To obtain a uniform and amicable shoots in dry weather simultaneously with the sowing or after him carry out the packing of the soil with ring-spur or ring-toothed rollers. Shoots of buckwheat during germination carry cotyledons to the surface of the soil. In this regard, before the emergence of seedlings, the soil crust is very harmful. In the case of the formation of a dense soil crust, seedlings do not make their way to the surface of the soil and die. Therefore, before the emergence of seedlings, pre-emergence harrowing is carried out, depending on the density of the crust, sowing (ZBP-0.6A) or medium harrows (BZSS-1.0) are used [4, p. 283].
Harrowing on the seedlings in the phase of the first pair of true leaves is carried out by sowing harrows or rayboronki across the rows in the daytime, when the plants are less brittle. This technique destroys up to 90% of weeds and increases the yield of buckwheat by 1.5-2.0 q / ha. The advantage of wide-row crops over the continuous private, above all, lies in the fact that these crops can be processed and lead to successful weed control. Inter-row processing is carried out by a cultivator USMK-5,4B. However, if wide-row crops do not provide good processing between the rows, the yield on such crops in comparison with ordinary ordinary crops may sharply decrease. Usually during the summer it is necessary to carry out three loosening between the rows. The first loosening between rows is carried out at full germination, the second - in the budding phase - the beginning of flowering. The third inter-row processing is carried out before closing the rows. The first loosening of inter-rows is carried out to a depth of 4-5 cm, the second - by 10-12 cm, the third - by 8 cm.
For the first row spacing, razors or pointed feet and chisels are commonly used. The working bodies of the cultivator are set so that the protective zone is 10-12 cm [6, p. 116].
Good effect gives easy earthing up of buckwheat plants during the second or third treatment, which contributes to the formation of additional roots and positively affects the yield. In addition to the agrotechnical methods of weed control in heavily littered fields, chemical weeding is used. Herbicide 2,4D500 - in. after sowing, make buckwheat 2-3 days before germination. Consumption rate of 1.2-1.6 l / ha. In dry years, it is more efficient to bring it under presowing cultivation with the help of boom sprayers. In the years of mass reproduction of fleas, meadow moth, scoop, crops before flowering are treated with insecticides.
To obtain high yields, pollination with the help of bees is of great importance. On 1 hectare of sowing, it is necessary to have 2-3 full-fledged bee families, they are taken to the crops before the start of flowering plants, so that they can more fully pollinate the well-developed and most full-fledged first flowers. Hives should be placed in groups at a distance of no more than 300-500 m between them in order to provide counter-pollination. Bee-pollination increases the yield of buckwheat by 3-4 centners per hectare, and this reimburses all the costs of transporting the apiary to the crops and returning it to a stationary place [4, p. 283].
Buckwheat cultivation technology: sowing, care and harvesting
Last updated: 2018, December 0 3
Modern technologygrowing buckwheat
This section will be constantly updated and expanded, so look here more often.
Buckwheat is one of the most popular cereal crops, so it is in steady demand, so its price is high. It is very profitable to grow it with the right approach, we will tell about it in this publication.
The usual yield of buckwheat in Ukraine is about 1.2-1.5 t / ha (for good farmers it is 1.5-1.8 t / ha). But with a very serious approach it is quite possible to grow 2.0-2.5 t / ha every year. In the USA, the average yield of buckwheat is 1.3-2.0 t / ha. The country in which the highest yield of buckwheat is France, they collect 3.5-3.8 t / ha annually.
High-quality buckwheat (buckwheat) is in great demand in Europe, Ukraine, Russia and the world market. Buckwheat porridge is the most popular porridge in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, it is also widely used in France, China, Asia and the Pacific
Rating of countries by yield of buckwheat, as we see, in the leaders, with a yield of more than 3.73 t / ha (2016)
In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the yield of buckwheat, thanks to the use of modern technology.
Official data on the world record in the yield of buckwheat is not. A record yield of buckwheat, can be considered the yield of buckwheat 4.5-5.0 t / ha.
Buckwheat is a valuable fodder and cereal crop. Oatmeal groats contain protein (12.6%), 80% of which is one of the easily soluble (globulin and albumin fractions), due to which the human body easily assimilates the product. A characteristic feature of the protein is a good balance in terms of amino acid composition, including threonine and lysine, which is not in bread and cereals. What is missing is leucine, which is abundant in cereal proteins. The growth of children is positively affected by the high content of histidine in buckwheat.
