Lighting RequirementsThere are about 400 varieties of carnations, and they all adore the sun and sunshine. Artificial lighting will also accelerate flower growth. Thanks to the good light, the carnation starts to bloom faster.
At home, due to the change in the duration of the clove lighting, it is possible to regulate the quality and timing of flowering, which is especially important during the late autumn, winter and early spring.
In winter, carnation blooms worse. To improve flowering, you need to increase the lighting up to 14 hours a day. Using the quality of lighting and the length of daylight, you can adjust the transition to the flowering carnation and the rest of its growth.
Soil composition requirements
Like all flowers, carnation loves a neutral and well-fertilized soil. The flower germinates best on light, well-drained and moisture-permeable soil.
These include non-acidic, friable and fertile sandy loaves. If the soil in your area is “sour”, then dilute it with dolomite flour, this will replenish the reserves of magnesium and improve the quality of the soil.
Care for garden carnationsAlthough carnation is an unpretentious plant, there are still some nuances concerning its cultivation:
- the flower needs loose soil and constant watering,
- the more often you feed the flower, the better it will grow,
- remove the flowering inflorescences, this will prolong the period of clove blooming,
- in winter, it is better to transplant the carnations into containers and bring them into the house.
Pinch the tops: do you need it?
Pinching cloves promotes good development and stimulates abundant flowering. Pinching a carnation during growth of lateral stems, you contribute to the formation of more flowers.
It is very important to pinch the flowers if they grow to cut. This method allows you to make the flower more bushy, and with the help of pinching you can influence the height of the plant.
After the flower grows to 16 cm and has six swollen leaf nodes on the stem, you need to pinch off the top of the stem above the sixth leaf node.After the first pinching, you will notice the appearance of lateral shoots. You can repeat the process after the shoots reach 12 cm in length. After pinching a plant, it should be well supported with a rope and a pivotal support.
It can be concluded that pinching is a useful procedure, but it should be stopped immediately after the start of the formation of leaves. Keep in mind that strong pinching can delay flowering. To keep the flowering season long, pinch only half of the side shoots, so you can get two flowering waves.
High-quality care of a carnation is impossible without care of the soil. It is necessary to irrigate the soil often, but not abundantly, after which it should be loosened. As with most flowering plants, the soil for cloves should be well fertilized with mineral and organic fertilizers.
Add to the soil fertilizers containing potassium, but make sure that chlorine is not available in the fertilizer. If you harvest soil mix, then mix peat, earth and river sand. In the same mixture, add nitrophoska.
Garter plantsIf your carnations have tall stems, from 30 cm, they need to be tied to a support, otherwise heavy inflorescences will break off the stem. To support medium-sized plants, one 60-centimeter stake is enough for you.
Carnations should not be tied tightly to support stakes. If you use a new stake to bind each individual stem, it is best to use wire rings or tie up at several places at the same time.
Trimming and preparation for winter
In order to protect the carnation from the winter frosts, it is customary to cut it. There is no need to cut the flower completely, it will be enough just to cut off the aerial part that has faded and promulgate the soil where the flower grows.
Due to this, the plant will accumulate nutrients in the root system, which will support the flower during the cold season. If woody stumps from the stalks are present, they should be left, as they will retain the snow cover.
Plant reproduction at home
Perennial garden carnation is propagated by cuttings, dividing a bush or grafting. All these methods can be implemented at home.Only those types of carnations that have long vegetative shoots can be propagated by layering. To do this, on the underside of the stem, make an incision, place the stem in the ground and constantly moisten it.
When roots are formed, then new shoots are formed. At this time, you can separate the new plant and transplant it from the mother liquor. Another way to get cuttings is to fill the bush with wet soil.
You already know how the garden carnation propagates with the help of layering, let's consider the following method. With this method, very few varieties of carnation can be propagated, which form easily rooting shoots.
