Informational article about an ornamental plant from the family of large umbrella umbrella. Description of the flower, the choice of a place for planting. Methods of reproduction of large astrantia, planting and care.
A plant with a beautiful stellar name Astrantia from the family of Umbrella beauty may be inferior to a refined rose, but it still has its admirers. Otherwise, it would not have taken root in all European gardens, where it appeared at the very beginning of the XVI century.
This popularity refers to several species, including the astrantia species, large or large stars. Perennial lush flower is unpretentious. Perennial will appeal to those who like to arrange in his garden plots with a natural landscape. We will try to find out where astrantia likes to grow large, how it multiplies, how it grows and how to care for it.
A brief description of a large astrantia, the choice of a place for it in the garden
Astrantii or zvezdovki have another name. The Swedes call them the "daughters of Linnaeus", since it was this nerd who made the description and gave the name to the plant. The large Astrantia can be called the sister of ordinary dill, who was lucky to be born a star in the family of Umbrella.
In the wild form is found in the western regions of Europe. Prefers to grow in mixed forests, on open forest edges. The plant is perennial, has a developed rhizome, stems are up to 0.7 m high. The leaves are beautiful, palmate, have from 3 to 7 lobes.
Form a beautiful outlet at the root. The flowers are small, white - pink, with a pleasant aroma. They are collected in inflorescences - umbrellas. Below the umbrella is a wrapper that is shaped like an asterisk. Due to the long non-falling wrap, the plant retains its decorative effect for a long time. When fresh, it is used for cutting into bouquets, and when dry, it helps florists to compile dry compositions.
Currently, parts of the garden that look naturally like a corner of a forest or meadow are coming into fashion. To do this, you can plant both wild and large astrantia, as well as its cultivars:
- Rubra - low, up to 0.4 m variety with pink flowers and pink wrap, gives self-seeding, like a wild plant
- Moira Reid - flowers and white wrapper, the tips of the wrapper are green
- Snowstar flowers are white, the color of the wrapper is also white, but with visible green veins
- Clarette - flowers and purple wrap
Choosing a landing site
All the beauty of the astrantia inflorescences manifests itself in good sunshine, however, they should not be planted in a strong sun. A small side shadow is acceptable. If you plant a plant under the openwork crown of some trees, it also almost does not lose its decorative effect.
Any garden or garden land, in which there is a certain amount of humus and other useful substances, will do. Best of all if it is a fertile loamy or sandy soil with moderate moisture. If the land is poor, then the introduction of humus, sod land and sand will correct the situation.
How to plant a large astrantia
Before planting an astrantia, it is important to know that a plant can grow in one place for up to seven years, does not respond very well to frequent transplants, therefore it is advisable to immediately place it in a permanent place. If the garden already has a bush of this flower, you can use young bushes as planting material.
They appear in the spring as a result of self seeding. You can also use the adult bush for reproduction by dividing the bush or pieces of rhizome. Cultivate astrantia and direct sowing of seeds into the soil. Usually they do it for the winter. Seeds and rhizomes can be harvested on their own or purchased in the trade network.
Special soil preparation is not required, it is enough to dig to a depth of more than 15 - 20 cm. It is desirable to sow the seeds in the fall, they need a long-term natural stratification. For sowing, make a notch 1.5 cm deep. Sow the seeds. Close the groove with primer. Its layer is not more than 0.5 cm. Close the planting with a mulch layer of peat.
If it was possible to buy seeds at the end of winter, then astrontia must be sown immediately after the ground has thawed by 15 cm. When spring comes, favorable weather appears on the surface. At the age of three to four weeks they need to thin out. When seed reproduction plant most often blooms in the third or even the fourth year.
Video about how the astrantia looks like:
If the planting material is harvested independently, then you can plant pieces of rhizomes in the spring, then start the growth of ground parts, and in the fall. To do this, it is enough to make the wells at a distance of 10 - 15 cm and arrange the pieces of rhizomes into them. Pour and cover with primer. If a piece of rhizome is bought in late winter or early spring, it can be grown at home.
For this fit a small pot with fertile soil. In early summer, the resulting seedling can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Despite the fact that the plant is sufficiently resistant to lowering the temperature, it is better to wait until stable positive values are established, and only then transplant the seedlings. These seedlings bloom in the second or third year.
Care of astrantion
After planting young plants, it is important to provide them with sufficient moisture and remove weeds in time. During the summer, flowering plants need to be watered every 6 to 7 days, if there is no natural precipitation. With excessive drought, the flowering period can be dramatically reduced.