Buckwheat has the greatest national economic value among cereal crops in Ukraine. This culture is often used (in addition to the main crops) as an insurance crop for replanting winter crops and early fierce crops in the event of their death, as well as as a down-crop and crop crop.
Buckwheat contains more than 2% of mineral salts, a large amount of vitamins and phosphorus compounds useful for the human body.
Proteins contained in the fruits of buckwheat are more complete than proteins of cereal grains and their nutritional value is not inferior to proteins of legumes. Buckwheat straw, and especially chaff - a valuable feed for animals. Buckwheat ash contains a large amount of potassium, which is a valuable fertilizer.
Buckwheat is also a honey plant: one hectare of sowing can produce 60-100 kg of honey, the profit from which is sometimes not less than from the sale of grain.
Growing buckwheat in farms has a positive effect on improving the culture of agriculture. She is a good forerunner for fierce cultures.
A valuable feature of buckwheat is the ability to absorb phosphoric acid from difficultly soluble compounds that are inaccessible to most field crops.
Buckwheat is quite profitable culture. With the current pricing policy, and with high yields, buckwheat provides 2-3 times more income compared to other cereals.
Significant areas in Ukraine are allocated for buckwheat - up to 459 thousand hectares. However, in the postwar years, the area under crops has greatly decreased.
The yield of this crop is also relatively low - 1.0-1.25 t / ha. However, one should not forget that buckwheat is one of the oldest cereal crops grown in Ukraine. The production technology of this culture is almost waste-free.
Compared with other grains and cereals, modern buckwheat varieties do not form high yields. However, as history shows, in world agriculture it has been cultivated for 2 thousand years. The phenomenon of buckwheat is its versatile use, the high quality of the products obtained.
There are many varieties of buckwheat. You should choose the most good varieties for your soil-climatic zone.
To obtain high yields, correct selection of predecessors, high quality soil treatment, fertilizer system, timely sowing, planting care and harvesting with minimal losses are of great importance.
The best predecessors for buckwheat are cereals, winter crops on the background with fertilizers. Bad - any broadleaf and oilseeds, tilled crops, vegetables, legumes, potatoes, flax and lupine.
Buckwheat itself is a good predecessor for fiery and winter cereals. Tillage depends on both the predecessor and the mechanical composition of the soil.
Buckwheat can not be placed on the fields, where last season (and in some cases up to 3 years), ІМІ- herbicides were used.
In most areas of buckwheat cultivation, autumn tillage after stubble precursors is composed of peeling of stubble with disc shears LDG-10, LDG-15 and autumn plowing with plow cookers: PTK-35, PNL-8-40, PLP-6-35 with PVR-fixtures 3.5, TAC-2,3. After tilled crops, deep autumn plowing is carried out immediately to a depth of 25-27 cm, provided that the arable layer allows. If under the previous culture deep plowing was carried out, then the field for buckwheat is plowed to a depth of 20-22 cm.
In dry areas, as well as in places where soils are prone to erosion, flat-cutting treatment is used, which leaves stubble on the soil surface. At the same time they use cultivators-flat-cutters KPSh-9, KPSh-5, KPG-2.2 and GUN-4 deep-rippers-fertilizers, as well as KPG-250A, PG-3-5 and PG-100 flat-cutters-deep-rippers. It is proved that the August fever is the most productive. In order to accumulate moisture in the soil, it is effective to conduct double snow retention during the winter with snow shovels SVS-10 and IED-2.6.
The first method of spring tillage is early harrowing of the plots in two or three tracks. Further, during the period of sowing of early spring breads, the field is cultivated to a depth of 10-12 cm, and after 8-12 days a second cultivation is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm, on the day of sowing - pre-sowing to the depth of seed embedding. The last pre-sowing cultivation is best done with beet cultivators USMK-5,4B, which evenly loosen the soil.
In order to accelerate the germination of weed seeds and level the surface of the soil after treatment, rolling with ring-heel rollers ZKKSH-6A is carried out. In the fields treated with flat-cutters with deep-rippers in the autumn, in the spring the moisture is closed with a needle harrow BIG-ZA or BMSh-15. Pre-sowing treatment of wire cultivators KPSH-9 or KPE-3.8
The biological feature of buckwheat is the increased removal of nutrients from the soil. Despite this, large increments in crop yields provide mineral fertilizers.
