A person who occasionally consumes alcohol in a small amount is much less likely to earn vascular diseases than a moderate drinker. Moderately should be understood as a glass or another once a week, no more.
Vodka or brandy is unlikely to drink weekly, these drinks are too strong, but fortified wine is perfect for a small workout of vessels. It serves as an aperitif and digestif - depending on the situation.
A couple of words about the history of
It is impossible to know today when exactly mankind learned to strengthen light alcohol obtained by fermentation of grape berries: history takes us into such a deep past that information about it is not always completely reliable. However, such a fact is known, for example: the Phoenicians introduced the Spaniards to fortified wine in 1100 BC. It was sherry.
When traders transported table wines in barrels to foreign lands, drinks were often spoiled due to strong shaking, rains and other adverse factors. One day, probably, someone accidentally or intentionally added sugar to such a barrel - and it turned out a fortified wine. The merchants noticed: alcohol, “fortified” in this way, is stored longer than the table and becomes richer.
In order to get fortified alcohol, you need in the process of fermentation of the must add alcohol-containing product. Fortified wines contain from 17 to 22% alcohol. Types of such wines:
Manufacturers can also add sugar - this also contributes to the transformation of a low-alcohol beverage into a fortified drink. Sugar is poured into wine at different times, depending on what kind of alcohol you need to get.
If you need to give the drink more sweets, sugar is put at the beginning of fermentation. If the goal of the manufacturer is to get dry, then granulated sugar is sprinkled at the end of the process.
Why do homemade wine is fortified?
Mount allows longer keep the drink. Having opened the bottle, we can not drink the contents up to the bottom, but put the rest in the fridge and be sure that the alcohol will not spoil.
In addition, the taste of homemade liqueur made with fasteners will be much brighter.
Let's start with your favorite winemakers fixing sugar. 20 g of sand added to each liter of fermented juice will make the drink a degree stronger. Mixing the wort with sand, install a water seal and continue to ferment.
It takes 2 weeks and the wine is poured through the filter, then bottled. Now it needs to be stored in the refrigerator or in a cool basement - there it matures.
First, the wort obtained after fermentation must be filtered. The next step is adding alcohol (diluted) or vodka to it. You can take cognac spirit - so the wine will retain all the taste.
When alcohol enters the wort, the bacteria die and fermentation stops. The container with the drink is placed in the refrigerator for 2 weeks, and then sealed in bottles and stored on demand.
Freezing for home winemaking is rarely chosen because a volume freezer is needed, which household refrigerators are not equipped with. But if you are preparing a small sample of the drink, you can use this method.
Liquid, obtained as a result of fermentation, pour into a plastic container, close tightly with a lid and put in a freezer. Soon you will notice that ice crystals are floating in it. The wine is drained, leaving ice. It becomes stronger and tastier.
Pasteurization is subjected to alcohol produced in an industrial environment. It is necessary that airless space be maintained between the beverage and the container. At home, you can pasteurize alcohol, heating it over low heat to 55 0 C for half an hour. To allow an increase in temperature and boiling impossible.
Cons of this approach:
- some loss of taste,
- reduction of tannins.
On the label with any alcohol can be read: "Contains sulfur dioxide." It protects the drink from souring due to the possible ingress of bacteria and allows it to be stored for a long time. At home, it is very difficult to make such a mount, so the method remains the prerogative of the wineries.
What is the need to fix wine?
Why this is done:
- Mount stops the fermentation of the drink and helps to lighten it. All excess yeast goes to sediment, and pure liquid remains.
- This will stop the fermentation of wine, evaporation of sugar.
- The procedure will save the drink from diseases - mold and souring. It will be stored longer.
The procedure is carried out when the drink has reached the required state - most often it is an indicator of strength from 10% vol.
Strong and dessert wines are fortified subspecies. In strong drinks, the amount of alcohol reaches 20%, while in dessert drinks, the figure does not exceed 17%. The second type has more sugar in the composition - from 21%, whereas in the first one it is not more than 14%.
Examples of fortified wine are port wine and sherry. In such beverages, the alcohol content is up to 22 °. Pure alcohol, vodka, or pre-prepared fruit liqueurs can be used to fix them.
How to calculate the fortress:
- Take advantage of the wine meter - this method is suitable only for drinks from grapes, besides, it will work in already clarified and purified wine.
- A refractometer is a measuring instrument that will show the density of the wort before fermentation and before fastening. The difference that can be calculated from these indicators on a special table will help determine the degree.
- A less accurate way is to calculate the degree based on the fruit from which the drink is made. Special tables also let you know the approximate amount of alcohol.
Video: how to use a refractometer
Possible fastening methods, their advantages and disadvantages
Whatever way you choose, you need to carefully monitor the drink. After adding sugar or alcohol, the liquid becomes turbid again, so you should wait up to 5 days so that all the components mix and the sediment goes to the bottom of the bottle.
The bottle must be washed before pouring there already fixed wine. After that, you need to keep it in a dark and cool place, periodically checking whether fermentation has begun.
This process is step-by-step, lengthy and requires the calculation of ingredients. There are such rules when using this method:
- If you add more sugar, it will significantly slow down the fermentation.
- Drink, which is fixed with sugar, should occupy only half of the bottle, as each kilogram of sugar will increase the amount of liquid per half liter.