Timely pruning of flowering inflorescences prolongs the flowering period. Before the onset of winter, all ground parts need to be cut. With the threat of severe frosts, you can multiply the landing sites with compost or humus.
It is important to know that in addition to the fact that astrantia is large, it will be an unpretentious, but very ornamental plant in the garden, it can be used in traditional medicine. If there is a need to cleanse the body during various poisonings, then a decoction can be made from the roots and other parts of the plant, which will help to do this.
Types and varieties of astrantia
Astrantia has about a dozen species, of which they grow in floriculture such:
• astrantia large - a sprawling plant with a height of up to 0.7 m. The inflorescences reach a diameter of up to 5 cm. The most popular varieties are: Moulin Rouge, Prima Donna, Ruby Wedding, Rosea, Snowstar,
• small astrantia - got its name not for its height (it grows up to 1 m in height), but for the small size of pale pink flowers. The flowering period lasts from July to September,
• Karniolskaya astrantia - perennial with palmate-divided leaves. Popular variety - Rubra,
• astrantia is the greatest - compact plant up to 0.7 m high. Its leaves are tripartite. Blossoms in August - September.
Features of the landing astrantia
Zvezvetovka svetolyubiva, however easily transfers a penumbra. Therefore, it is often planted under trees or near shrubs.
The intensity of the color of flowers depends on the lighting: the more sunlight, the brighter the color.
The soil of this plant prefers loose fertile loam. Sandy soils are not suitable for her, they must first add clay and humus to them before landing an astrantia.
Cultivation of astrantia from seeds
Zvezdovka easily propagated by self-seeding. Seeds that have fallen into the ground undergo a natural stratification. In spring, the emerged shoots will only need to thin out.
If you use seeds purchased in the store, then at home they will have to be artificially stratified. For this, seeds are stored for 2 months on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. In March, they are sown in boxes with loose fertile soil (peat, sod land, humus in a ratio of 1: 1: 1). Crops are moistened, covered with film or glass and kept at room temperature + 20-23оС. When shoots appear (2-3 weeks after sowing), the cover is removed, the boxes are moved closer to the window to provide plants with sufficient light.
After the emergence of shoots shelter with a container with planting removed
Thick plantings thin out, leaving between seedlings 7-10 cm.
When the sprouts acquire the first pair of true leaves, they dive into separate pots.
Further care for astrantia seedlings is simple: watering as needed, loosening the soil to increase soil aeration.
7-10 days before the planting of seedlings into the open ground, they begin the process of hardening, bringing them every day to a balcony or terrace with a gradual increase in the duration of the procedure.
The time taken to transplant seedlings to flower beds depends on the weather conditions in the region and varies from the last decade of May to the second week of June. Such plants will bloom in the third year of the growing season.
Growing astrantia by dividing the bush and rhizome
Vegetative method allows you to save varietal characteristics of mother plants, which is difficult to achieve with seed cultivation. The division of the bush is used in the reproduction of rare and valuable varieties of astrantia. In garden stores, they mainly implement delenki rhizomes (both open and closed). In the first case, it is important to visually assess the condition of the root: it must be healthy, elastic to the touch, without the presence of putrefactive stains.
If the plant is in a container, then its state of health is assessed by the aerial part (turgor of leaves, their color, no damage).
When buying rhizomes in the spring they are planted immediately after purchase. If this happened in winter, the roots are planted in pots with a light and nutritious soil and left until spring at home.
The division of the bush is carried out in early spring before the beginning of the growing season or in the autumn after cutting the tops of the tops. To do this, the plant is broken in, divided into parts so that each area has 2-3 growth buds on the rhizome.
How to plant astrantia
When planting astrantia, it should be noted that this plant can live in a permanent place for several years.
Depending on the type of this cultivar, the diameter of the bush in diameter can reach up to 0.5 m.
Therefore, if you plan to plant this flower in rabatkah or borders, the distance between the bushes should be at least 0.3-0.5 m.
The holes are made so deep that the roots fit freely in it.
They add humus or compost to the planting pits, plant the plant, compact the ground and water it abundantly.
Secrets of care for astrantion
Astrantia is one of the undemanding garden plants. Caring for her is minimal. With periodic rains in the summer, the spider can be watered once a week, as it is drought-resistant.
On a note! If you keep the soil under the astrontium slightly wet, then after the first flowering the plant will bloom again.