Approximately 3.2 kg of nitrogen, 4.5 kg of potassium and 1.6 kg of phosphorus are used to form 0.1 tons of grain and the corresponding amount of non-grain part of the crop. But, the amount of fertilizer needs to be established based on the soil diagnosis of a specific field.
Due to the high physiological activity of the root system, the absolute mass of which is relatively small, and other biological features, the field after buckwheat is enriched with nutrients. Its root system, unlike most cereals, can absorb phosphoric acid from phosphorite, in which it is in a sparingly soluble form and is poorly absorbed by other plants.
Buckwheat during the growing season accumulate a significant amount of mineral nutrients. According to various data, in the root and crop residues of buckwheat, as well as in the straw before harvest, the chemical content averages (kg / ha): nitrogen - 90-120, phosphorus - 42-71, potassium - 130-220.
Buckwheat makes good use of the aftereffect of fertilizers applied under its predecessor. After different crops, under which 20 t / ha of manure and N45 P45 K45 were introduced, the yield of buckwheat increased by 3.5-4.0 c / ha.
A significant increase in yield of buckwheat provides and the main fertilizer application for this crop. On sod-podzolic sandy soil, application of buckwheat for full mineral fertilizer provided an increase in grain yield by 4.7 c / ha, or 41%. And on the chernozem of typical weakly leached, the addition of N30 P45 K45 increased the yield by 3.3 centners per hectare. Efficient and row fertilization when sowing.
When placing buckwheat after fertilized precursors and fertilizing it under the crop itself, its yield, compared with a non-fertilized background, increases by 50-60% and reaches 20-25 centners / ha. The maximum yield of buckwheat in the experiments of the Sumy Institute of APP was 40.8 c / ha.
Thus, the main condition for obtaining a full-fledged buckwheat crop is the creation of a full-fledged agricultural background.
The etching with fungicidal disinfectants has proven itself well: Vitavax, Vincit, Kinto-Duo.
Also buckwheat seeds can be treated with insecticides, growth stimulants, humates and micronutrient fertilizers.
For sowing buckwheat, you can use any modern planters.
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Buckwheat cultivation and harvesting technology
agrotechnical buckwheat sowing fertilizer
Buckwheat - valuable cereal and honey culture. Buckwheat (pickle, burnt) - dietary product. It has high nutritional properties, as it contains large amounts of easily digestible proteins, starch and other substances necessary for the human body (fat, mineral salts - iron, phosphorus, calcium), as well as vitamins Bs AT2> R (rutin). The latter is used to treat sclerosis, hypertension and the removal of radioactive substances from the body. The average protein content is 10%, fat 3%, starch 82%. According to the content of vitamin B | buckwheat is second only to peeled peas.
Waste obtained from the processing of grain at the rump (bran, flour dust), serves as a valuable concentrated feed for livestock and poultry. Buckwheat is of great value as a honey plant. Under favorable conditions, honey harvest reaches 70–90 kg per 1 hectare of sowing.
Buckwheat is an ancient culture. This is evidenced by the archaeological excavations made in 1973 in the city of Anita (island of Honshu, Japan). Its homeland is considered Southeast Asia, from there it is in the XI century. hit the Europe. Buckwheat was brought to Russia from Asia in the XII century.
1. Characteristics of culture
Buckwheat belongs to the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae), genus Fagopyrum, including several species. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Is most common.
The buckwheat roots are rod-shaped, with long root hairs, penetrating to a depth of 70-90 cm, but the bulk of them are in a layer of 25-30 cm. To the sides they extend to 30-35 cm.
Stem branching, ribbed, of various heights. In early ripening varieties, it is 50–70 cm, in late ripening it reaches 1.5–2.0 m. The stems turn red before ripening.
The leaves are wide, heart-shaped or triangular or arrow-shaped, the upper ones are almost sessile, the lower ones are long-petiolate.
Inflorescence is a complex brush. Flowers bisexual, white, pink or reddish, with a strong smell that attracts insects, especially bees. The buckwheat is characterized by dimorphism of flowers: in some plants there are flowers with long stamens and short posts, in others - with short stamens and long posts. The number of plants with long-growing and short-growing flowers in crops is about the same. Normal fertilization and seed formation occurs when pollen from long stamens falls on long poles or from short stamens on short poles. If this is disturbed, very little seed is tied up or they are not formed at all.
