made mixture.
The approximate content of products in grams per head per day for meat poultry (females - males) is given in the table.