The soil under the bushes after rains and irrigation loosened to provide aeration of the roots.
When growing astrantia on fertile lands, it is enough to feed it once (after the snow melts in spring) with complex mineral fertilizers. If the soil in the flower garden is poor and depleted, then to stimulate re-flowering, the plants are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in July.
Important! Any fertilizer is applied only after watering, otherwise the probability of chemical burn of the roots is great.
To zvezovka bloom again, you should immediately cut off the flowering inflorescences. This pruning stimulates the formation of new buds.
Once in 5-6 years, astrantia requires a rejuvenating transplant, which is optimally timed to vegetative reproduction (division of the bush). By this age, the appearance of this perennial deteriorates, the intensity of flowering decreases.
If you want to collect your own seeds, then the largest inflorescence should be left on the bush. After his withering, put a gauze bag on him so that the seeds do not crumble. When they ripen, the stalk is cut with it, dried in a dry place. Seeds are stored in a paper bag.
In the autumn after the end of the growing season, the above-ground part is cut almost to the root, leaving hemp 2-3 cm high. For the winter, adult star-bushes do not require shelter. Only young plants harbor spruce branches.
Pests and diseases of astrantia
Astrantia is resistant to many diseases. However, with the wrong care, she can get sick. So, with excessive watering and dense planting, its bushes are affected by fungal etiology rot. When a damaged stalk is detected, the plants are sprayed with a fungicide solution (Topaz, Fundazol). He also shed the land under the plant.
Of the pests, astrantia at a young age can be attacked by slugs and snails. To combat them, they arrange special traps (cans dug into the ground with beer, the smell of which attracts slugs), create mechanical obstacles (brick chips, scattered under bushes), are harvested by hand. If the invasion of slugs is massive, then chemicals are used (for example, Thunder).
Varieties and types
Astrantia is large or the big grows mainly in Eastern Europe. It is a wide grassy bush, growing a little above half a meter. It has a basal rosette outlet. The flowers are simple, form umbrellas delicate pink color.
There are many varieties common in gardening:
Astrantia Maxim Caucasian plant with a long root, grows to 70 cm. The foliage is divided into three parts, a simple umbrella-inflorescence is small, scarlet in color.
Astrantia is small flower from the mountains of Western Europe. The height of the shoot is about 90 cm, the foliage is collected in the rosette, sits on long petioles, has smaller inflorescences than the relatives.
Astrantia Karniolskaya perennial species, the height of the bush is a little over half a meter. Most often in the gardens you can find variety Rubra - A plant with bright pink flowers, the color of which in some places reaches red.
Astrantia planting and care in the open field
It is necessary to plant astrantia into the garden when the threat of spring frosts is completely bypassed, therefore it is better to do this in late spring. It is possible to grow this plant both on a solar site, and on the shaded. Soil prefers nutritious, loose, but there are no special requirements for the composition.
The hole is dug so that the plant sits just like in a pot, being a seedling. Seedlings are placed at a distance of about 35 cm. After planting, you need to water the area. Please note that astrantia will begin to bloom from seed only 3 years after germination.
Another decorative representative of the Umbrella family is the eryngium, which is also not whimsical when planting and care in the open field. Recommendations for the care and maintenance of this plant can be found in this article.
To care for astrantia in open ground is not difficult at all. If it rains from time to time in the summer, then watering is completely unnecessary, and if it is hot outside, one watering for 7 days will suffice, but if you want to achieve double flowering, then make sure that the soil is slightly damp throughout the growing season.
After watering or rain, it is desirable to loosen the soil and get rid of weeds. You can cover the area with mulch, which will reduce your time for these procedures.
To bloom was longer, as well as astrantion did not grow too much self-sowing, should be cut down wilted inflorescences. After the first flowering, cut off all flower stalks - this will help the plant to bloom for the second time in a year.
Fertilizers for astrantia
If you have a nutritious soil, then fertilization of astrantia is necessary once a year, making a complex mineral fertilizer in spring.
If the soil is poor, then in July or August, additional fertilizer should be applied with the presence of potassium and phosphorus.
As for transplants, this procedure will not burden you, since astrantia can grow in one area for up to 10 years, but it is still better to replant it once for 6 years.
Sometimes, especially during long wet weather, shoots need to be tied to supports.
To collect the seeds choose the largest umbrellas. When they start to dry, wrap them with gauze and the seeds will pour into it. After that, the material is a little more dried and husked in a paper bag.