Buckwheat is a cross-pollinated plant. It is pollinated by insects, mainly bees.
The fruit is a triangular nutlet with smooth edges and solid ribs of various colors (brown, black or gray) and shape. The mass of 1000 pieces varies from 15 to 32 g. Filminess is 15-30%, depending on the variety and growing conditions.
Heat requirements. Buckwheat is a heat-loving plant. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 6-8 ° C, but more friendly shoots appear at 13-16 ° C. They are very sensitive to frost. When the temperature drops to -2 °, -2.5 ° C, leaves, flowers and stems are damaged, and at a temperature of -5 ° C the plants die. High temperatures (over 30 ° C) and dry winds also have a detrimental effect on the development of buckwheat: little nectar is secreted, the bees fly poorly on crops, the flowers are poorly fertilized. Fogs, prolonged rains and strong winds during flowering, which disturb the normal process of pollination and grain formation, have a negative effect on buckwheat.
Requirements for moisture and light. Buckwheat is very moisture-loving, especially in the period of flowering and fruit formation. It consumes water 3 times more than millet, and 2 times more than wheat. Its transpiration coefficient is 500-510.
This is a short day culture. Its vegetation period with a short day is shortened, with a long one it increases on average 70-85 days. Due to its rapid maturation, it is cultivated in a number of northern regions, up to 70 ° C. sh.
Requirements for the soil. An important biological feature of buckwheat is that it is well absorbed from the soil poorly soluble phosphorus compounds, inaccessible to most cultivated plants. The best soils for it are coherent, deeply permeable and well warmed, rich in nutrients. With proper agrotechnology, it gives high yields on black earth and gray forest soils, as well as on the soils freed from under the forest.
Buckwheat grows well on drained and well-treated peatlands. The vegetative mass strongly develops on the fat and abundantly cultivated soils: the crop is reduced. Не подходят для нее тяжелые известковые почвы.
Гречиха - хороший предшественник для зерновых культур.
Soil requirements. Гречиха - культура мало требовательная к почвенному плодородию и способна формировать хороший урожай даже на бедных почвах. Наиболее пригодны для посева дерново-подзолистые, дерново-карбонатные легко-, среднесуглинистые и супесчаные на связных породах почвы, имеющие pH - 5,2 и более, содержание гумуса - не менее 1,5%, подвижных соединений фосфора и калия - не менее 150 мг/кг.
Предшественники. The best predecessors - fertilized winter, leguminous, tilled and perennial grasses. On light soils, the best precursor is lupine. Buckwheat should not be placed on oats.
When choosing a predecessor, one should be guided not only by the biological peculiarity of the crop, but also by the possibility of semi-tillage tillage, since the yield of buckwheat is sharply reduced in littered fields.
Tillage. It is extremely important to carry out autumn plowing in time. The delay with the terms of the main tillage (late rise of the plow) leads to an increase in weed infestation of buckwheat by 2-3 times. In the spring should be at least 3 soil treatments. The first is carried out as early as possible in order to close the moisture to a depth of 10-12 cm, the second - after 7-10 days to a depth of 8-10 cm, the third - before sowing to the depth of embedding of seeds. Pre-sowing tillage carried out cultivators with pointed paws. The first and second tillage are carried out simultaneously with the harrowing.
Seeding dates - the main element that determines the yield of buckwheat. If the variety is not suitable for late terms of sowing, then there is no point in sowing it in the month of June. Sowing at the optimum time meansget a high yield at no extra cost.
In the southern regions, it is better to sow buckwheat until May 15, in the central regions on May 15 ... May 20, in the north - in late May and early June. Tetraploid varieties are sown no later than the 2nd decade of May.
The rules and methods of sowing. Both wide-row and ordinary sowing methods are used. The wide-row method will be more effective on well-cultivated soils with a weak level of contamination and provides at least one inter-row processing. Early ripening varieties can be sown with a lower planting density, wide-row or common, late-ripening varieties are preferable to sow in an ordinary way.
Seeding rates of diploid varieties with wide-row sowing - 1.5 ... 2.0 million viable seeds per 1 ha (45-60 kg), with a continuous sowing method 3.0 ... 4.0 million viable seeds per 1 ha (90 ... 100 kg). In tetraploid varieties with wide-row - 1.0 ... 1.5 million viable seeds per 1 hectare (45-60 kg) and 2.5-3.0 million - with the ordinary method (100 kg).