These varieties of carnations include Turkish carnation and grass. It is recommended to produce division in the period of early spring, as the plant, divided in this period, will bloom in the first season.
To breed carnations by dividing a bush, you need to dig a plant with a root and divide it into parts. It is important that the root and the kidney as well as the adult shoot be well developed on each separate part.Let's see how to propagate the carnation by cuttings. With this method you can multiply all types of cloves. To cut a flower, you need to use perlite or calcined sand, because cloves can easily pick up fungal infections.
The best time for grafting is the end of spring and the beginning of summer. At this time, the vegetative shoots can already be well distinguished from flower stalks. To root the stalk, use vegetative shoots up to 10 cm long and with at least four pairs of leaves.
Remove the leaves from the lower nodes and make longitudinal cuts with a knife along the entire internode. Incised cuttings need to be dipped in the substrate and dig up with a can or film.
Diseases and pests of garden carnations, how to fight
Even if you constantly monitor and care for your carnations, they will still be subject to attacks by pests and diseases. The most malicious enemies of a carnation are aphid, mite and gray rot.
In order to get rid of ailments qualitatively, you need to use chemical means, but you should not forget about traditional methods. For example, knowing how to feed a carnation in the spring, you can protect it from the influence of pests.
To get rid of plants from pests can be planted next to the cloves brothers and calendula. In order to avoid fungal diseases, control the soil moisture, it should not be overwetted. In addition, you need to constantly break through the soil and remove weeds.
From time to time, change the place of planting carnations garden. For the prevention of disease can be practiced by transplanting cloves in the spring to a new place, this will significantly reduce the risk of disease.
Remember that regular inspection and timely identification of the problem will keep your flower garden beautiful and healthy.
Alpine carnation (Dianthus alpinus) is a perennial species of dicotyledonous plants of the genus Carnation (Dianthus) of the family Carnation. Representatives of this species have a height of 20-25 cm, with gorgeous red flowers, with a purple circle in a white dot in the middle.
The plant was first described in 1753 by a Swedish systematist Carl Linnaeus. In the wild, it grows in the eastern Alps, in limestone areas at an altitude of 1000–2500 m. It is distributed in Austria, in northeastern Italy and in part of the territory of Slovenia. The wild-growing “variant” of the plant is more picky about the environment and does not withstand artificially created conditions.
The German name is Alpen-Nelke.
Alpine varieties and hybrids of alpine cultivated as decorative. They are more resilient and more common in culture.
It is important to choose the right place for Alpine carnations. Like all cloves, it prefers well warmed southern slopes, light sandy soil. Most successfully grows on a rocky area - "rock scree". Carnations of this type put up with a lack of nutrients in the soil, they should not be too rich to feed and water, because of this they start to hurt, as a result the frost resistance decreases and the process of aging plants goes faster. Alpine carnations are afraid of getting wet - water in that part of the garden where they grow should not stagnate.
Growing alpine cloves
Growing alpine carnations will not cause you any problems. Alpine carnation breeds very easily in almost all ways.
Growing alpine carnations from seed
There will be no problems with the cultivation of alpine cloves from seeds. To do this, sowing seeds can begin somewhere in March.
Perennial carnation - cultivation, planting and care, photo variety
It is possible before, but apart from increasing the amount of effort, I did not see much effect.
For planting is best to use loose soil with the addition of sand. It is better not to use ready-made moisture-absorbing peat-based substrates when growing clove seedlings. You can take the usual garden soil and add sand to it. Soil thoroughly moisturize and produce sowing. Capacity cover with glass or film and put on a bright window. Shoots usually appear within two weeks.
As soon as the shooters come, we remove the glass or film.
In the early stages of seedling development, it is very sensitive to cold, so the temperature should not fall below eighteen degrees.
Seedlings need to be protected from drafts. It is very good in the morning, in the evening and on cloudy days to highlight it with a phytolamp or a fluorescent light.