Astrantia can be propagated generatively - by seeds and vegetatively - by dividing the bush. In general, the crop itself is propagated by self-sowing, if you have collected the seeds, you can simply sow them immediately in the right place.
If you want to get seedlings, you should stratify the material in the refrigerator for a couple of months. Sow seeds in a nutritious, loose soil, covering them with a little substrate.
Keep sown under glass at a temperature close to 22 ° C and ambient lighting. When shoots appear, the shelter is removed. With the appearance of the seedlings 2 of these sheets, they dive into separate containers.
Two weeks before planting in the soil, the material must begin to harden. Next, seedlings are planted in the ground for the scheme described in the last section. But note that during seed reproduction, the varietal characteristics of the plant may not be preserved (unless the material is purchased from a store).
You can also resort to reproduction by dividing rhizomes. In the spring, before the leaves appear, the bushes dig up and divide the root nests. Seated them in the pit with the addition of humus. This method is usually used to save rare varieties.
Diseases and pests
Вредители и болезни не страшны для астранции и проблемы возникают в основном лишь при избытке влаги. Если грунт излишне сырой, то появляется гниль.
To get rid of it, patients are often cut and treated sections and soil fungicides. But if the infection has spread too much, then it is better to burn the plant and disinfect the area.
Before sowing seedlings, astrantia seeds are kept for 3 months at 4-5 ° C. Sometimes seed producers stratify planting material in advance, so it is important to carefully study the information on their packages.
Soil for landing use friable and nutritious. A good mix of equal parts of peat, humus and coarse sand.
Seeds are sown to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, sprinkled with earth, richly moistened and covered with a transparent film. For germination they need a temperature of 22-24 ° C. The containers are ventilated daily, and after the emergence of shoots the film is removed completely.
Next, the transfer boxes are moved to the most lit place. At the stage of formation of 4 true leaves, seedlings dive into individual peat pots.
At the age of 40-50 days, seedlings are planted in a permanent place. 2 weeks before the seedlings begin to harden. Young plants are taken out to the open air every day, gradually increasing the astrantia's time on the street so that by the end of May the plants could spend the whole day outdoors.
Saplings planted according to the scheme 40x40. The land in the selected area is pre-dug deep and enriched with humus or compost.
Sowing in open ground
It is possible to sow astrantia directly into the open ground. The procedure is carried out in the autumn, imitating the self-seeding of the plants. Before planting, the ground is previously excavated with the addition of a small amount of humus. Heavy loamy soils must be diluted with sand and flat soil.
Sow the seeds should be superficial, so that they are not scattered by the wind around the site, and then lightly sprinkled with a layer of earth or sand.
In the spring, abundant shoots are thinned so that the distance between the plants is 15-20 cm. As the young astrantia grows and develops, it is thinned again, while leaving only the most promising specimens. The remaining plants can be transplanted to free space. For healthy growth and lush flowering, you must observe the distance between the bushes of at least 30-40 cm.
Astrantia needs additional watering only during the driest periods. This plant is very resistant to soil drying, however, if you constantly maintain the soil in a slightly damp state, you can significantly extend the flowering period.
The earth around the plants is regularly loosened and weeded, it will not be superfluous to mulch the soil with peat or humus.
In early spring, the flower is fed with complex mineral fertilizer. For plants older than 3–4 years, it is recommended to repeat this procedure in the middle of summer and in autumn before wintering.
After the completion of the first wave of flowering pinch. All withered inflorescences are removed, and the bush is given the correct spherical shape.
In late spring, the ground part is removed, and the young specimens are covered with spruce branches. Older bushes of astrantia comfortably overwinter without additional shelter.
Astrantia is a perennial herb of the umbrella family. The inflorescence is an umbellate star, 3-5 cm in diameter, has 25-30 seeds. Flowers can be white, pink, red, burgundy, pink-green.
The leaves of astrantia are more often lanceolate, less often obovoid, light green, serrated along the edges, divided into 4–7 parts near the base and located immediately on the stems. The flower grows up to 80 cm in length.
The bush grows to 40 cm in diameter. Astrantia is most common in the Carpathians and in the Caucasus, also in Europe. Scientists have 11 types of stars. Flowering occurs in July and lasts for 35-40 days.
The most popular species are considered astrantia large and astrantia largest. Breeders deduced from them a large number of varieties. So, the popular star varieties are:
- Ruby Wedding. From English the name translates as "ruby wedding." This star variety has a ruby color and can grow in one place for decades without requiring a transplant.