Fertilizers. Mineral nitrogen must be applied in a dose not lower than N30. Depending on the level of soil fertility, this dose may increase to N45. Higher doses cause lodging of crops, especially in late-ripening tetraploid varieties (such as Svityazyanka).
For buckwheat, phosphate and potash fertilizers are also important. Potash salt is made only in the fall, under the autumn plowing. Spring application of chlorine-containing potash fertilizers reduces yield by 23-26%.
Weed control. In case of severe clogging and low temperatures during the sowing period, it is advisable to use the soil herbicide Gesagard in a dose of 1 l / ha for 2-3 days after sowing. Fuzilad is effective against wheat grass, targo-super in a dose of up to 2.0 l / ha with a water volume of not less than 200 l / ha, and 1 l / ha is enough against annual grass weeds.
Inter-row processing is a compulsory method of caring for wide-row crops. The treatment is carried out 2 times: the 1st - in the phase of the first true leaf to a depth of 5-6 with straight razors, the 2nd - in the budding phase to a depth of 5-7 cm (dry year) and 10-12 cm (wet year) with cultivators pointed and chisel shaped paws.
With an ordinary sowing method, for weed control, it is effective to harrow the seedlings with light harrows in the first present phase and even the beginning of the second leaf appearance across the rows or, if not possible, diagonally.
Harvesting begins when browning more than 75% of the fruit. When overflowing at the vine above 20 days, up to half of the entire crop is lost. Tetraploid varieties are more resistant to shedding of grain in comparison with diploid ones. Strongly clogged weeds, or dead crops, need to be cleaned in a separate way, the rolls are raised for 4-5 days in dry weather
3. Buckwheat cultivation technology
The main tillage for buckwheat is the same as for other crops, the pre-sowing plant includes early spring harrowing and 2-3 cultivation.
The tillage system for buckwheat should contribute to the creation of an optimal water, air, food and thermal regime favorable for the development of its root system. Despite its short growing season (from 75 to 90 days), its transport coefficient is higher than that of other grain crops. Buckwheat consumes from 370 to 600 g of water for the formation of one gram of organic matter. From here it becomes clear the importance of the accumulation and preservation of moisture in the soil. Taking into account these features, a soil-protecting soilless tillage system has been developed in the region. The flat-torn soilless tillage system makes it possible to successfully deal with weeds, especially oats. The stubble left on the surface has a windproof effect, it protects the soil from blowing and contributes to snow retention, especially in little snowy winters. Pitcher, raised by flat-cuts, accumulates moisture by 33-35% more than the dump.
In the areas intended for buckwheat, following the harvesting of the precursor, the soil is peeled off by disc shears to a depth of b-8 cm in order to create favorable conditions for the weed seeds to germinate and preserve moisture, as well as for embedding fertilizers. As weed shoots appear, the area is treated with herbicides of the group 2.4 - D. After 7-10 days it is treated with flat-cutting tools KTS-10, OPT-3-5, KPSh-9, etc. to a depth of 12 - 14 cm. After 2- 3 weeks the plot goes deep by 30-35 cm using KPG-250, GUN-4 and other cross-cutting tools across the first treatment. This layer-by-surface flat-cutting treatment is used to better loosen the topsoil. In late autumn, the site is treated with disc shears in order to level the soil surface and destroy weed shoots.
In early spring, as the soil ripens, the moisture is closed by disc shelling in the harrowing variant (attack angle 15 e), followed by leveling with harrowing or rolling tools. On the fields treated in this way, weed shoots appear faster. After the emergence of weeds, the area is treated with herbicides. Then, the first pre-sowing treatment with LDG-10 disc shells in the cultivation variant (angle of attack 25 ° -30 °) is carried out. The second pre-sowing treatment is carried out on the day of sowing by cultivators with flat-cutting paws to a depth of 4-6 cm.
Buckwheat is very responsive to fertilizer. With a yield of 20 centners of grain and 60 centners of straw, 60 kg of phosphate, 61 kg of potassium, 151 of calcium, and 62 kg of nitrogen from 1 hectare of nitrogen are removed from the soil. She is particularly responsive to phosphate-potassium fertilizers. On chernozem soils, phosphate fertilizers give the best results, and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on podzolic, gray forest and leached chernozems. The best phosphate fertilizer for buckwheat, as D.N. Pryanishnikov, phosphate rock.