Watering with a lack of lighting must be moderate, otherwise seedlings may be affected by the black leg. Sick plants need to be removed.
Three weeks after the emergence of seedlings, the temperature can be slightly lowered to about fifteen degrees. This will prevent stretching of the plants.
After the appearance of two leaves on the seedlings, you can pick. The initial picking is possible in a common bowl with a distance of 3-4 cm between plants.
In April, it is worth picking up the plants in separate containers, while the root neck is not needed to be buried.
In good weather, it is good to take out a clove for hardening to fresh air, to places protected from drafts. This will prepare the plants for planting at a permanent place of growth.
In late May - early June, we plant the plants on a permanent place with an interval of about thirty centimeters. They bloom often this summer.
You can grow alpine carnation from seeds directly in open ground. It is best to sow the seeds in May on the distributor bed. Depth of seeding is half a centimeter. With such a crop, it is necessary to prevent the soil from drying out. At the end of August, seedlings can be dived to a permanent growing place. Carnations will bloom only next year.
For more lush bushes, you can pinch seedlings when they have about five to eight leaves.
Alpine carnation can also be propagated by cuttings and dividing the bush. Read more about this here. Carnation Alpine planting and care.
Peculiarities of growing alpine carnations
The name of this carnation itself speaks for itself - it is best to grow it in rock gardens. Since she is used to living on high mountain slopes, it is desirable to create at least some similar conditions in her garden. In principle, suitable and alpine slide, and any rockeries. If there are no stony places in the garden, it is advisable to create the conditions most favorable for this plant. Alpine carnations should be planted in the sun, even better on a sunny southern slope, on a raised area that dries quickly after a rain. This flower does not like stagnant water. The soil should be loose, light, be sure to add sand to the soil. She is not accustomed to fertile soil in her mountains, so it is better not to add humus. On too nutritious soil the carnation grows old quickly and will hurt badly, not having time to prepare for cold weather.
If the earth has an increased level of acidity, it is worth making dolomite flour into it.
Three times during the season you can feed cloves. After the plant has reached a height of ten centimeters, it is fed with any fertilizer, in which nitrogen predominates. At the stage of setting the buds, superphosphate and potassium sulfate are used. In the period of flowering, Alpine carnations can be fed with any fertilizer intended for flowering plants.
Alpine carnation: planting and care
Planting alpine carnations
Planting of Alpine carnations from seedlings should be done in late May - early June. Seeds for seedlings are sown in March. Read more here about growing alpine carnation from seeds. You can sow the seeds in May right in the open ground. In this case, carnation will bloom only next year.
Cuttings of a plant can be rooted easily in any season of the year, if they create moist and slightly shaded conditions. For this they are best rooted in cuttings. You can use a jar or a cut plastic bottle as a cutting machine. Planted cuttings should be watered regularly. They must root well before the winter cold.
Alpine carnation can be propagated by dividing the bush. It is better to carry it out in early spring, until they are moved into the growth of the plant, and there is still enough moisture in the soil. Suitable for planting any part of the plant that contains roots and shoots.
The soil for planting alpine pinks should be light, loose with a good proportion of sand or light loam. The location is sunny. Well plant this plant in rock gardens or rockeries.
Caring for alpine carnations is similar to caring for other carnations. It consists in weeding, loosening, timely watering. Feed, like other flowering plants, usually 3 times.
Alpine Disease Diseases
The most common disease of Alpine carnation is rust, which manifests itself as reddening spots on the leaves. This is the action of a pathogenic fungus that does not cause the plant mortal harm, and its decorative effect is preserved. It can be recommended for the prevention of the disease drugs of copper.
If cloves have a sudden withering in summer, at which leaves turn brown first, is a sign of fusarium. For prevention, dolomite flour, chalk or ash should be added to the soil. Immediately remove the diseased plants, disinfect the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate and do not plant a clove in this place again.
How to care for perennial flowers: carnation in your garden
Alpine carnation: care and cultivation in open ground.