- Dry wines are fixed with the addition of sugar, diluted in water, and dessert wines are made, gradually adding sugar mixed with a fermenting drink.
Alcohol wines (vodka, alcohol)
The easiest and cost-saving way that even novice winemakers can handle. Alcohol pours into the fermenting wort for several days, everything is mixed and sent to ripen.
- environmental friendliness
- low cost of materials
- perfect for home use.
Adding sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid, or sulfur dioxide, acts as a preservative in the manufacture of wine. This method is used by many wine-makers-professionals. They believe that it helps to reduce volatile acids and kill microorganisms that can spoil the drink. There is also a minus: sulfur dioxide is poisonous and in large quantities can lead to poisoning. For asthmatics, products treated with this preservative are prohibited.
Sulfur dioxide is present in any wine - it is a side effect of fermentation. However, its small amount can not harm.
Video: about sulphurous acid in wine
Fixing young wine
To increase the strength, you need to remember the rule: when adding 1% alcohol or 2% vodka in a 10-degree drink, the degree is increased by one.
Thus, you can calculate the required amount of alcohol added to your volume of wine. For example, if you want to increase the degree by 6 units, you multiply this number by the number of liters and by one (1% of the volume), and then divide everything by 100.
In the case of adding vodka instead of one, you need to multiply the numbers by 2 (2% of the volume).
- 5 liters of wine
- It is necessary to increase the degree by 6 units.
- How much alcohol to add to increase the degree.
- (5 * 6 * 1) / 100 = 0.3 l of alcohol.
After adding the right amount of alcohol to the drink, it is infused for up to 2 weeks. After that, the liquid is drained from the sediment and bottled.
Mount the wort at the fermentation stage
The peculiarity of this method - the juice is not drained from the pulp. Just before you send the fruit for fermentation, they are crushed.
- Sugar is added to the wort in the amount of 9% of the total volume.
- The mixed mixture is sent to wander into a room with a temperature of 25-26 ° C for 3-4 days.
- The wort is pressed and topped up with alcohol 90%, stirred and left in a dark cool place for a week.
- The finished liquid is drained, clarified and bottled, then left to ripen at a temperature of 15 ° C for a couple of years.
How to freeze wine to increase the fortress
Before using this method, note that the amount of the finished product will decrease, as water freezes, and the wine spirit is drained.
How to do:
- drink, poured into liter bottles, put in the freezer,
- after a couple of hours, take out and pour the wine spirit into another container.
How to make fortified homemade wine
This drink at home can be made from any fruit. The most popular ones are cherries, apples and raspberries. The drink is sweet and sweet.
- cherry juice (not purchased, but made by hand) - 1 l,
- sugar - 100 g,
- yeast sourdough - 0.3 l,
- alcohol 90% - 0.3 l.
- dried apples - 1 kg,
- pure water - 800 ml
- sugar - 100 g,
- yeast sourdough - 0.3 l,
- alcohol 70% - 0.5 l.
- raspberry - 5 kg,
- water - 2 l,
- sugar - 300 g + 150 g per 1 l of wine after fermentation,
- yeast sourdough
- alcohol - 0.5 liters per 10 liters of wine.
Squeeze the juice out of the raspberry and add half of the water and all the sugar. Separately, pour the raspberry cake with the remaining water and after 6 hours again squeeze the juice. Mix it with the previously obtained juice, add the leaven and leave to ferment for 10 days. Squeeze the liquid, add sugar at the rate of 150 g per 1 liter, put the ferment on. A week later, we decant again and fix with alcohol. Bottled and leave to ripen.
So, we learned that the process of fixing wine at home is not so complicated. It will help stop fermentation, improve the taste and make the drink stronger and, if desired, sweeter. If you follow all the rules of fixing, then the drink will turn out not worse than the store and will definitely be natural.
Video: mount wineReviews: how to fix wine
And at what stage of fermentation is it better to do?
How to make a wine from fortified grapes is understandable. And when it is better to do it is a question. Fermentation is interrupted almost from its very beginning, for example, when preparing port wine, strong alcohol is introduced into the wort for 2-3 days. Previously, the interruption of fermentation allows you to preserve the taste and aroma of grapes, the natural sugars contained in the berries. Only alcohol is really needed a lot, and its quality will critically affect the taste of the final drink - in short, you can't get away with sugar brewing, you need at least an excellent chacha.
The optimal time for fixing the wine is after the end of rapid fermentation, when the yeast has already eaten all the sugar. But in this case, the drink will have to be artificially sweetened. This method will allow the wine to be lightened much faster, reduce the requirements for secondary fermentation conditions - it can be stored at room temperature - allows you to bottle wine before, put it on the shelf and forget about it for at least several years without worrying that it will spoil from improper storage .
What to do next? Can I drink right away?
Of course not. On the contrary, fortified wines mature longer than dry ones - because they need time to “make friends” with strong alcohol - therefore, before you make fortified wine at home, make sure that you have enough time and patience. To begin with, after fixing, the drink must be defended in a large container filled to at least 95%, preferably in a cool place. In the young fortified wine will be actively precipitated - it is necessary to get rid of it by decanting, otherwise the taste will later be bitter. As soon as the bank will no longer be observed dregs, wine can be bottled. It will be possible to start tasting not earlier than in half a year, better - in a year and a half after bottling.