The main fertilizer should be applied in autumn under the autumn treatment in the following types and doses (c in 1 ha): on black soil soils 3-5 phosphorite flour or 1.5-2.0 superphosphate, on leached chernozem, gray forest and podzolic soils phosphorite flour 4-6, ash 3-5 or potassium salt 1.0-1.5. 'On light loamy and sandy soils give complete mineral fertilizer: N -45 kg per 1 ha, P206-60 kg, K20 -60 kg per 1 ha. On soils poor in nutrients (podzolized, sandy and light loamy), in addition to mineral fertilizers, use manure or peat compost 15-20 tons per 1 ha.
During sowing complex fertilizers are applied to the rows at the rate of 60-80 kg in physical fertilizers. On wide-row crops, fertilizing is carried out with grain planters in the phase of 3-4 leaves at the rate of 1-1.5 centners of nitroammophos and ammophos per 1 ha. On wide-row crops, additional dressing is carried out in the branch phase with complex fertilizers at the rate of 60-80 kg in physical fertilizers per 1 hectare.
Filling the soil with organic fertilizers is also held in the fall under the main treatment. It should be noted that directly under buckwheat organic fertilizers are applied only in composted form. Manure in its pure form is introduced under its predecessors, since when it is directly applied under buckwheat it severely litters the crops, which leads to a decrease in the yield of this crop. In addition, the introduction of manure directly under the buckwheat causes an increased growth of vegetative organs and a sharp decrease in the formation of generative organs.
Mineral nitrogen fertilizers give in the spring under cultivation. Good results are obtained from adding to the rows when sowing granulated superphosphate 0.5–0.7 centners per hectare, the yield increase is 2-3 centners per hectare.
Microfertilizers, especially boric, are of great importance for increasing buckwheat yields. Boron-datolite fertilizers are applied together with others at the rate of 50–60 kg per 1 ha or when sown in rows of 15–20 kg per 1 hectare.
Most of the nutrients required buckwheat during flowering. At this time, it is very effective to feed ammonium nitrate (0.6–0.8 centners per hectare) and superphosphate (1.0–1.5 centners per 1 hectare), which are buried to a depth of 8–10 cm at a distance of 8–10 cm from rows. The use of phosphorus-nitrogen supplements contributes to an increase in the amount of nectar in the flowers, better visits to the crops by bees and an increase in yield.
Seed preparation for sowing
Seed preparation for sowing is one of the most important agricultural methods that ensure high yields. Sowing buckwheat should be well sorted, large and leveled seeds. Before sowing, seeds are treated with fentiuram (65% wettable powder) or tigam at the rate of 2 kg per 1 ton.
To get friendly shoots and ensure good plant development, sowing is carried out with large, leveled seeds, brought to high sowing conditions.
Cleaning, drying, sorting, calibration of seeds is carried out by the flow method as the grain arrives from the field to the current. Bringing seeds to sowing conditions is achieved by processing OVP-20, OVS-25, OS - 4.5, SM-4 on grain-cleaning complexes with the prefix SP-10.
Water seed sorting is used on circulating washing plants, where the separation of full-weight fractions by specific gravity and the complete separation of wild radish and small-grain grains is achieved. At the same time buckwheat seeds are enriched with microelements.
For aqueous sorting, a 5% solution of potassium sulfate is used with the addition of a 0.05% solution of boric acid, 0.05% ammonium molybdate and 1% potassium permanganate. Per 10 liters of water take 500 g of potassium sulfate, 5 g of boric acid, 5 g of ammonium molybdate, 100 g of potassium permanganate. When processing such a solution, trace elements are absorbed into the embryo and endosperm in the seeds and are used by the plant during germination. When such sorting is carried out, 25-30% of light-weight and puny buckwheat grains are separated, the weight of 1000 seeds is increased by 3-3.5 grams. The seeds treated in such a way germinate in a friendly way, each plant becomes more viable, less damaged by root rot, which leads to an increase in yield by 1.5-2 centners per hectare.
After water sorting, the seeds are dried for 4-5 hours on the gratings in the shade, while shoveling, blowing air. When the seeds reach a friable state, they are treated with TMTD at the rate of 1.5-2.0 kg per ton. Seeds must be powdered with furnace ash of 8-10 kg per centner, which to a certain extent enriches plants in the first phases of growth with the necessary forms of potassium, phosphorus, calcium and other elements. All these works are carried out before sowing.