PINK ALPINE CARNIVAL
Dianthus alwoodii alpinus
Highly decorative look for stony hills. This perennial herb with grayish-green leaves, forms a bush with a height of 20-25 cm in the flowering period, all dotted with numerous single flowers of various shades of pink, with a purple circle in a white dot in the middle. It grows most successfully on a rocky site - “rocky scree”, since its homeland is the Alps.
February - July for seedlings or sowing in open ground. Seeds lightly sprinkled with earth.
Growing alpine cloves
they need light for germination. Shoots appear after 1-2 weeks at a temperature of 20-22 ° C. Seedlings dive in the phase of 2-3 pairs of true leaves. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place in May-September at a distance of 25-30 cm. It prefers sunny or slightly shaded places. Does not tolerate waterlogging and stagnant water.
Reacts positively to fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. In winter, young plants should be covered with dry leaves or peat. On one place grows several years.
May - July. When grown through seedlings - flowering in the first year.
Height: 20 cm
Diameter: 2.5 cm
Number of seeds: 0.05 g ± 9%
If you decide to grow a garden carnation on your plot, then, first of all, you need to decide on the view. This is not easy to do, since the species and, of course, the variety variety of this plant is quite wide, but at the same time there is a very high chance to make your flower garden the most vivid, colorful and original.
So, consider the most common types of garden carnations with a description and photo.
- Dutch This species is obtained by selection of the most beautiful carnations. It is characterized by the longest flowering - from the beginning of the summer period and up to the first frost. It blooms bright, colorful, lush.
On a note! In countries with a warm climate, Dutch carnation can bloom almost all year round. Its flowering in such regions stops only during rainy periods!
Lush blooming Dutch carnation Cirrus. Растение формируется в аккуратный кустик с изумрудной листвой. Характерной особенностью сортов этого вида садовой гвоздики является внешний вид лепестков – на них имеются продольные прорези, из-за чего цветок словно усеян перышками.The diameter of one flower is about 3 cm. It blooms throughout June-July and gives the garden a bright palette. Color of flowers from white to dark red.
Delicate flowers of feathery carnation Shabo. In the flowering period produces large flowers of various colors: pink, yellow, maroon, scarlet, etc. The aroma is bright and persistent. Flowers, as a rule, terry, while their petals can be corrugated, somewhat curved, simple or folded with a delicate bud.
Original flowers of a carnation Shabo Turkish. One of the most unpretentious species, which gives an incredibly colorful flowering and gives a delicate fragrance. The flowers are collected in neat inflorescences, the length of which can reach 12 cm. The flower is unusually beautiful and can contain two or three shades at once. On the petals is often observed fringe.
Bright inflorescences of Turkish carnation
Growing by seedling
Planting and subsequent maintenance of a perennial garden carnation is not difficult and even a beginner grower is able to rule with this. Seeds for seedlings are laid approximately in March in a large container or peat cups.
Recommendation! In order for the seed to produce healthy, strong seedlings, it is advisable to pre-soak it for a day in a weak solution of succinic acid!
So, garden carnation is grown as follows.
- Fill the container with a fertile substrate, moisten it and make small grooves.
- Sow the prepared seeds. It is not necessary to deepen them too much into the soil, it is enough to distribute them over the surface and sprinkle some sand on top.
- Cover the container with polyethylene or glass and define it in a shaded place. The room temperature should be within + 18..20 ° C.
- After some time, the first shoots will appear on the soil surface. At this time, remove the cover and rearrange the container on a well-lit window sill.
- Periodically moisten the substrate, but do not allow the stagnation of water.
Important! With irrigation it is better not to overdo it, otherwise the seedling will be struck by a black leg - a fungal disease. For this reason, it is better not to water the plants, but to spray them with water from a spray!