- "Saningdale Variegata". This variety has soft pink inflorescences and reaches 80 cm in height. It refers to the type of astrantia large. The leaves are light green with white edging. It usually blooms in August
- "Snow Star". This “snow star” dissolves white petals and is responsive to growing in the shade. Reaches 60 cm in height and tolerates winter well
- "Superstar" - has rose petals with white color around the edges. This species blooms all summer and tolerates drought well. The height of the bush is up to 50 cm. And the diameter is up to 40 cm. There can be 25–30 inflorescences on the bush,
- "Star of Beauty" famous for dark red petals. The inflorescences are large and bloom in mid-June. The bush may bloom until September. Stems grow rapidly in height (80 cm), but the diameter of the bush is not too large,
- "Moulin rouge" - very beautiful variety with dark maroon-purple flowers. The plant reaches 50 cm in height, blooms from July to August and is distinguished by its frost resistance. The leaves are dark green.
The plant feels good in sunny areas next to other flowers. But partial shade is also suitable astrantia. The flower does not need constant sunlight, so it gets on well even in the shade under the thick crowns of trees.
The soil can be any. Zvezdovka blooms magnificently in the sandy, loamy, fertile lands. The main condition for the soil - aeration. But the flower does not like too acidic soil - the acidity index should be below 6–7 pH.
You can grow astrantia from seeds in two ways: immediately sowing seeds into the soil or by using seedlings.
- Seeds are sown immediately in the ground in mid-autumn, when the ground freezes. Furrows are made with a depth of 2 cm, the distance between them is 40–45 cm. In winter, seedlings can be covered with spruce leaves or dry leaves. After stratification is complete, seeds sprout in 2–3 weeks. Thinning planting is carried out after the appearance of several leaves on each seedling.
- Taking small containers, pour ground there and plant seeds on seedlings. The depth of the grooves is 2 cm, the distance between them is 7 cm. Seedling is necessarily covered. Before this often do the stratification of the material. In the autumn, seeds are collected or bought, then they are put in a refrigerator for several months. In the spring directly sown as seedlings.
In this way, you will be able to determine the quality future plants that will survive in the winter. Care for seedlings zvezdovki simple. For the first shoots, it is necessary to maintain the room temperature (+ 20–24 ° С). When the first stalks start to break through from the soil, you can remove the shelter, and place the seedlings in a more lighted place. It is important to water the sprocket when the topsoil dries, and also loosen it. The pick is standard: each sprout is planted in separate containers with the same soil. Landing on the flower beds is carried out at the end of May, in sunny weather.
This method of reproduction of astrantia is carried out either in the early spring, when the first leaves had not yet appeared, or in the autumn, when the star-tree had already blossomed. You need to dig a bush in half, i.e. remove the ground on one side only.
Then divide the rhizome into the required number of parts (preferably not more than three). Next, one part should be left in a half-dug hole, and the other parts should be carefully separated with an earthy clod and transplanted into previously prepared holes. Do not forget to add humus or other fertilizer to the pit for transplanting, and also to water after instillation.
How to care for a flower
Any type of astrantia can withstand high temperatures and practically does not need watering. Therefore, this plant is suitable for busy people who are not often on their site. Nevertheless, it is impossible to completely forget about the flower.
Watering, fertilizer, pruning - all this will prolong the life of the star. For the winter, you can cover the young plants with spruce leaves. Adult stars in the fall are cut off and do not hide.
Watering and soil care
If, however, summer is too dry, then watering is done 1-2 times a week. Pay attention to the top layer of soil: if it is too dry, then watering is needed more often.
A special feature of astrantia is that while keeping the soil moist all the vegetation days, it can bloom again. After watering, you can loosen the soil or grind. In the form of mulch suitable humus.
Most of them on the market of seeds and seedlings is a large astrontia, the planting and maintenance of which do not require much time and effort. With all its advantages, zvezdovka is responsive to fertilizers, like any plant.
Adding to organic fertilizer costs in spring or autumn. And when planting, you can make a small amount of green fertilizers (eg, legumes) or ammonium sulfate to increase the nitrogen content in the soil.
It is also recommended to make mineral supplements with the onset of the first warm days in spring.
Pruning astrantia is carried out at the end of flowering. The plant itself is not aggressive, but it can easily spread by self-sowing. Therefore, it is better to cut the inflorescences so that the sprocket does not displace other plants. Cosmetic pruning can be done in early spring. In adult astrantia, lower leaves are cut. Due to this, you prevent the occurrence of fungal diseases.