A better method of enriching buckwheat seeds with microelements and dressing is the method of inlaying with a complete set of trace elements using the pickling machine PS-10 or Mobitox.
It is necessary to sow buckwheat in well-heated soil, when the temperature is at a depth of 10 cm will be at least 10-12 ° C and the danger of spring frosts will pass. Such a period of sowing, as a rule, coincides with the mass appearance of the outcomes of the prospecific weeds (chicken millet, gray mice), which must be destroyed by presowing cultivation.
North buckwheat begins when the soil at a depth of 8 - 10 cm warms to 13-15 °. Seeds sown in unheated soil do not germinate; sometimes they partially rot, as a result of which the rows are thinned.
It has been established that only 10-15% of the total number of flowers formed give a full grain. In connection with such biological characteristics of buckwheat, the choice of sowing time is the most difficult and crucial moment. The term of its sowing is selected in such a way that the period of flowering and fruit formation does not coincide with the period of the highest temperatures and dry winds, and the seedlings do not fall under, freezing.
Buckwheat in the area sown in 2 terms. In the years with early and warm spring, the calendar dates fall on the third decade of May, phenological signs are the flowering of mountain ash and the appearance of white dandelion heads. In the years with a cold spring, sowing is postponed to a later date - from June 1 to 10, when vibrating winter rye begins, and viburnum blooms. High yields in some years are obtained by sowing in the early periods, and in some years in the late terms of sowing.
Light plays a major role in shaping the buckwheat crop. Insufficient light slows down the growth of plants, reduces branching, the number of inflorescences and foliage. Darkened plants do not intensively absorb carbon dioxide in the air.
Ways of sowing. Buckwheat is sown in the usual ordinary, narrow-ranked or cross-sectional ways. Wide-row crops (with 45 cm row spacing or two-line ribbons) are used in arid areas or in littered areas in a humid zone.
Seeding rates, sowing depth. In the more humid areas, with ordinary ordinary sowing, 100–140 kg of viable seeds are sown per 1 ha (3.0–3.5 million), in less moistened seeds, 80–90 kg. When wide-row crops with 45 cm row spacing, the seeding rate is 50 - 70 kg per 1 ha
When sowing buckwheat in a wide-row way, plants are provided with favorable conditions for lighting and nutrition, they branch more strongly, forming a powerful root system and leaf surface, as a result of which their productivity increases. In continuous seeding, plants develop in conditions of considerable standing density, close, constrain and darken each other. Biological features of buckwheat are more consistent with wide-row crops. In wide-row crops, the yield is higher and the seeds are consumed less. Wide-row sowing is carried out by SST-12A beet-type seeders with devices for sowing buckwheat seeds STYA-27000 or a re-equipped grain seeder with a row spacing of 45 cm. Continuous ordinary sowing is carried out by CWS-2 cm planters with an average row spacing of 23 cm and an ordinary grain-width range 15 cm. Depending on the method of sowing, the seeding rate is determined, which allows plants to be placed evenly and densely in an area so that they better use the soil moisture, nutrients and light t. With continuous ordinary sowing, the seeding rate is set at 2.5 million grains per hectare, which corresponds to the weight norm of 65-70 kg, and at sowing with the SZS seeder - 2.1-1.7-2 million, or 50 kg of seeds per 1 hectare and for wide-row sowing with a beet planter with 45 cm row spacing - 1.3-1.5 million grains, or 40-45 kg per hectare. Very important for obtaining uniform and amicable shoots is the depth of seeding of seeds, corresponding to the nature of the soil. On chernozem soils with a light texture, the embedding depth should be 5-6 cm, on clay and loamy chernozem - 4-5 cm .. When determining the embedding depth of seeds, the condition of the soil and the moisture content of the upper layer are taken into account. It is important that the grain lay down on the compacted bed and in the moist soil.
Control and assessment of quality of work
1. The quality of sowing crops is determined by three main indicators: the seeding rate, the seeding depth, the width of butt spacing
2. When assessing the quality of work at sowing, other indicators are taken into account: irregularity of sowing by individual sowing devices (no more than ± 3% is allowed), non-straightness of rows, flaws, and turning lanes. 84