Planting seedlings in open ground
Young carnations are determined for a permanent place in May, when the threat of night frosts is over, and the ground and the air are warm enough. The place is desirable to choose on a slope or on a hill, where there will be no stagnation of water. At the same time it should be well lit in the morning and shade in the afternoon.
On a note! On fully shaded areas, the garden carnation gives scant flowering and looks depressed!
Garden carnation loves well-drained soil. It is not necessary that they be too fertile - this plant feels fine in light loams and in areas with a high content of peat. The acidity of the clove is not demanding, but nevertheless the neutral pH level is optimal for it; therefore, if necessary, the substrate is supplemented with deoxidizing components, such as ash, chalk or lime. If the soil is too heavy, it should be diluted with peat and sand.
Seedlings are planted in a prepared place, leaving about 20-30 cm between plants. If you plant the seedlings at a closer distance, then the planting will then be too thick and the carnations will have to be planted.
Planting seeds in open ground
To grow a garden carnation can be directly in the open field. This is usually done in May, when the weather is warm enough. Requirements for the choice of location and soil are the same as when planting seedlings.
So, we dig up the chosen area and make shallow grooves. We sow the seeds, embedding them in the soil by about a centimeter. From above we sprinkle a bed with the earth and we water a little.In this case, it is desirable to have the seeds rarely, so that the bushes could continue to grow and develop normally.
After planting, a perennial garden carnation needs regular maintenance. In general, it does not cause much difficulty.
This plant does not need abundant watering. Moisturize the soil should be regularly, but moderately. On one bush will need about half a liter of water. At the same time, the garden carnation is experiencing a moderate drought calmly, but an excess of moisture can be destructive for it.
Watering should be in the evening hours, directing the flow directly into the root area. After each watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil and remove weeds.
As for feedings, nitrogen-containing mixtures, for example, urea or humus, will be the most suitable for this plant. Forbidden include potash and chloride preparations, as well as manure. However, even nitrogen mixtures must be applied carefully in order not to over-saturate the soil. And since the garden carnation blooms only in the second year of life, it is precisely at this time that they start feeding her.
- The first dressing make in early spring. It uses dry urea, which is applied directly to the substrate.
- The second time garden carnation fertilized during budding. It can be both complex fertilizers for flowering plants, and superphosphate or nitroammofoska.
- The third time the bushes are fed with mineral fertilizers and do it at the end of the flowering period.
During the summer, the bushes need to pinch, cutting off all the flowered flower stalks from the shoots. This will help stimulate the release of new buds. Later on, after the flowering stops completely, all the stems should be cut off from the bush, leaving about 10 cm above the ground.With this care, garden carnation may bloom again in the same summer.
Preparing for the winter
Garden carnation is characterized by good frost resistance, and therefore quite calmly endures the winter cold. If the winter was snowless, then in this case it is recommended to cover the bushes with spruce or sawdust. This event will help prevent freezing.
On a note! In addition, when growing garden carnations for several years, from time to time it is recommended to replant bushes to a new place. This is done, as a rule, at the end of July - early August.
It is possible to propagate a garden carnation in two ways: by cutting and dividing the bush. The most reliable of these is the first method, in which it is possible to preserve all the qualities of the parent plant.
The cutting is carried out, as a rule, in the beginning of summer - in the month of June. For this, shoots are cut from the bush, about 10 cm long. In the lower part, at a distance of about 1.5 cm from the knee, they are made with an oblique cut. Next, the cuttings are placed in a sandy substrate, thoroughly moisten it and cover the pots with polyethylene. Approximately in three weeks the shoots will take root and approximately in the middle of August they will be fully prepared for transplanting to a permanent place.
By dividing the bush, mainly Turkish and Dutch carnations are propagated. This method of reproduction is recommended in the spring before the formation of buds or in the summer at the end of the flowering period. Shrub gently dug out of the ground and cut its rhizome into delenki. At the same time, at least three growth buds should remain on each part. Then each plant is immediately planted in open ground at a distance of 30 cm from each other.